Cooperative Models for Information Technology Transfer in the Context of Open Innovation
Universities and public research institutions (PROs) are increasingly required to address strategic needs defined by industrial sectors both from the education and research standpoint and contribute more intensively to the absorption of advanced technologies. Many countries rely on the reform of traditional structures of universities and PROs by creating specific centers of excellence to ensure long-term partnerships with industry. The need for stable university-industry partnerships focuses on the evolution from short-term instruments to long-term instruments for cooperation in the wider context of technology transfer (TT) embedded in technology development processes. Within this context, governments are looking for adequate policy instruments to offer more attractive funding conditions to increase institutional involvement in TT as a pre-requirement to increase the long-term stability of public-private partnerships.
The specific situation in the European Union is addressed where steps toward fostering open innovation have been taken to overcome structural, institutional, and cultural rigidities. The analysis is focused on the short and long term instruments provided by the European Framework Program and other European initiatives. Specialized technology transfer structures, especially those targeting the creation of joint research centers, are among the most common approaches in the EU in order to facilitate the exchange of tacit and explicit knowledge and accelerate innovation.
The rationale behind the concept of open innovation applied to technology transfer and diffusion activities is addressed. Interest is focused on the identification of trends, drivers, and limits in the models used today for TT and their impact on the design of policy. From this analysis, new open models emerge for immature technologies where research and TT cannot be isolated.
Finally, although these elements can be found in any science and technology domain, information technologies offer a set of special features making it even more important to address TT activities in a cooperative way where universities facilitate the transference of immature technologies. Experiences on the deployment of grid services will be outlined in this context. This case illustrates the benefits of a close open cooperation amongst all stakeholders (industry, academia, and governments) to support TT and to speed up grid services deployment.
KeywordsTechnology Transfer Open Innovation Policy Instrument Innovation Model Grid Service
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