Risk results from the direct and indirect adverse consequences of outcomes and events that were not accounted for or that we were ill prepared for, and concerns their effects on individuals, firms or the society at large. It can result from many reasons both internally induced and occurring externally with their effects felt internally in firms or by the society at large (their externalities). In the former case, consequences are the result of failures or misjudgments while in the latter, consequences are the results of uncontrollable events or events we cannot prevent.


Supply Chain Risk Aversion Supply Chain Management Risk Attitude Risk Free Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agrawal V, Seshadri S (2000). Risk intermediation in supply chains. IIE Transactions 32: 819-831.Google Scholar
  2. Agrell PJ, Lindroth R, Norrman A (2004) Risk, information and incentives in telecom supply chain. International Journal of Production Economics 90 (1): 1-16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ait-Sahalia Y, Lo A (1998) Nonparametric estimation of state-price densities implicit in financial asset prices. Journal of Finance 53: 499-548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ait-Sahalia Y, Lo AW (2000) Nonparametric risk management and implied risk aversion., Journal of Econometrics 94: 9-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akella R, Araman VF, Kleinknect J (2002) B2B markets: procurement and supplier risk management in business. In: Geunes J, Pardalos PM, Romeijn HE (Eds.) Supply Chain Management—Applications and Algorithms, Kluwer, pp. 33-66.Google Scholar
  6. Akerlof G (1970) The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics 84: 488-500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brun A, Caridi_M, Fahmy-Salama K, Ravelli I (2006) Value and risk assessment of supply chain management improvement projects. Int. J. Production Economics 99: 186-201.Google Scholar
  8. Anagnou I (2003) The Relation between Implied and Realized Probability Density Functions, Working Paper,, University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  9. Anupindi R (1993) Supply Management Under Uncertainty. Ph.D. Thesis, Graduate School of Industrial Administration, Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
  10. Anupindi R, Akella R (1993) Diversification under supply uncertainty. Management Science 39(8): 944-963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aviv Y (2004) Collaborative forecasting and its impact on supply chain performance. In: Simchi-Levi D, Wu D, Zhen Z (Eds.), Handbook of Quantitative Supply Chain Analysis, Kluwer Publisher, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  12. Aviv Y (2005) On the benefits of collaborative forecasting partnerships between retailers and manufacturers. Working Paper, Olin School of Management, Washington University.Google Scholar
  13. AON (2005) Protecting Supply Chains Against Political Risks, available from (
  14. Artzner P, Delbaen F, Eberand JM, Heath D (1997) Thinking coherently, RISK, 10: 68-71.Google Scholar
  15. Artzner P, Delbaen F, Eber JM, Heath D (1999) Coherent risk measures. Mathematical Finance 9: 203-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Artzner P, Delbaen F, Eber JM, Heath D (2000) Risk management and capital allocation with coherent measures of risk, Available from
  17. Artzner P, Delbaen F, Eber JM, Heath D, Ku H (2001). Coherent multiperiod risk adjusted values, Available from
  18. Babich V, Burnetas A, Ritchken P (2004) Competition and diversification effects in supply chains with supplier default risk. Working Paper, Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  19. Bagahana MP, Cohen M (1998) The stabilizing effect of inventory in supply chains. Operations Research 46: 572-583.Google Scholar
  20. Bahra B (1997) Implied Risk-Neutral Probability Density Functions from Option Prices: Theory and Application', Working Paper, Bank of England.Google Scholar
  21. Barzel Y (1982) Measurement cost and the organization of markets, Journal of Law and Economics 25: 27-47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beckers S (1996) A Survey of Risk Measurement Theory and Practice, in Handbook of Risk Management and Analysis, Alexander C (ed).Google Scholar
  23. Bell DE (1982) Regret in decision making under uncertainty. Operations Research 30: 961-981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bell DE (1985) Disappointment in decision making under uncertainty., Operation Research 33: 1-27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bell DE (1995) Risk, return and utility. Management Science 41: 23-30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blair RD, Kaserman DL (1982) Optimal franchising, Southern Economic Journal 49(2): 494-505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boone Y, Ganeshan R, Stenger A (2002) The benefits of information sharing in a supply chain: An exploratory simulation study. In: Geunes J, Pardalos P, Romeijn E (Eds.) Supply Chain Management Models, Applications and Research Directions. Kluwer Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  28. Cachon G, Fisher M (2000) Supply chain inventory management and the value of shared information. Management Science 46: 1032-1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Caves RE, Murphy WE (1976) Franchising firms, markets and intangible assets. Southern Economic Journal, 42: 572-586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cheng TCE, Wu YN (2005) The impact of information sharing in a twolevel supply chain with multiple retailers. Journal of the Operational Research Society 56: 1159-1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chopra S, Sodhi M (2004) Avoiding supply chain breakdown. Sloan Management Review 46(1): 53-62.Google Scholar
  32. Christopher M (1992) Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  33. Tang CS (2006) Perspectives in supply chain risk management. Int. J. Production Economics 103: 451-488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cohen MA, Agrawal N (1999) An analytical comparison of long and short term contracts. IIE Transactions 31: 783-796.Google Scholar
  35. Corbett C (2001) Stochastic inventory systems in a supply chain with asymmetric information: Cycle stocks, safety stocks, and consignment Stocks. Operations Research 49: 487-500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Corbett C, de Groote X. (2000) A supplier’s optimal quantity discount policy under asymmetric information. Management Science 46: 444-450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Corbett C, Tang CS (1998) Designing supply contracts: Contract type and information asymmetric information. In: Tayur et al. (Eds.), Quantitative Models for Supply Chain Management. Kluwer Publisher, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  38. Desiraju R, Moorthy S (1997) Managing a distribution channel under asymmetric information with performance requirements. Management Science 43: 1628-44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dyer JS, Jia J (1997) Relative Risk-Valuemodel. Euro. J. of Operations Research 103: 170-185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eeckhoudt L, Gollier C, Schlesinger H (1995). The risk-averse (and prudent) newsboy. Management Science 41(5): 786-794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Embrechts P (Ed.) (2000) Extremes and Integrated Risk Management. Risk Books, London.Google Scholar
  42. Gattorna J (Ed.) (1998) Strategic Supply Chain Alignment, Chap. 27, Gower , Aldershot .Google Scholar
  43. Harland C, Brencheley H, Walker H (2003) Risk in supply network. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management 9(2): 51-62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hallikas J, Karvonen I, Pulkkinen U, Virolainen VM, Tuominen M (2004). Risk management processes in supplier networks. International Journal of Production Economics 90(1): 47-58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hirschleifer J, Riley JG (1979) The Analysis of Uncertainty and Information: An Expository Survey. Journal of Economic Literature 17: 1375-1421.Google Scholar
  46. Holmstrom B (1979) Moral hazard and observability. Bell J. of Economics 10(1): 74-91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Holmstrom B (1982) Moral hazard in teams. Bell Journal of Economics. 13(2): 324-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jackwerth JC (1999) Option implied risk neutral distributions and implied binomial trees: a literature review. Journal of Derivatives 7: 66-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jackwerth JC (2000) Recovering risk aversion from option prices and realized returns. The Review of Financial Studies 13(2): 433-451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Janssen F, de Kok T (1999) A two-supplier inventory model. International Journal of Production Economics 59: 395-403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jorion P (2000) VaR: The New Benchmark for Managing Financial Risk. McGraw Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Kaufmann PJ, Dant RP (2001) The pricing off franchise rights, Journal of Retailing 77: 537-545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kaufman PJ, Lafontaine F (1994) Costs of Control: The source of economic rents for McDonald’s franchises. The Journal of Law and economics 37 (2): 413-453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein B, Saft LF (1985) The law and economics of franchise tying contracts. Journal of Law and Economics 345-349.Google Scholar
  55. Kleindorfer P, Saad G (2005) Managing disruption risks in supply chains. Production and Operations Management 14: 53-68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lafontaine F (1992) Contract theory and franchising: some empirical results. Rand Journal of Economics 23(2) 263-283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. La Londe B, Cooper M (1989) Partnership in providing customer service:a third-party perspective, Council of Logistics Management, Oak Brook, IL.Google Scholar
  58. Lee H (2004) The triple—a supply chain. Harvard Business Review, 102- 112.Google Scholar
  59. Lee HL, Padmanabhan V, Whang S (1997a). Information distortion in a supply chain: The bullwhip effect. Management Science 43: 546-548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lee HL, Padmanabhan V, Whang S (1997b) The bullwhip effect in supply chains. Sloan Management Review 38: 93-102.Google Scholar
  61. Loomes G, Sugden R (1986) Disappointment and Dynamic Consistency in Choice Under Uncertainty. Review of Economic Studies 53: 271-282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mathewson GF, Winter RA (1986) The economics of franchise contracts. Journal of Law and Economic 28: 503-526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marvel H (1982) Exclusive dealing. Journal of Law and Economics 25: 1-26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Munier B, Tapiero CS (2008) Risk Attitudes, Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Assessment and Analysis, Wiley, (Forthcoming).Google Scholar
  65. Nagurney A, Curz J, Dong J, Zhang D (2005) Supply chain networks, electronic commerce, and supply side and demand side risk. European Journal of Operational Research 164: 120-142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Parlar M, Perry D (1996) Inventory models of future supply uncertainty with single and multiple suppliers. Naval Research Logistics 43: 191-210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rey P (1992) The economics of franchising, ENSAE Paper, February, Paris.Google Scholar
  68. Rey P, Tirole J (1986) The logic of vertical restraints, American Economic Review 76: 921-939.Google Scholar
  69. Rice B, Caniato F (2003) Supply chain response to terrorism: Creating resilient and secure supply chains. Supply Chain Response to Terrorism Project Interim Report, MIT Center for Transportation and Logistics, MIT, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  70. Riordan M (1984). Uncertainty, asymmetric information and bilateral contracts. Review of Economic Studies 51: 83-93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ritchken P, Tapiero CS (1986) Contingent Claim Contracts and Inventory Control. Operations Research 34: 864-870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rubin PH (1978) The theory of the firm and the structure of the franchise contract. Journal of Law and Economics 21: 223-233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rubin PA, Carter JR (1990) Joint optimality in buyer-supplier negotiations. Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management 26(1): 54-68.Google Scholar
  74. Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics, Wiley.Google Scholar
  75. Sen KC (1995) The use of initial fees and royalties sin business format franchising. Managerial and Decision Economics 14(2) 175-190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sheffi Y (2001) Supply chain management under the threat of international terrorism. International Journal of Logistics Management 12(2): 1-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tapiero CS (2000) Ex-Post Inventory Control. International Journal of Production Research 38(6): 1397-1406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tapiero CS (2005) Value at Risk and Inventory Control. European Journal of Operations Research 163(3): 769-775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tapiero CS (2005a) Risk Management, John Wiley Encyclopedia on Actuarial and Risk Management, Wiley, New York-London.Google Scholar
  80. Tapiero CS (2005b) Risk and Financial Management: Mathematical and Computational Methods, Wiley, London and New York.Google Scholar
  81. Tapiero CS (2006) Consumers Risk and Quality Control in a Collaborative Supply Chains. European Journal of Operations research, (available on line, October 18).Google Scholar
  82. Tapiero CS (2007) Market Pricing Franchise Contracts, Working Paper, Polytechnic University, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Tapiero CS, Grando A (2006) Supplies Risk and Inventory Outsourcing, Production Planning and Control 17(5): 534-539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tayur S, Ganeshan R, Magazine M (1998) Quantitative Models for Supply Chain Management. Kluwer Publisher, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  85. Tirole J (1988) The Theory of Industrial Organization. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  86. Tsay AA, Nahmias S, Agrawal N (1998) Modeling supply chain contracts: a review. In: Tayur, Ganeshan, Magazine (Eds.) Quantitative Models for Supply Chain Management. Kluwer Academic Press, Norwell, MA, pp. 299-336.Google Scholar
  87. Van Donk DP, van der Vaart T (2005) A case of shared resources, uncertainty and supply chain integration in the process industry. International Journal of Production Economics 96: 97 108.Google Scholar
  88. Zsidisin G, Panelli A, Upton R (2001) Purchasing organization involvement in risk assessments, contingency plans, and risk management: An exploratory study. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 5 (2): 187-197.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Personalised recommendations