Advertisement

Coevolution and Downsizing of Supermassive Black Holes and Galactic Bulges

  • Masayuki Umemura
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP)

We consider recently reported “downsizing” of galaxies as well as SMBHs from a theoretical point of view. If the putative SMBH-to-bulge relation is incorporated, the downsizing of galaxies and SMBHs implies the downsizing of galactic bulges. We propose a physical mechanism to bring the downsizing of galactic bulges with the consideration of galaxy formation in UV background radiation. The star formation efficiency in primordial galaxies is basically regulated by the self-shielding againt UV background radiation. At higher redshift epochs, the selfshielding is stronger, and therefore galaxies form in a dissipationless fashion. As a result, earlier type (higher bulge-to-disk ratio) galaxies form at earlier epochs. Besides, a radiation-hydrodynamic mechanism is proposed to account for the SMBHto- bulge relation. The growth of SMBHs can be promoted through the mass accretion driven by radiation drag which is exerted on dusty interstellar gas in radiation fields generated by bulge stars. It turns out that the resultant mass of a SMBH is predicted to be in proportion to the bulge mass, and the mass ratio is basically determined by the nuclear energy conversion efficiency from hydrogen to helium, ε=0.007. In this scenario, the bulge luminosity overwhelms the BH accretion luminosity in the growing phase of SMBH. This phase corresponds to a “proto-QSOV”, thereafter evolving to a QSO. Also, the proto-QSO phase is preceded by an optically-thick ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phase. This provides a coevolution scheme of SMBHs and bulges. If coupled with the downsizing of bulges, this coevolution scheme leads to the downsizing of SMBHs. The present scenario is a potential solution of the coevolution and downsizing of SMBHs and galactic bulges.

Keywords

Black Hole Star Formation Radio Galaxy High Redshift Elliptical Galaxy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cowie, L. L., Songaila, A., Hu, E. M., & Cohen, J. G. 1996, AJ, 112, 839CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kauffmann, G., et al. 2003, MNRAS, 341, 54CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kodama, T., et al. 2004, MNRAS, 350, 1005CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Glazebrook, K., et al. 2004, Nature, 430, 181CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ueda, Y., Akiyama, M., Ohta, K., & Miyaji, T. 2003, ApJ, 598, 886CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hasinger, G. 2003, AIP Conf. Proc. 666: The Emergence of Cosmic Structure, 666,227ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marconi, A., Risaliti, G., Gilli, R., Hunt, L. K., Maiolino, R., & Salvati, M. 2004, MNRAS, 351, 169CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Merloni, A. 2004, MNRAS, 353, 1035CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kormendy, J., & Richstone, D. 1995, ARAA, 33, 581ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Richstone, D., et al. 1998, Nature, 395A, 14ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Magorrian, J., et al. 1998, AJ, 115, 2285CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gebhardt, K., et al. 2000a, ApJ, 539, L13CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferrarese, L., & Merritt, D. 2000, ApJ, 539, L9CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merritt, D., & Ferrarese, L. 2001a, MNRAS, 320, L30CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McLure, R. J., & Dunlop, J. S. 2002, MNRAS, 331, 795CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marconi, A., & Hunt, L. K. 2003, ApJ, 589, L21CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gebhardt, K., et al. 2000b, ApJ, 543, L5CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merritt, D., & Ferrarese, L. 2001b, ApJ, 547, 140CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tremaine, T. et al. 2002, ApJ, 574, 740CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salucci, P., et al. 2000, MNRAS, 317, 488CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sarzi, M., et al. 2001, ApJ, 550, 65CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Laor, A. 1998, ApJ, 505, L83CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shields, G. A. et al. 2003, ApJ, 583, 124CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Umemura, M. 2001, ApJ, 560, L29CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kawakatu, N. & Umemura, M. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 572CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sato, J., Umemura, M., Sawada, K., & Matsuyama, S. 2004, 354,176Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kawakatu, N. & Umemura, M. 2004, ApJ, 601, L21CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fioc, M., & Rocca-Volmerrange, B. 1997, A&A, 326, 950ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kawakatu, N., Umemura, M., & Mori, M. 2003, ApJ, 583, 85CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Larson, R. B. 1976, MNRAS, 176, 31ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carlberg, R. G. 1985, ApJ, 298, 486CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Katz, N., & Gunn, J. E. 1991, ApJ, 377, 365CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aarseth, S. J., & Binney, J. 1978, MNRAS, 185, 227ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aguilar, L. A., & Merritt, D. 1990, ApJ, 354, 33CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Susa, H., & Umemura, M. 2000, ApJ, 537, 578CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Susa, H., & Umemura, M. 2000, MNRAS, 316, L17CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bromm, V., Coppi, P. S., & Larson, R. B. 1999, ApJ, 527, L5CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bromm, V., Coppi, P. S., & Larson, R. B. 2002, ApJ, 564, 23CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nakamura, F. & Umemura, M. 1999, ApJ, 515, 239CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nakamura, F. & Umemura, M. 2001, ApJ, 548, 19CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abel, T., Bryan, G. L., & Norman, M. L. 2000, ApJ, 540, 39CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abel, T., Bryan, G. L., & Norman, M. L. 2002, Science, 295, 93CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nakamoto, T., Umemura, M., & Susa, H. 2001, MNRAS, 321, 593CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Umemura, M., Nakamoto, T., & Susa, H. 2001, ASP Conference Series, 222, 143ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masayuki Umemura
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Computational SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations