Environmental Effects on Cardiac Pacing Systems

  • Louise Cohan
  • Fred M. Kusumoto
  • Nora F. Goldschlager

Early artificial pacemakers delivered asynchronous pulses at a fixed rate regardless of the intrinsic activity of the heart. As pacemaker technology improved, devices were developed that not only delivered pacing stimuli but also sensed intrinsic cardiac electrical activity. However, the circuitry used to detect small amplitude (1–20 mV) intracardiac electrical signals generated by the atrium and ventricle can also detect signals generated from both internal and external sources (1–3). Internal sources of signals include extracardiac muscle depolarization and other implanted devices such as ICDs and spinal cord stimulators. External sources of signals can arise from a variety of sources and are collectively referred to as electromagnetic interference (EMI).


Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Spinal Cord Stimulator Cellular Phone Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Cardiac Pacemaker 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise Cohan
    • 1
  • Fred M. Kusumoto
    • 1
  • Nora F. Goldschlager
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MedicineMayo ClinicJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.ECG Laboratory and Coronary Care UnitUniversity of California San Francisco School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

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