Pacemakers and Syncope

  • Ehab A. Eltahawy
  • Blair P. Grubb

Syncope is the abrupt and transient loss of consciousness due to a temporary reduction in cerebral blood flow. It is associated with an absence of postural tone and followed by a rapid and usually complete recovery. Syncope may be both benign or the only warning before an episode causing sudden death (1). Recurrent episodes of syncope may result from a variety of disorders, all of which cause a temporary reduction in cerebral blood flow sufficient to disturb the normal functions of the brain. Neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope is the most common of a group of reflex (neurally mediated) syncopes, characterized by a sudden failure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to maintain blood pressure, and occasionally heart rate, at a level sufficient to maintain cerebral perfusion and consciousness (2–4). Syncope accounts for 3.5% of all emergency room visits and 1–6% of all hospital admissions annually in the USA (5).


Carotid Sinus Autonomic Failure Orthostatic Intolerance Vasovagal Syncope Syncopic Episode 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehab A. Eltahawy
    • 1
  • Blair P. Grubb
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

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