Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure

  • Nitish Badhwar
  • Byron K. Lee

Over the past 20 years there have been many groundbreaking advances in the pharmacologic treatment of congestive heart failure. However, there are still many end-stage patients, who despite optimal medical management, still have severe and refractory symptoms, along with an overall poor prognosis (1,2). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which is also known as biventricular pacing has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacologic approach that can help many of these patients with advanced heart failure. Since the early pilot studies of CRT in the mid 1990s there has been extensive research in this area. Now we have several published large scale randomized controlled trials that prove CRT not only improves symptoms, but also decreases mortality. Based on these trials, CRT has become the standard of care for selected patients with moderate to severe heart failure.


Right Ventricular Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Biventricular Pace Right Ventricular Pace Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Device 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitish Badhwar
    • 1
  • Byron K. Lee
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of CardiologyUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.University of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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