AIDS in Brazil: The Challenge and the Response

  • Francisco I. Pinkusfeld M. Bastos
  • Amy Nunn
  • Mariana A. Hacker
  • Mônica Malta
  • Célia L. Szwarcwald


Prenatal Care World Trade Organization Sexually Transmitted Infection Universal Access Compulsory License 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abbott (2002). The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health: Lighting a Dark Corner at the WTO. Journal of International Economic Law, 5, 469–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aceijas, C., Oppenheimer, E., Stimson, G.V., Ashcroft, R.E., Matic, S., Hickman, M., & The Reference Group on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among IDU in Developing and Transitional Countries. (2006). Antiretroviral treatment for injecting drug users in developing and transitional countries 1 year before the end of the 'Treating 3 million by 2005. Making it happen. The WHO strategy' ('3by5'). Addiction, 101, 1246–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida, C., Travassos, C., Porto, S., & Labra, M.E. (2000). Health Sector Reform in Brazil: A Case Study of Inequity. International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 30, 129–162.Google Scholar
  4. Andrade, T.M., Dourado, I., & Galvao-Castro, B. (1998). Associations among HTLV-I, HTLV-II, and HIV in injecting drug users in Salvador, Brazil. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 18, 186–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbosa-Júnior, A., Pascom, A.R., Szwarcwald, C.L., Correia, C.D.B., Monteiro, L., & Simão, M.B.G. (2006). Proposed UNGASS indicators and the monitoring of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 40 (suppl.), 94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barcellos, C., & Bastos, F.I. (1996). Redes sociais e difusão da AIDS no Brasil. Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, 121,11–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bastos, F.I. (2002). Indicadores em DST/HIV/AIDS: Referências bibliográficas selecionadas. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde.Google Scholar
  8. Bastos, F.I., Bongertz, V., Teixeira, S.L., Morgado, M.G., & Hacker, M.A. (2005). Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 100, 91–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bastos, F.I., Buchalla, C.M., Ayres, J.R., & da Silva, L.J. (2006a). Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, 2001–2005. Revista de Saúde Pública, 40 (suppl.), 1–4.Google Scholar
  10. Bastos, F.I., Fatima de Pina, M., & Szwarcwald, C.L. (2002). The social geography of HIV/AIDS among injection drug users in Brazil. International J Drug Policy 13(2), 137–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bastos, F.I., Kerrigan, D., Malta, M., Carneiro-da-Cunha, C., & Strathdee, S.A. (2001). Treatment for HIV/AIDS in Brazil: strengths, challenges, and opportunities for operations research. AIDScience 1 (15).
  12. Bastos, F.I., Malta, M., Hacker, M.A., Petersen, M., Sudbrack, M., Colombo, M., Caiaffa W.T., & Project AjUDE II (2006b). Assessing needle exchange operations in a poor Brazilian community. Substance Use and Misuse, 41,937–51.Google Scholar
  13. Berkman, A., Garcia, J., Munoz-Laboy, M., Paiva, V, & Parker, R. (2005). A critical analysis of the Brazilian response to HIV/AIDS: Lessons learned for controlling and mitigating the epidemic in developing countries. American Journal of Public Health, 95(7):1162–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Beyrer, C., Razak, M.H., Lisam, K., Chen, J., Lui, W., & Yu, X.F. (2000). Overland heroin trafficking routes and HIV-1 spread in south and south-east Asia. AIDS, 14, 75–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Blower, S.M., Gershengorn, H.B., & Grant, R.M. (2000). A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco. Science, 287, 650–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Boily, M.C., Bastos, F.I., Desai, K., & Masse, B. (2004). Changes in the transmission dynamics of the HIV epidemic after the wide-scale use of antiretroviral therapy could explain increases in sexually transmitted infections: Results from mathematical models. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31,100–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boily, M.C., Godin, G., Hogben, M., Sherr, L., & Bastos, F.I. (2005). The impact of the transmission dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on sexual behaviour: A new hypothesis to explain recent increases in risk taking-behaviour among men who have sex with men. Medical Hypotheses, 65, 215–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Boily, M.C., Lowndes, C., Alary, M. (2002). The impact of HIV epidemic phases on the effectiveness of core group interventions: Insights from mathematical models. Sexual Transmitted Infectious, 78 (suppl. 1), 78–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boily, M.C., & Masse, B. (1997), Mathematical models of disease transmission: A precious tool for the study of sexually transmitted diseases. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 88, 255–65.Google Scholar
  20. Brazil (1996). Federal Law. Lei de Propriedade Industrial. Lei N 9.2779/96. From May/14,1996.Google Scholar
  21. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2000a). Gasto público federal em 1997 e 1998 e estimativa do gasto nacional em 1998. Série Avaliação no 2, Brasília: BMoH.Google Scholar
  22. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2000b). The Brazilian Response to HIV/AIDS. Brasília: BMoH .Google Scholar
  23. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2002a). International cooperation programme for HIV and AIDS prevention and control activities for other developing countries. Brasília: BMoH.Google Scholar
  24. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2002b). Pesquisa entre os conscritos do exército brasileiro, 19962000: Retratos do comportamento de risco do jovem brasileiro à infecção pelo HIV. Série Estudos, Pesquisas e Avaliação no 2. Brasília: BMoH.Google Scholar
  25. Brazilian Ministry of Health – CAA (Coordenação de Acompanhamento e Avaliação) (2005). Execução Orçamentária e Financeira 20012005. Brasília: BMoH (mimeo, background document).Google Scholar
  26. Brazilian Ministry of Health – IDB (Indicadores e Dados Básicos do Brasil) (2005). Basic Health Indicators and Data. Available at Accessed January 2007.
  27. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2006a). AIDS/STDs Epidemiological Bulletin. Available at, accessed in January 2007.
  28. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2006b). Unidades de dispensação de anti-retrovirais., accessed in January 2007.
  29. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2006c). Recomendações para Terapia Anti-retroviral em Adultos e Adolescentes Infectados pelo HIV. Brasília: BMoH.Google Scholar
  30. Brazilian Ministry of Health (2006d). Pesquisa de Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Práticas na População Brasileira 2004. Brasília: BMoH.Google Scholar
  31. Brito, A.M., Castilho, E.A., & Szwarcwald, C.L. (2001). AIDS and HIV infection in Brazil: A multifaceted epidemic. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 34, 207–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Brito, A.M., Castilho, E.A., & Szwarcwald, C.L. (2005). Regional patterns of the temporal evolution of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 9, 9–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caiaffa, W.T., Proietti, F.A., Carneiro-Proietti, A.B., Mingoti, S.A., Doneda, D., Gandolfi, D., Reis, A.C., & Epidemiological Study of Injection Drug Users in Brazil (AjUDE-Brasil Project) (2003). The dynamics of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemics in the south of Brazil: Increasing role of injection drug users. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37 (suppl. 5), S376–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Camargo, K.R. (2003). Prevenção do HIV: Desafios múltiplos. Divulgação Saúde Debate, 7080:204–14.Google Scholar
  35. Carvalho, M.F. (2001). Avaliação do uso do preservativo, segundo a experiência com drogas lícitas e ilícitas com conscritos do exército brasileiro, de Regiões Metropolitanas selecionadas e Distrito Federal. Boletim Epidemiológico DST/AIDS. Ano XIV n° 01.Google Scholar
  36. Castro, A. & Farmer, P. (2005). Understanding and addressing AIDS-related stigma: From anthropological theory to clinical practice in Haiti. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 53–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chequer, P., Cuchi, P., Mazin, R., & Garcia Calleja, J.M. (2002). Access to antiretroviral treatment in Latin American countries and the Caribbean. AIDS, 16 (suppl. 3), S50–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chequer, P., Hearst, N., Hudes, E.S., Castilho, E., Rutherford, G., Loures, L., & Rodrigues, L. (1992). Determinants of survival in adult Brazilian AIDS patients, 1982–1989. AIDS, 6, 483–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Daniel, H. & Parker, R.G. (1993). Sexuality, Politics and AIDS in Brazil. London: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  40. Davis, W.R., Johnson, B.D., Randolph, D., & Liberty, H.J. (2006). Risks for HIV infection among users and sellers of crack, powder cocaine and heroin in central Harlem: Implications for interventions. AIDS Care,18, 158–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dourado, I., Veras, M.A., Barreira, D., & Brito, A.M. (2006). AIDS epidemic trends after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 40 (suppl.), 9–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fehringer, J., Bastos, F.I., Massard, E., Maia, L., Pilotto, J.H., & Kerrigan, D. (2006). Supporting adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and protected sex among people living with HIV/AIDS: The role of patient-provider communication in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AIDS Patient Care and STDS, 20, 637–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fonseca, M.G., & Bastos, F.I. (2007). Twenty-five years of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil: Main epidemiological findings, 1980–2005. Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 23, (suppl. 3), S333–44.Google Scholar
  44. Fonseca, M.G., Bastos, F.I., Derrico, M., Andrade, C.L., Travassos, C., & Szwarcwald, C.L. (2000). AIDS e grau de escolaridade no Brasil: Evolução temporal de 1986 a 1996. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 16, (suppl. 1), 77–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fonseca, M.G., & Castilho, EA. (1997). Casos de AIDS entre usuários de drogas injetáveis, Brasil, 1980–1997. Boletim Epidemiológico, X , 6–14.Google Scholar
  46. Fonseca, E.M., Ribeiro, J.M., Bertoni, N., Bastos. F.I. (2006). Syringe exchange programs in Brazil: Preliminary assessment of 45 programs. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22, 761–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fonseca, M.G., Szwarcwald, C.L., & Bastos, F.I. (2002). A sociodemographic analysis of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil, 1989–1997. Revista de Saúde Pública, 36, 678–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fonseca, M.G., Travassos, C., Bastos, F.I., Silva, N., & Szwarcwald, C.L. (2003). Distribuição social da AIDS no Brasil, segundo participação no mercado de trabalho, ocupação e status sócio-econômico dos casos de 1987 a 1998. Cadernos de Saúde Pública 19, 1351–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Galvao, J. (2002). Access to antiretroviral drugs in Brazil. Lancet 360, 1862–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Grangeiro, A., Teixeira, L., Bastos, F.I., & Teixeira, P. (2006). Sustainability of Brazilian policy for access to antiretroviral drugs. Revista de Saúde Pública, 40 (suppl.), 60–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hacker, M.A., Leite. I.C., Renton, A., Torres, T.G., Gracie, R., & Bastos, F.I. (2006). Reconstructing the AIDS epidemic among injection drug users in Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 22, 751–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hacker, M.A., Petersen, M.L., Enriquez, M., & Bastos, F.I. (2004). Highly active antiretroviral therapy in Brazil: The challenge of universal access in a context of social inequality. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 16, 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Heckathorn, D. (1997). Respondent driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 44, 174–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hinchberger, B. (2005). Support for sex workers leaves Brazil without US cash. Lancet; 366(9489):883–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kalichman, A. (1993). AIDS and intravenous drug use (IVDU) in Brazil. In: M.G., Monteiro, J.A. Inciardi, (Eds.), United States Binational Research. (pp. 49–61). São Paulo: CEBRID.Google Scholar
  56. Kerrigan, D., Bastos, F.I., Malta, M., Carneiro-da-Cunha, C., Pilotto, J.H., & Strathdee, S.A. (2006). The search for social validation and the sexual behavior of people living with HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Understanding the role of treatment optimism in context. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 2386–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Levi, G.C., Vitoria, M.A. (2002). Fighting against AIDS: The Brazilian experience. AIDS, 16, 2373–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lowndes, C.M., Bastos, F.I., Giffin, K., Reis, A.C.G.V., d’Orsi, E., & Alary, M. (2000). Differential trends in mortality from AIDS in men and women in Brazil, 1984–1995. AIDS 14, 1269–1273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. McCance-Katz, E.F., Kosten, T.A., & Kosten, T.R. (2001). Going from the bedside back to the bench with ecopipam: A new strategy for cocaine pharmacotherapy development. Psychopharmacology, 155, 327–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. McFarland, W., & Cáceres, C.F. (2001). HIV surveillance among men who have sex with men. AIDS, 15 (suppl. 3), S23–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Malta, M., Bastos, F.I., Pereira-Koller, E.M., Cunha, M.D., Marques, C., & Strathdee, S.A. (2006). A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil. AIDS Care, 18, 489–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Malta, M., Carneiro-da-Cunha, C., Kerrigan, D., Strathdee, S.A., Monteiro, M., & Bastos FI. (2003). Case management of human immunodeficiency virus-infected injection drug users: A case study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37 (suppl. 5), S386–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Malta, M., Petersen, M.L., Clair, S., Freitas, F., & Bastos, F.I. (2005). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A qualitative study with physicians from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 21, 1424–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Marins, J.R., Jamal, L.F., Chen, S.Y., Barros, M.B., Hudes, E.S., Barbosa, A.A., Chequer, P., Teixeira, P.R., & Hearst, N. (2003). Dramatic improvement in survival among adult Brazilian AIDS patients. AIDS, 17, 1675–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Malta, M., Bastos, F.I., Pereira-Koller, E.M., Cunha, M.D., Marques, C., & Strathdee, S.A. (2006). A qualitative assessment of long distance truck drivers' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Itajai, southern Brazil. AIDS Care, 18, 489–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Melchior, R., Nemes, M.I., Basso, C.R., Castanheira, E.R., Alves, M.T., Buchalla, C.M., & Donini, A.A. (2006). Evaluation of the organizational structure of HIV/AIDS outpatient care in Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública, 40, 143–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mofenson, L.M., & McIntyre, J.A. (2000). Advances and research directions in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Lancet, 355:2237–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Montaner, J.S., Hogg, R., Wood, E., Kerr, T., Tyndall, M., Levy, A.R., & Harrigan, P.R. (2006). The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet, 368, 531–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nemes, M.I., Carvalho, H.B., & Souza, M.F. (2004). Antiretroviral therapy adherence in Brazil. AIDS (suppl. 3), S15–20.Google Scholar
  70. Nunn, A., Fonseca, E., Bastos, F.I., Gurskin, S, & Salomon, J. (2007). Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment. Public Library of Science Medicine, 4(11), e305.Google Scholar
  71. Paiva, V.; Pupo, L.R.; & Barboza, R. (2006). The right to prevention and the challenges of reducing vulnerability to HIV in Brazil. Revista de Saude Publica, 40 (suppl), 109–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Parker, R.G. (1994). Public policy, political activism, and AIDS in Brazil. In: Feldman, D (ed.), Global AIDS Policy (pp. 28–46). Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey.Google Scholar
  73. Parker, R.G., Easton, D., Klein, C.H. (2000). Structural barriers and facilitators in HIV prevention: A review of international research. AIDS; 14 (suppl. 1), S22–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Petersen, M.L., Boily, M.C., & Bastos, F.I. (2006). Assessing HIV resistance in developing countries: Brazil as a case study. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 19, 146–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pimenta, C., Terto, Jr. V., Kamel, L., Maksud, I., & Raxach, J.C. (2006). Acesso a tratamento de AIDS na Bolívia e no Paraguai. Coleção ABIA 6. Rio de Janeiro: ABIA.Google Scholar
  76. Pinheiro, E., Vasan, A., Kim, J.Y., Lee, E., Guimier, J.M., Perriens, J. (2006). Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs. AIDS, 20, 1745–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Porco, T.C., Martin, J.N., Page-Shafer, KA., Cheng, A., Charlebois, E., Grant, R.M., Osmond, D.H. (2004). Decline in HIV infectivity following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS, 18(1), 81–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Remien, R., Bastos, F. I., Terto Jr, V., Raxach, J.C., Pinto, R.M., Parker, R.G., Berkman, A, & Hacker, M.A. (2007). Assessing adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a context of universal access, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AIDS Care, 19(6), 740–8.Google Scholar
  79. Rugg, D.L., Heitgerd. J.L., Cotton, D.A., Broyles, S., Freeman, A., Lopez-Gomez, A.M., Cotten-Oldenburg, N.U., Page-Shafer, K.; HIV Prevention Indicators Field Collaborative (2000). CDC HIV prevention indicators: Monitoring and evaluating HIV prevention in the USA. AIDS, 14, 2003–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Souza Junior, P.R., Szwarcwald, C.L., Barbosa Junior, A., Carvalho, M.F., & Castilho, E.A. (2004). Infecção pelo HIV durante a gestação: Estudo-Sentinela Parturiente, Brasil, 2002. Revista de Saúde Pública, 38, 764–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Stueve, A., O'Donnell, L.N., Duran, R., San Doval, A., Blome J. (2001). Time-space sampling in minority communities: Results with young Latino men who have sex with men. American Journal Public Health, 91, 922–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Szwarcwald, C.L., Andrade, C.L. & Bastos, F.I. (2002). Income inequality, residential poverty clustering and infant mortality: A study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 2083–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Szwarcwald, C.L., Barbosa-Junior, A., Pascom, A.R., & de Souza-Junior, P.R. (2005a). Knowledge, practices and behaviors related to HIV transmission among the Brazilian population in the 15–54 years age group, 2004. AIDS, 19 (suppl. 4), S51–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Szwarcwald, C.L., Bastos, F.I., Esteves, M.A., de Andrade, C.L. (2000a). A disseminação da epidemia da AIDS no Brasil, no período de 1987–1996: Uma análise espacial. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 16(suppl. 1), 7–19.Google Scholar
  85. Szwarcwald, C.L., & Carvalho, M.F. (2001). Estimativa do número de pessoas de 15 a 49 anos de idade infectadas pelo HIV no Brasil, 2000. Boletim Epidemiológico XIV(1).Google Scholar
  86. Szwarcwald, C.L., Carvalho, M.F., Barbosa Junior, A., Barreira, D., Speranza, F.A., Castilho, EA. (2005b). Temporal trends of HIV-related risk behavior among Brazilian military conscripts, 1997–2002. Clinics, 60, 367–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Szwarcwald, C.L., & Castilho, E.A. (2000). Estimativa do número de pessoas de 15 a 49 anos infectadas pelo HIV, Brasil, 1998 Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 16 (suppl. 1), 135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Szwarcwald, C.L., Castilho, E.A., Barbosa, A. Jr., Gomes, M.R., Costa, E.A., Maletta, B.V., de Carvalho, R.F., de Oliveira, S.R, & Chequer, P. (2000b). Comportamento de risco dos conscritos do Exército Brasileiro, 1998: Uma apreciação da infecção pelo HIV segundo diferenciais sócio-econômicos. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 16 (suppl. 1):113–28.Google Scholar
  89. Szwarcwald, C.L., & Souza Jr., P.R.B. (2006). Estimativa da prevalência de HIV na população brasileira de 15 a 49 anos, 2004. Boletim Epidemiológico AIDS & DST 3(1):11–15.Google Scholar
  90. Teixeira, P.R., Vitória, M.A., & Barcarolo, J. (2004). Antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: The Brazilian experience. AIDS, 18 (suppl. 3), S5–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tess, B.H., Rodrigues, L.C., Newell, M.L., Dunn, D.T., & Lago, T.D. (1998). Breastfeeding, genetic, obstetric and other risk factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Sao Paulo Collaborative Study for Vertical Transmission of HIV-1. AIDS, 12, 513–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. The World Bank. (1998a). Project Appraisal Document on a proposed loan in the amount of US$ 165 million equivalent to Brazil for a second AIDS and STD control project. Human and Social Development Group, Brazil Country Management Unit, Latin America and the Caribbean Region; July 31, 1998.Google Scholar
  93. The World Bank. (1998b). Implementation Completion Report. Brazil. AIDS and STD Control Project (Loan 3659-BR). Brazil Country Management Unit, Human Development Sector Management Unit, Latin America and the Caribbean Regional Office; December 21, 1998.Google Scholar
  94. Trevisol, F.S., & Silva, M.V. (2005). HIV frequency among female sex workers in Imbituba, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 9, 500–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) (2002). Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Constructions of Core Indicators. Geneva (Switzerland).Google Scholar
  96. UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) (2005). Monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Guidelines on Constructions of Core Indicators. Geneva (Switzerland).Google Scholar
  97. UNAIDS (The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) (2006). Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Available at Accessed January 2007.
  98. UNCHR (United Nations Commission on Human Rights) (2001). Access to Medications in the Context of HIV/AIDS: Resolution 2001/33. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  99. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2005). Human Development Report. Available at, accessed January 2007.
  100. United Nations (2004). Millennium Indicators Database, Statistic Division. Available at, accessed January 2007.
  101. United Nations (2006). Radio news. Available at, accessed January 2007.
  102. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) (2006). World Drug Report. Volume 1: Analysis. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.Google Scholar
  103. Vaillancourt, D. (2004). Project Performance Assessment Report: Brazil First and Second AIDS and STD Control Projects. Washington DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  104. Vocci, F.J., & Elkashef, A. (2005). Pharmacotherapy and other treatments for cocaine abuse and dependence. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18, 265–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. WHA (World Health Assembly) (2001a). U.N. Commission on Human Rights: Access to Medication in the Context of Pandemics Such as HIV/AIDS. E/CN.4/RES/2001/33.Google Scholar
  106. WHA (World Health Assembly) (2001b). World Health Assembly Resolution “WHO Medicines Strategy”. WHA54.11.Google Scholar
  107. WHA (World Health Assembly) (2003). Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health. WHA56.27.Google Scholar
  108. WHA (World Health Assembly) (2006). Public Health, Innovation, Essential Health Research and Intellectual Property Rights: Towards a Global Strategy and Plan of Action, World Health Assembly.Google Scholar
  109. WHO (World Health Organization) (2006). Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Adults and Adolescents in Resource-limited Settings: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach. Geneva, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  110. WTO (World Trade Organization) (1995). Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, World Trade Organization.Google Scholar
  111. WTO (World Trade Organization) (2001). Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, World Trade Organization. WT/MIN(01)/DEC/2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco I. Pinkusfeld M. Bastos
    • 1
  • Amy Nunn
    • 2
  • Mariana A. Hacker
    • 3
  • Mônica Malta
    • 4
  • Célia L. Szwarcwald
    • 5
  1. 1.Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CICT/FIOCRUZ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDSTuberculosis and Malaria New YorkNYUSA
  3. 3.Oswaldo Cruz InstituteRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (ENSP/FIOCRUZ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  5. 5.Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (CICT/FIOCRUZ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations