Advertisement

The HIV/AIDS Epidemics in the Former Soviet Union, Central Asia, and Iran

  • Chris Beyrer
  • Wendy W. Davis
  • David D. Celentano

The HIV virus is an obligate intra-cellular parasite: it has no energetic system and no motility beyond that supplied by its human hosts as they engage in the kinds of sexual or drug use risks through which the virus can be transmitted. HIV can only spread, and can only reach epidemic proportions, when its exacting conditions for spread are met by human agents. To reach epidemic proportions its hosts must be in large enough networks of risk to sustain chains of transmission within and across communities. The most recent emergence of epidemic spread of HIV infection has been in the states of the Former Soviet Union including the massive Russian Federation itself, Ukraine, the five Central Asian Republics, and Iran. HIV has found its conditions for rapid epidemic spread met by a convergence of factors and one central reality: the enormous production and output of opiates, principally heroin, from the chaotic Central Asian state of Afghanistan (Beyrer, 2007). These epidemics, as the...

Keywords

Harm Reduction Inject Drug User Former Soviet Union Substitution Therapy Methadone Maintenance Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adojaan, M., Kivisild, T., Männik, A., Krispin, T., Ustina, V., Zilmer, K., Liebert, E., Jaroslavtsev, N., Priimägi, L., Tefanova, V., Schmidt, J., Krohn, K., Villems, R., Salminen, M., & Ustav, M. (2005). Predominance of a rare type of HIV-1 in Estonia. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(5), 598–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV epidemiology update and transmission factors: risks and risk contexts – 16th International AIDS conference epidemiology plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44(7), 981–987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bobkov, A., Kazennova, E., Selimova, L., Bobkova, M., Khanina, T., Ladnaya, N., Kravchenko, A., Pokrovsky, V., Cheingsong-Popov, R., & Weber, J. (1998). A sudden epidemic of HIV type 1 among injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union: identification of subtype A, subtype B, and novel gagA/envB recombinants. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 14, 669–676.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bobkov, A.F., Kazennova, E.V., Sukhanova, A.L., Bobkova, M.R., Pokrovsky, V.V., Zeman, V.V., Kovtunenko, N.G., & Erasilova, I.B. (2004). An HIV type 1 subtype A outbreak among injecting drug users in Kazakhstan. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 20(10), 1134–1136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carr, J.K., Nadai, Y., Eyzaguirre, L., Saad, M.D., Khakimov, M.M., Yakubov, S.K., Birx, D.L., Graham, R.R., Wolfe, N.D., Earhart, K.C., & Sanchez, J.L. (2005a). Outbreak of a West African recombinant of HIV-1 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 39(5), 570–575.Google Scholar
  6. Carr, J.K., Saad, M., Nadai, Y., Tishkova, F., Eyzaguirre, L., Strathdee, S.A., Stachowiak, J., Beyrer, C., Earhart, K., Birx, D., & Sanchez, J.L. (2005b). Outbreak of a West African HIV-1 recombinant, CRF02_AG, in Central Asia. Presented at the 3rd International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, July 24–27, 2005, Rio de Janeiro (Abstract No. MoPe14.1B09).Google Scholar
  7. Ezyaguirre, L.M., Erasilova, I.B., Nadai, Y., Saad, M.D., Kovtunenko, N.G., Gomatos, P.J., Zeman, V.V., Botros, B.A., Sanchez, J.L., Birx, D.L., Earhart, K.C., & Carr, J.K. (2007). Genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kazakhstan. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 46(1), 19–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Open Society Institute (OSI). (2006). Delivering HIV care and treatment for people who use drugs. New York, NY: Open Society Institute’s International Harm Reduction Development Program.Google Scholar
  9. Stachowiak, J., & Peryskina, A. (2007). Women’s health and women’s rights: Selling sex in Moscow. In C. Beyrer & H.F. Pizer (Eds.), Public health and human rights: Evidence-based approaches (pp. 88–104). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  10. UNAIDS. (2006). AIDS epidemic update: December 2006. Geneva. Available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/EpiReport/2006/2006_EpiUpdate_en.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chris Beyrer
    • 1
  • Wendy W. Davis
    • 2
  • David D. Celentano
    • 3
  1. 1.Professor and Co-Director, Infectious Diseases Program Deputy Chair, Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Research Coordinator Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreU.S.A
  3. 3.Professor, Department of Epidemiology Director, Fogarty AIDS International Training and Research ProgramJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations