Advertisement

Southern Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe)

  • James Alasdair McIntyre
  • Guy de Bruyn
  • Glenda Elisabeth Gray

Keywords

Male Circumcision Global Fund Southern African Country Lower Level Health Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdullah, F. (2005). The complexities of implementing antiretroviral treatment in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. M. Heywood (Editor), Development update: From disaster to development: HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa. (Vol. 5, Chap. 3, pp. 245–264). Johannesburg: Interfund.Google Scholar
  2. Adetunji, J. (2000). Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78 (10), 1200–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous. (2002) Castro Hlongwane, Caravans, Cats, Geese, Foot and Mouth and Statistics. HIV/AIDS and the Struggle for the Humanisation of the African. Available at http://www.virusmyth.net/aids/data/ancdoc.htm [20 July 2007].
  4. Auvert, B., Buve, A., Ferry, B., Carael, M., Morison, L., Lagarde, E., Robinson, N. J., Kahindo, M., Chege, J., Rutenberg, N., Musonda, R., Laourou, M., & Akam, E. (2001). Ecological and individual level analysis of risk factors for HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection. AIDS, 15 Suppl 4, S15–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Auvert, B., Taljaard, D., Lagarde, E., Sobngwi-Tambekou, J., Sitta, R., & Puren, A. (2005). Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Medicine, 2, e298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, R. C., Moses, S., Parker, C. B., Agot, K., Maclean, I., Krieger, J. N., Williams, C. F., Campbell, R. T., & Ndinya-Achola, J. O. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 369, 643–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Batra, M., Tien, P. C., Shafer, R. W., Contag, C. H., & Katzenstein, D. A. (2000). HIV type 1 envelope subtype C sequences from recent seroconverters in Zimbabwe. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 16(10), 973–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Becker, M. L., De Jager, G., & Becker, W. B. (1995). Analysis of partial gag and env gene sequences of HIV type 1 strains from southern Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 11, 1265–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bessong, P. O., Larry Obi, C., Cilliers, T., Choge, I., Phoswa, M., Pillay, C., Papathanasopoulos, M., & Morris, L. (2005). Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a previously unexplored region of South Africa with a high HIV prevalence. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 21(1), 103–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Botha, M. C., Neethling, F. A., Shai, I., Lekabe, J. M., & van der Merwe, C. F. (1988). Two black South Africans with AIDS. South African Medical Journal 73 (2), 132–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boulle, A., & Coetzee, D. (2006). Anticipating future challenges to ART provision. H. C. J. Van Rensburg, & H. Schneider (Editors), Perspectives on public sector antiretroviral access. Acta Academica Supplementum (Vol. 1, pp. 241–255). Bloemfontein, South Africa: University of the Free State Library.Google Scholar
  12. Bredell, H., Williamson, C., Sonnenberg, P., Martin, D. J., & Morris, L. (1998). Genetic characterization of HIV type 1 from migrant workers in three South African gold mines. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 14(8), 677–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bredell, H., Hunt, G., Morgan, B., Tiemessen, C. T., Martin, D. J., & Morris, L. (2000). Identification of HIV type 1 intersubtype recombinants in South Africa using env and gag heteroduplex mobility assays. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 16(5), 493–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bredell, H., Hunt, G., Casteling, A., Cilliers, T., Rademeyer, C., Coetzer, M., Miller, S., Johnson, D., Tiemessen, C. T., Martin, D. J., Williamson, C., & Morris, L. (2002). HIV-1 Subtype A, D, G, AG and unclassified sequences identified in South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 18(9), 681–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, L., Thurman, T., Bloem, J., & Kendall, C. (2006). Sexual violence in Lesotho. Studies in Family Planning, 37, 269–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunet, J. B., & Ancelle, R. A. (1985). The international occurrence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103(5), 670–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buseh, AG. (2004). Patterns of sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Swaziland, southern Africa. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 6(4), 355–367.Google Scholar
  18. Carter, M. W., Kraft, J. M., Koppenhaver, T., Galavotti, C., Roels, T. H., Kilmarx, P. H., & Fidzani, B. (2007). "A Bull Cannot be Contained in a Single Kraal": Concurrent Sexual Partnerships in Botswana. AIDS Behaviour, Electronic publication ahead of print.Google Scholar
  19. Central Statistical Office, Zambia, Ministry of Health, Zambia, MEASURE Evaluation. (2003) Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey 2003. Lusaka, Zambia, Ministry of HealthGoogle Scholar
  20. Central Statistical Office (CSO). [Zimbabwe], & Macro International Inc. (2007). Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2005–2006. Calverton, Maryland USA : CSO and Macro International Inc.Google Scholar
  21. Central Statistical Office Zimbabwe, & Macro International Inc. (2007). Zimbabwe: DHS, 2005/06 – Final Report (English). Calverton, Maryland USA: Central Statistical Office Harare, Zimbabwe and Macro International Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Chersich, M. F., & Gray, G. E. (2005). Progress and Emerging Challenges in Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission. Current infectious disease reports, 7(5), 393–400.Google Scholar
  23. Chopra, M., Doherty, T., Jackson, D., & Ashworth, A. (2005). Preventing HIV transmission to children: quality of counselling of mothers in South Africa. Acta Paediatrica, 94(3), 357–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cleary, S. M., McIntyre, D., & Boulle, A. M. (2006). The cost-effectiveness of Antiretroviral Treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa – a primary data analysis. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 4, 20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cockcroft, A., Andersson, N., Milne, D., Mokoena, T., & Masisi, M. (2007). Community views about routine HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment in Botswana: signs of progress from a cross sectional study. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 7, 5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Coetzee, D., Hildebrand, K., Boulle, A., Maartens, G., Louis, F., Labatala, V., Reuter, H., Ntwana, N., & Goemaere, E. (2004). Outcomes after two years of providing antiretroviral treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa. AIDS, 18(6), 887–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Coetzee, D., Hilderbrand, K., Boulle, A., Draper, B., Abdullah, F., & Goemaere, E. (2005). Effectiveness of the first district-wide programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83(7), 489–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohn, R. J., MacPhail, A. P., Hartman, E., Schwyzer, R., & Sher, R. (1990). Transfusion-related human immunodeficiency virus in patients with haemophilia in Johannesburg. South African Medical Journal, 78(11), 653–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Collinge, J. (2005). Confronting HIV and AIDS through Mass Media and Community Action. P. Ijumba, & P. Barron (Editors). Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust.Google Scholar
  30. Corbett, E. L., Dauya, E., Matambo, R., Cheung, Y. B., Makamure, B., Bassett, M. T., Chandiwana, S., Munyati, S., Mason, P. R., Butterworth, A. E., Godfrey-Faussett, P., & Hayes, R. J. (2006). Uptake of workplace HIV counselling and testing: a cluster-randomised trial in Zimbabwe. PLoS Medicine, 3(7), e238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Creek, T. L., Alwano, M. G., Molosiwa, R. R., Roels, T. H., Kenyon, T. A., Mwasalla, V., Lloyd, E. S., Mokomane, M., Hastings, P. A., Taylor, A. W., & Kilmarx, P. H. (2006). Botswana's Tebelopele voluntary HIV counseling and testing network: use and client risk factors for HIV infection, 2000–2004. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(2), 210–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Creek, T. L., Ntumy, R., Seipone, K., Smith, M., Mogodi, M., Smit, M., Legwaila, K., Molokwane, I., Tebele, G., Mazhani, L., Shaffer, N., & Kilmarx, P. H. (2007). Successful introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing in antenatal care in Botswana. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(1), 102–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Cullinan, K. (2002). Court orders South Africa to treat pregnant HIV-positive women with nevirapine. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80(4), 335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. de Korte, D. , Mazonde, P., & Darkoh, E. (2004). Introducing ARV therapy in the public sector in Botswana: case study (Perspectives and practice in antiretroviral treatment). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  35. Department of Health South Africa. (2000). HIV/AIDS/STD Strategic Plan For South Africa 2000–2005. Pretoria: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  36. Department of Health, Government of South Africa. (2003). Operational plan for comprehensive HIV and AIDS Care, Management and Treatment for South Africa. Pretoria: Department of Health, South Africa.Google Scholar
  37. Department of Health, South Africa. (2006). National HIV and syphilis antenatal seroprevalence survey in South Africa 2005. Pretoria: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  38. Department of Health South Africa. (2007). Summary Report : National HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Survey, South Africa 2006. Pretoria: National Department of Health, South Africa.Google Scholar
  39. Doherty, T. M., McCoy, D., & Donohue, S. (2005). Health system constraints to optimal coverage of the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in South Africa: lessons from the implementation of the national pilot programme. African Health Sciences, 5(3), 213–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Donnelly, J. Prevention urged in AIDS Fight; Natsios Says Fund Should Spend Less on HIV Treatment, (2001 June 7). Boston Globe, p. A8.Google Scholar
  41. Dorrington, R. E. D., Johnson, L. F., Bradshaw, D., & Daniel, D. (2006). The Demographic Impact of HIV/AIDS in South Africa: National and Provincial Indicators for 2006. Cape Town, Centre for Actuarial Research, the Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council and Actuarial Society of South Africa.Google Scholar
  42. Dunkle, K. L., Jewkes, R. K., Brown, H. C., Gray, G. E., McIntryre, J. A., & Harlow, S. D. (2004). Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa. Lancet, 363 (9419), 1415–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunkle, K. L., Jewkes, R. K., Nduna, M., Levin, J., Jama, N., Khuzwayo, N., Koss, M. P., & Duvvury, N. (2006). Perpetration of partner violence and HIV risk behaviour among young men in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. AIDS, 20(16), 2107–2114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dusheiko, G. M., Brink, B. A., Conradie, J. D., Marimuthu, T., & Sher, R. (1989). Regional prevalence of hepatitis B, delta, and human immunodeficiency virus infection in southern Africa: a large population survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129(1), 138–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Egger, M., Boulle, A., Schechter, M., & Miotti, P. (2005). Antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings: scaling up inequalities? International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(3), 509–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Engelbrecht, S., Laten, J. D., Smith, T. L., & van Rensburg, E. J. (1995). Identification of env subtypes in fourteen HIV type 1 isolates from South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 11(10), 1269–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Engelbrecht, S., Smith, T. L., Kasper, P., Faatz, E., Zeier, M., Moodley, D., Clay, C. G., & van Rensburg, E. J. (1999). HIV type 1 V3 domain serotyping and genotyping in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal, and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 15(4), 325–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Engelbrecht, S., de Villiers, T., Sampson, C. C., zur Megede, J., Barnett, S. W., & van Rensburg, E. J. (2001). Genetic analysis of the complete gag and env genes of HIV type 1 subtype C primary isolates from South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 17(16), 1533–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Farley, M. (2001 June 27). At AIDS Disaster's Epicenter, Botswana Is a Model of Action; During U.N. conference, leader speaks of national 'extinction,' but country plans continent's most ambitious programs. Los Angeles Times. Google Scholar
  50. Fredriksson-Bass, J., Kanabus, A., & Noble, R. (2007) HIV and AIDS in Botswana [Web Page]. URL http://www.avert.org/aidsbotswana.htm [2007, July 17].
  51. Fylkesnes, K., Musonda, R. M., Sichone, M., Ndhlovu, Z., Tembo, F., & Monze, M. (2001). Declining HIV prevalence and risk behaviours in Zambia: evidence from surveillance and population-based surveys. AIDS, 15(7), 907–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Garnett, G. P., Gregson, S., & Stanecki, K. A. (2006). Criteria for detecting and understanding changes in the risk of HIV infection at a national level in generalised epidemics. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82 Suppl 1, i48–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gimbel, S., Mola, O., Marsh, K., Assan, A., Manjate, R., & Sherre, K. (2007). Share and Share-Alike: Ensuring Equitable Expansion of Access to ARTs in Mozambique. Abstract 1161.The 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting of the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief, June 16–19, 2007, Kigali, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  54. Gray, G., Violari, A., McIntyre, J., Jivkov, B., Schnittman, S., Reynolds, L., & Ledeine, J. M. (2006). Antiviral activity of nucleoside analogues during short-course monotherapy or dual therapy: its role in preventing HIV infection in infants. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 42(2), 169–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gray, R. H., Kigozi, G., Serwadda, D., Makumbi, F., Watya, S., Nalugoda, F., Kiwanuka,N., Moulton, L. H., Chaudhary, M. A., Chen, M. Z., Sewankambo, N. K., Wabwire-Mangen, F., Bacon, M. C., Williams, C. F., Opendi, P., Reynolds, S. J., Laeyendecker, O., Quinn, T. C., & Wawer, M. J. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet, 369(9562), 657–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gregson, S., Nyamukapa, C.A., Garnett, G.P., Mason, P.R., Zhuwau, T., Carael, M., Chandiwana, S.K., Anderson, R.M. (2002). Sexual mixing patterns and sex-differentials in teenage exposure to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe. Lancet, 360, 1896–903.Google Scholar
  57. Gregson, S., Garnett, G. P., Nyamukapa, C. A., Hallett, T. B., Lewis, J. J., Mason, P. R., Chandiwana, S. K., & Anderson, R. M. (2006). HIV decline associated with behavior change in eastern Zimbabwe. Science, 311 (5761), 664–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Haacker, M. (2001). Providing Health Care to HIV Patients in Southern Africa IMF Policy Discussion Paper. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  59. Hallett, T. B., Gregson, S., Lewis, J. J., Lopman, B. A., & Garnett, G. P. (2007). Behaviour change in generalised HIV epidemics: The impact of reducing cross-generational sex and delaying age at sexual debut. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83 Suppl 1, i50–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Harling, G., & Wood, R. (2007). The Evolving Cost of HIV in South Africa: Changes in Health Care Cost With Duration on Antiretroviral Therapy for Public Sector Patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 45(3), 348–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harries, A. D., Libamba, E., Schouten, E. J., Mwansambo, A., Salaniponi, F. M., & Mpazanje, R. (2004). Expanding antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: drawing on the country's experience with tuberculosis. British Medical Journal, 329(7475), 1163–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Harries, A. D., Schouten, E. J., Makombe, S. D., Libamba, E., Neufville, H. N., Some, E., Kadewere, G., & Lungu, D. (2007). Ensuring uninterrupted supplies of antiretroviral drugs in resource-poor settings: an example from Malawi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(2), 152–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harvey, M. (2000) How can a virus cause a syndrome? asks Mbeki [Web Page]. URL http://www.aegis.com/news/woza/2000/IC000906.html [2007, July 20].
  64. Hendriksen, E. S., Pettifor, A., Lee, S. J., Coates, T. J., & Rees, H. V. (2007). Predictors of condom use among young adults in South Africa: the Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit National Youth Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1241–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Heywood, M. (2005). The Price of Denial. In M. Heywood (Editor), Development update: From disaster to development: HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa (Vol. 5, Chap. 3). Johannesburg: Interfund.Google Scholar
  66. Heywood, M., & Cornell, M. (1998). Human rights and AIDS in South Africa: from right margin to left margin. Health and Human Rights, 2(4), 60–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. HIV-AIDS. (2007) 'Malawi to provide individual household HIV and Aids testing'. http://www.iolhivaids.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=&fArticleId=4065844. 5 October 2007
  68. Hosegood, V., Vanneste, A. M., & Timaeus, I. M. (2004). Levels and causes of adult mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of AIDS. AIDS, 18(4), 663–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hughes, R., Mwango, A., Mwinga, A., & Luchsinger, L. (2006). The Status of ART Scale-Up in Zambia: Challenges and Successes. Abstract 210 The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Durban, South Africa. Building on Success: Ensuring Long-Term Solutions June 12–15, 2006 • Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  70. International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC). (2007). Missing the target #4:Time is Running out to end AIDS. Treatment and Prevention for all. Cape Town: International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC).Google Scholar
  71. IRIN plus news. (2006) SWAZILAND: Has Swaziland turned the corner in the fight against AIDS? [Web Page]. URL http://www.plusnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=62713 [2007, July 11].
  72. Jewkes, R., Dunkle, K., Koss, M. P., Levin, J. B., Nduna, M., Jama, N., & Sikweyiya, Y. (2006a). Rape perpetration by young, rural South African men: Prevalence, patterns and risk factors. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 2949–61.Google Scholar
  73. Jewkes, R., Dunkle, K., Nduna, M., Levin, J., Jama, N., Khuzwayo, N., Koss, M., Puren, A., & Duvvury, N. (2006). Factors associated with HIV sero-positivity in young, rural South African men. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(6), 1455–60.Google Scholar
  74. Kalichman, S. C. (2007). Recent Multiple Sexual Partners and HIV Transmission Risks among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Botswana. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83(5), 371–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kalichman, S. C., & Simbayi, L. C. (2004). Sexual assault history and risks for sexually transmitted infections among women in an African township in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care, 16(6), 681–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Keapoletswe, K., Anderson, M. G., Steen, T. W., Seipone, K., Kaisara, T., de la Hoz Gomez, F., Mmelesi, M., Tlale, J., Moalosi, J., & Mpoyo, F. (2007). PMTCT programme in Botswana: estimated number of HIV infections averted between 2002–2006. Abstract TUPEC027. 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. 22–25 July 2007, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  77. Kebaabetswe, P. M. (2007). Barriers to participation in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission program in Gaborone, Botswana a qualitative approach. AIDS Care, 19(3), 355–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kim, J. C., Martin, L. J., & Denny, L. (2003). Rape and HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: addressing the dual epidemics in South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 11(22), 101–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lane, T., Pettifor, A., Pascoe, S., Fiamma, A., & Rees, H. (2006). Heterosexual anal intercourse increases risk of HIV infection among young South African men. AIDS, 20(1), 123–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lane, T., McIntyre, J., & Morin, S. (2006a). High-risk sex among black MSM in South Africa: results from the Gauteng MSM survey. Abstract WEPE0717. XVI International AIDS conferenc, 13–18 August 2006, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  81. Lane, T., McIntyre, J., & Morin, S. (2006b). HIV testing and stigma amnog black South African men, Abstract WEPE072. XVI International AIDS Conference, 13–18 August 2006, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  82. Langen, T. T. (2005). Gender power imbalance on women's capacity to negotiate self-protection against HIV/AIDS in Botswana and South Africa. African Health Sciences, 5(3), 188–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Loxton, A. G., Treurnicht, F., Laten, A., van Rensburg, E. J., & Engelbrecht, S. (2005). Sequence analysis of near full-length HIV type 1 subtype D primary strains isolated in Cape Town, South Africa, from 1984 to 1986. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 21(5), 410–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lurie, M. N., Williams, B. G., Zuma, K., Mkaya-Mwamburi, D., Garnett, G., Sturm, A. W., Sweat, M. D., Gittelsohn, J., & Abdool Karim, S. S. (2003). The impact of migration on HIV-1 transmission in South Africa: a study of migrant and non-migrant men and their partners. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30(2), 149–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Maartens, G., Wood, R., O'Keefe, E., & Byrne, C. (1997). Independent epidemics of heterosexual and homosexual HIV infection in South Africa--survival differences. QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 90(7), 449–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. MacPhail, C., Pettifor, A., Pascoe, S., & Rees, H. (2007). Predictors of dual method use for pregnancy and HIV prevention among adolescent South African women. Contraception, 75(5), 383–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Mahomva, A., Greby, S., Dube, S., Mugurungi, O., Hargrove, J., Rosen, D., Dehne, K. L., Gregson, S., St Louis, M., & Hader, S. (2006). HIV prevalence and trends from data in Zimbabwe, 1997–2004. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82 Suppl 1, i42–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Malawi Paediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Group. (2007). Antiretroviral therapy for children in the routine setting in Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101(5), 511–6.Google Scholar
  89. Martin-Herz, S. P., Shetty, A. K., Bassett, M. T., Ley, C., Mhazo, M., Moyo, S., Herz, A. M., & Katzenstein, D. (2006). Perceived risks and benefits of HIV testing, and predictors of acceptance of HIV counselling and testing among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Disease and AIDS, 17(12), 835–41.Google Scholar
  90. Martinson, N., Bakos, D., Mohapi, L., & Holmes, C. (2006). Outpatient Provider Costs of Treating Adults With ARVs in Soweto. Abstract 502. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Annual Meeting The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers' Meeting Building on Success: Ensuring Long-Term Solutions June 1215, 2006 • Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  91. Martinson, N. A., Willie, M., McIntyre, J. A., Gray, G. E., Moshabela, M., & Pronyk, P. (2007). Reductions in admissions to hospital in people treated with HAART in South Africa. 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. 22–25 July 2007, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  92. McCormack, G. P., Glynn, J. R., Crampin, A. C., Sibande, F., Mulawa, D., Bliss, L., Broadbent, P., Abarca, K., Ponnighaus, J. M., Fine, P. E., & Clewley, J. P. (2002). Early evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C epidemic in rural Malawi. Journal of Virology, 76(24), 12890–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. McCoy, D. (2006). Expanding Access to antiretroviral treatment. In H. C. J. Van Rensburg, & H. Schneider (Editors) Perspectives on public sector antiretroviral access. Acta Academica Supplementum (Vol. 1, pp. 1–16). Bloemfontein, South Africa: University of the Free State Library.Google Scholar
  94. McIntyre, J. (1996). HIV/AIDS in South Africa – a relentless progression? South African Medical Journal, 86(1), 27–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. McIntyre, J. (2003). Mothers infected with HIV. British Medical Bulletin, 67, 127–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. MEASURE DHS. (2007) New National Survey Finds 19 Percent of the Swazi Population Age 2 and Older Has HIV; Other Health Indicators Show Improvements [Web Page]. URL http://www.measuredhs.com/aboutdhs/pressroom/Release_archives/070628.cfm [2007, July 11].
  97. Médecins Sans Frontières. (2007). Help wanted. Confronting the health care worker crisis to expand access to HIV/AIDS treatment: MSF experience in southern Africa. Johannesburg: Médecins Sans Frontières.Google Scholar
  98. Meyers, T., Moultrie, H., Sherman, G., Cotton, M., & Eley, B. (2006). Management of HIV Infected Children. P. Ijumba, & A. Padarath (Editors), South African Health Review 2006. Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust.Google Scholar
  99. Mills, E. J., & Chong, S. (2006). Lesotho embarks on universal HIV testing. HIV AIDS Policy and Law Review, 11(1), 27–8.Google Scholar
  100. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare Lesotho, Bureau of Statistics Lesotho, & ORC Macro. (2005). Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Calverton, Maryland: MOH, BOS, and ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  101. Miotti, P. G., Taha, T. E., Kumwenda, N. I., Broadhead, R., Mtimavalye, L. A., Van der Hoeven, L., Chiphangwi, J. D., Liomba, G., & Biggar, R. J. (1999). HIV transmission through breastfeeding: a study in Malawi. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 282 (8), 744–9.Google Scholar
  102. Mishra, V. (2006). Patterns of HIV Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys. Abstract 48. The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Durban, South Africa. Building on Success: Ensuring Long-Term Solutions June 1215, 2006 • Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  103. Montoya, P., Cumbane, J., Baptista, J., & Karagianis, M. (2006). Integrated Programming for HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis in Central Mozambique: Addressing Lost Opportunities. Abstract 167. The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  104. Moodley, D., Moodley, J., Coovadia, H., Gray, G., McIntyre, J., Hofmyer, J., Nikodem, C., Hall, D., Gigliotti, M., Robinson, P., Boshoff, L., & Sullivan, J. L. (2003). A multicenter randomized controlled trial of nevirapine versus a combination of zidovudine and lamivudine to reduce intrapartum and early postpartum mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187(5), 725–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Morris,K., Parry, C. (2006) South African methamphetamine boom could fuel further HIV. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 6(8), 471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Murphy, V. (2003) Mbeki stirs up Aids controversy [Web Page]. URL http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3143850.stm [2007, July 18].
  107. Myer, L., Mathews, C., Little, F., & Karim, S. S. (2001). The fate of free male condoms distributed to the public in South Africa. AIDS, 15(6), 789–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. National AIDS Coordinating Agency Botswana. (2005). Botswana AIDS impact survey II: popular report. Gaberone, Republic of Botswana: National AIDS Coordinating Agency Botswana.Google Scholar
  109. National Statistical Office (Malawi), & ORC Macro. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Calverton, Maryland: National Statistical Office (NSO) [Malawi] and ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  110. National Statistics Institute, Mozambique, & ORC Macro. (2003). Demographic and Health Survey, Mozambique, 2003. Calverton, Maryland: National Statistics Institute, Mozambique, and ORC Macro.Google Scholar
  111. Nattrass, N. (2004). The moral economy of AIDS in South Africa. Cambridge Africa Collection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Nattrass, N. (2006). South Africa's ``rollout" of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a critical assessment. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 43(5), 618–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ncayiyana, D. J. (2001). Antiretroviral therapy cannot be South Africa's first priority. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 164(13), 1857–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Ndung'u, T., Renjifo, B., Novitsky, V. A., McLane, M. F., Gaolekwe, S., & Essex, M. (2000). Molecular cloning and biological characterization of full-length HIV-1 subtype C from Botswana. Virology, 278(2), 390–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Novitsky, V. A., Montano, M. A., McLane, M. F., Renjifo, B., Vannberg, F., Foley, B. T., Ndung'u, T. P., Rahman, M., Makhema, M. J., Marlink, R., & Essex, M. (1999). Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C: a set of 23 full-length clones from Botswana. Journal of Virology, 73(5), 4427–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Oppenheimer, G., & Bayer, R. (2007). Shattered Dreams: an oral history of the South African AIDS epidemic. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Orne-Gliemann, J., Mukotekwa, T., Perez, F., Miller, A., Sakarovitch, C., Glenshaw, M., Engelsmann, B., & Dabis, F. (2006). Improved knowledge and practices among end-users of mother-to-child transmission of HIV prevention services in rural Zimbabwe. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 11(3), 341–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Padian, N. S., van der Straten, A., Ramjee, G., Chipato, T., de Bruyn, G., Blanchard, K., Shiboski, S., Montgomery, E. T., Fancher, H., Cheng, H., Rosenblum, M., van der Laan, M., Jewell, N., & McIntyre, J. (2007). Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIV acquisition in southern African women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 370(9583), 251–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Palombi, L. , Germano, P., Liotta, G., Perno, C., Narciso, P., da Cruz Gomes, A., Valls Blazquez, M., Loureiro S., Ceffa, S., Magnano San Lio, M., Bartolo, M., Guidotti, G., & Marazzi, M. (2005). HAART in Pregnancy: Safety, Effectiveness, and Protection from Viral Resistance: Results from the DREAM Cohort. 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, 22–25 February 2005. Abstract 67.Google Scholar
  120. Parry, C.D.H., Carney, T., Petersen, P., Dewing, S. (May 2007). Technical report: Drug use and sexual HIV risk patterns among non-injecting and injecting drug users in Cape Town, Pretoria and Durban, South Africa. Cape Town, South Africa, Medical Research Council.Google Scholar
  121. Pembrey, G. (2007) HIV and AIDS in Zimbabwe [Web Page]. URL http://www.avert.org/aids-zimbabwe.htm [2007, June 1].
  122. Perez, F., Zvandaziva, C., Engelsmann, B., & Dabis, F. (2006). Acceptability of routine HIV testing ("opt-out") in antenatal services in two rural districts of Zimbabwe. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 41(4), 514–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Pettifor, A. E., Kleinschmidt, I., Levin, J., Rees, H. V., MacPhail, C., Madikizela-Hlongwa, L., Vermaak, K., Napier, G., Stevens, W., & Padian, N. S. (2005a). A community-based study to examine the effect of a youth HIV prevention intervention on young people aged 15–24 in South Africa: results of the baseline survey. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 10, 971–80.Google Scholar
  124. Pettifor, A. E., Rees, H. V., Kleinschmidt, I., Steffenson, A. E., MacPhail, C., Hlongwa-Madikizela, L., Vermaak, K., & Padian, N. S. (2005b). Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey. AIDS, 19(14), 1525–34.Google Scholar
  125. Pettifor, A. E., Hudgens, M. G., Levandowski, B. A., Rees, H. V., & Cohen, M. S. (2007). Highly efficient HIV transmission to young women in South Africa. AIDS, 21(7), 861–5.Google Scholar
  126. Physicians for Human Rights. (2007). Epidemic of Inequality. Women’s Rights and HIV/AIDS in Botswana & Swaziland. An Evidence-Based Report on the Effects of Gender Inequity, Stigma and Discrimination. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Physicians for Human Rights.Google Scholar
  127. Ping, L. H., Nelson, J. A., Hoffman, I. F., Schock, J., Lamers, S. L., Goodman, M., Vernazza, P., Kazembe, P., Maida, M., Zimba, D., Goodenow, M. M., Eron, J. J. Jr., Fiscus, S. A., Cohen, M. S., & Swanstrom, R. (1999). Characterization of V3 sequence heterogeneity in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from Malawi: underrepresentation of X4 variants. Journal of Virology, 73(8), 6271–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Pisani, E., Lazzari, S., Walker, N., & Schwartlander, B. (2003). HIV surveillance: a global perspective. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 32 Suppl 1, S3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Puvimanasinghe, J., Bose, K., Lekone, E., Daman, O., Snyman, C., Marlink, R., Ndwapi, N., & Seipone, K. (2007). Three-Year Survival of a Cohort of Adult Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana. Abstract 928. The 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting of the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief, June 16–19, 2007, Kigali, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  130. Raine, A. E., Ilgren, E. B., Kurtz, J. B., Ledingham, J. G., & Waddell, J. A. (1984). HTLV-III Infection and AIDS in a Zambian nurse resident in Britain. Lancet, 2 (8409), 985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Ramirez, L. (2007). Training in HIV Care for Non Physicians in Mozambique. Abstract 1518. The 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting of the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief, June 16–19, 2007, Kigali, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  132. Ras, G. J., Simson, I. W., Anderson, R., Prozesky, O. W., & Hamersma, T. (1983). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A report of 2 South African cases. South African Medical Journal, 64(4), 140–2.Google Scholar
  133. Rehle, T., Shisana, O., Pillay, V., Zuma, K., Puren, A., & Parker, W. (2007). National HIV incidence measures – new insights into the South African epidemic. South African Medical Journal, 97(3), 194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Reynolds, S. J., Risbud, A. R., Shepherd, M. E., Zenilman, J. M., Brookmeyer, R. S., Paranjape, R. S., Divekar, A. D., Gangakhedkar, R. R., Ghate, M. V., Bollinger, R. C., & Mehendale, S. M. (2003). Recent herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 acquisition in India. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 187(10), 1513–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sandoy, I. F., Michelo, C., Siziya, S., & Fylkesnes, K. (2007). Associations between sexual behaviour change in young people and decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia. BMC Public Health, 7, 60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Schneider H. (2006). Reflections on ART policy and its implementation. In H. C. J. Van Rensburg, & H. Schneider (Editors) Perspectives on public sector antiretroviral access. Acta Academica Supplementum (Vol. 1, pp. 17–44). Bloemfontein, South Africa: University of the Free State Library.Google Scholar
  137. Schouten, E., Chuka, S., Libamba, E., & Makombe, S. (2007). Private Sector Involvement in National Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Malawi. Abstract 68. The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Durban, South Africa. Building on Success: Ensuring Long-Term Solutions June 1215, 2006 • Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  138. Seipone, K. (2006). Trends of HIV Prevalence in Botswana. Gaberone: Department of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care, Botswana Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
  139. Shaikh, N., Abdullah, F., Lombard, C. J., Smit, L., Bradshaw, D., & Makubalo, L. (2006). Masking through averages – intraprovincial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence within the Western Cape. South African Medical Journal, 96(6), 538–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sher, R. (1986). Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the RSA. South African Medical Journal, Suppl, 23–6.Google Scholar
  141. Sher, R. (1989). HIV infection in South Africa, 1982–1988 – a review. South African Medical Journal, 76(7), 314–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sher, R., de Miranda, D.S., Metz, J., Sifris, D., Lyons, S.F., Schoub,B.D. (1986) Lack of evidence of HIV infection in drug abusers at present. South African Medical Journal, 70(12), 776–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Shisana, O. & Simbayi, L. (2002). Nelson Mandela HSRC Study of HIV/AIDS: Full Report. South African national HIV prevalence, behavioural risks and mass media. Household survey 2002. Cape Town: Human Sciences Research Council.Google Scholar
  144. Shisana, O., Rehle, T., Simbayi, L., Parker, W., Zuma, K., Bhana, A., Connolly, C., Jooste, S., & Pillay, V. (2005). South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  145. Siame, D.C., McLanachan, C., Shelley, K. (2002) Expanding access to and demand for quality VCT services in Zambia using an integrated community centred approach. Abstract ThPeF8055. International Conference on AIDS, Barcelona, Spain. July 7–12.Google Scholar
  146. Sidley, P. (2000). Mbeki dismisses "Durban declaration". British Medical Journal, 321(7253), 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Simbayi, L.C., Kalichman,S.C., Cain, D., Cherry, C., Jooste, S., Mathiti, V. (2006) Alcohol and risks for HIV/AIDS among sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa. Substance Abuse, 4:37–43.Google Scholar
  148. Smart, T. (2005). "End denialism now!" 2nd South African AIDS Conference, June 7–10, 2005, Durban. IAPAC Monitor, 11(7), 191–2.Google Scholar
  149. Snipelisky, M., Bolton, K. D., Henney, C., Koll, P., & England, M. (1989). Human Immunodeficiency Virus survey in an obstetrical population. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in South Africa Pretoria: Priorities in Perinatal Care Association of South Africa.Google Scholar
  150. South Africa Department of Health. (2007). HIV and AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007–2011. Pretoria: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  151. Spracklen, F. H., Whittaker, R. G., Becker, W. B., Becker, M. L., Holmes, C. M., & Potter, P. C. (1985). The acquired immune deficiency syndrome and related complex. A report of 2 confirmed cases in Cape Town with comments on human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infections. South African Medical Journal, 68 (3), 139–43.Google Scholar
  152. Statistics South Africa. (2006). Mortality and causes of death in South Africa, 1997–2003. Findings from death notification. Statistical release P0309.3. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.Google Scholar
  153. Stegling, C. (2005). Botswana's HIV/AIDS programme. A Model for SADC? In M. Heywood (Editor), Development update: From disaster to development: HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa. (Vol. 5, Chap. 3, pp. 225–244). Johannesburg: Interfund.Google Scholar
  154. Stewart, R. , Padarath, A., & Bamford, L. (2004). Providing Antiretroviral Treatment in Southern Africa. A Literature Review. Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust.Google Scholar
  155. Stoneburner, R., Montagu, D., Pervilhac, C., Fidzani, B. , Gill, W., Kennedy, G., Spindler, H., & Rutherford, G. (2006). Declines in adult HIV mortality in Botswana, 2003–2005: evidence for an impact of antiretroviral therapy programmes. Abstract THLB0507. Sixteenth International AIDS Conference, 13–18 August 2006, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  156. Stringer, E. M., Sinkala, M., Stringer, J. S., Mzyece, E., Makuka, I., Goldenberg, R. L., Kwape, P., Chilufya, M., & Vermund, S. H. (2003). Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Africa: successes and challenges in scaling-up a nevirapine-based program in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS, 17(9), 1377–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Stringer, J. S., Sinkala, M., Maclean, C. C., Levy, J., Kankasa, C., Degroot, A., Stringer, E. M., Acosta, E. P., Goldenberg, R. L., & Vermund, S. H. (2005). Effectiveness of a city-wide program to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. AIDS, 19 (12), 1309–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Stringer, J., Zulu, I., Stringer, E., & Sinkala, M. (2006). Rapid Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy at Primary Care Sites in Zambia with Support from the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Abstract 234. The 2006 HIV/AIDS Implementers Meeting of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, Durban, South Africa. Building on Success: Ensuring Long-Term Solutions June 12–15, 2006.Google Scholar
  159. Swaziland National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS (NERCHA). (2005). 2003–2005 UNGASS Indicators Country Report. Swaziland: Swaziland National Emergency Response Council.Google Scholar
  160. Swaziland National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS. (2005). National Multisectoral HIV and AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation System Operational Plan. Mbabane, Swaziland: National Emergency Response Council on HIV and AIDS.Google Scholar
  161. Taha, T. E., Biggar, R. J., Broadhead, R. L., Mtimavalye, L. A., Justesen, A. B., Liomba, G. N., Chiphangwi, J. D., & Miotti, P. G. (1997). Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial. British Medical Journal, 315(7102), 216–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Taha, T. E., Kumwenda, N. I., Hoover, D. R., Fiscus, S. A., Kafulafula, G., Nkhoma, C., Nour, S., Chen, S., Liomba, G., Miotti, P. G., & Broadhead, R. L. (2004). Nevirapine and zidovudine at birth to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV in an African setting: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA – the Journal of the American Medical Association, 292(2), 202–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Taha, T. E., Brown, E. R., Hoffman, I. F., Fawzi, W., Read, J. S., Sinkala, M., Martinson, F. E., Kafulafula, G., Msamanga, G., Emel, L., Adeniyi-Jones, S., & Goldenberg, R. (2006). A phase III clinical trial of antibiotics to reduce chorioamnionitis-related perinatal HIV-1 transmission. AIDS, 20(9), 1313–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. The Petra Study Team. (2002). Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double- blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 359(9313), 1178–86.Google Scholar
  165. Trask, S. A., Derdeyn, C. A., Fideli, U., Chen, Y., Meleth, S., Kasolo, F., Musonda, R., Hunter, E., Gao, F., Allen, S., & Hahn, B. H. (2002). Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in a heterosexual cohort of discordant couples in Zambia. Journal of Virology, 76(1), 397–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. UNAIDS. (2005). Evidence for HIV decline in Zimbabwe: A comprehensive review of the epidemiological data. UNAIDS/05.26E. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.Google Scholar
  167. UNAIDS. (2006a). 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  168. UNAIDS. (2006b). AIDS epidemic update: special report on HIV/AIDS: December 2006. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  169. UNAIDS, UNICEF, & World Health Organization. (2007). Children and AIDS: A stocktaking report Actions and progress during the first year of Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  170. UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates. (2005). Statement on the use of the BED-assay for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence for surveillance or epidemic monitoring. Geneva: UNAIDS.Google Scholar
  171. United Nations Secretariat. (2003). The Impact of AIDS. New York, NY: United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.Google Scholar
  172. Van der Merwe, K., Chersich, M. F., Technau, K., Umurungi, Y., Conradie, F., & Coovadia, A. (2006). Integration of Antiretroviral Treatment Within Antenatal Care in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 43(5), 577–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. van Harmelen, J., van der Ryst, E., Wood, R., Lyons, S. F., & Williamson, C. (1999). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for rapid gag subtype determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in South Africa. Journal of Virology Methods, 78(1–2)Google Scholar
  174. van Harmelen, J., Wood, R., Lambrick, M., Rybicki, E. P., Williamson, A. L., & Williamson, C. (1997). An association between HIV-1 subtypes and mode of transmission in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS, 11(1), 81–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. van Harmelen, J., Williamson, C., Kim, B., Morris, L., Carr, J., Karim, S. S., & McCutchan, F. (2001). Characterization of full-length HIV type 1 subtype C sequences from South Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 17(16), 1527–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Vaz, P., Lain, M. G., Macassa, E., Quive, C. F., Rungo, M. L., Thome, B., Abrans, E. J., & Hoos, D. (2007). Scaling Up Pediatric Hiv Care: A Multimodel Care Approach In Mozambique. Abstract 766. The 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting of the President's Emergency Fund for AIDS Relief, June 16–19, 2007, Kigali, Rwanda.Google Scholar
  177. Wald, A., & Link, K. (2002). Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185(1), 45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Weiser, S. D., Heisler, M., Leiter, K., Percy-de Korte, F., Tlou, S., DeMonner, S., Phaladze, N., Bangsberg, D. R., & Iacopino, V. (2006a). Routine HIV testing in Botswana: a population-based study on attitudes, practices, and human rights concerns. PLoS Medicine, 3 (7), e261.Google Scholar
  179. Weiser, S. D., Leiter, K., Heisler, M., McFarland, W., Percy-de Korte, F., DeMonner, S. M., Tlou, S., Phaladze, N., Iacopino, V., & Bangsberg, D. R. (2006b). A population-based study on alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviors in Botswana. PLoS Medicine, 3(10), e392.Google Scholar
  180. Williams, P.G., Ansell, S.M., Milne, F.J (1997). Illicit intravenous drug use in Johannesburg--medical complications and prevalence of HIV infection. South African Medical Journal, 87(7), 889–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Williams, B.G., Taljaard, D., Campbell ,C.M., Gouws, E., Ndhlovu, L., Van Dam, J., Carael, M., Auvert, B.(2003) Changing patterns of knowledge, reported behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in a South African gold mining community. AIDS, 17(14), 2099–107.Google Scholar
  182. Williamson, C., Engelbrecht, S., Lambrick, M., van Rensburg, E. J., Wood, R., Bredell, W., & Williamson, A. L. (1995). HIV-1 subtypes in different risk groups in South Africa. Lancet, 346 (8977), 782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Wolfe, W. R., Weiser, S. D., Bangsberg, D. R., Thior, I., Makhema, J. M., Dickinson, D. B., Mompati, K. F., & Marlink, R. G. (2006). Effects of HIV-related stigma among an early sample of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. AIDS Care, 18(8), 931–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. World Health Organization. (2006a). Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants in resource-limited settings: towards universal access. Recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  185. World Health Organization. (2006b). Towards universal access by 2010 : How WHO is working with countries to scale-up HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  186. World Health Organization. (2006c). Treat, train, retain : the AIDS and health workforce plan : report on the Consultation on AIDS and Human Resources for Health, WHO, Geneva, 11–12 May, 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  187. World Health Organization. (2006d). The world health report 2006: working together for health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  188. World Health Organization. (2007). Towards universal access: scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector: progress report, April 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  189. Yersin, I., Langa, J., Langa, M., Tsiouris, F., Adriano, H., Arakaki, D., & Trottier, F. (2007). Moving from Single Dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) to More Complex Regimens in PMTCT Programs. Abstract 597. The 2007 HIV/AIDS Implementers’ Meeting, June 16–19, 2007.Google Scholar
  190. Zachariah, R., Teck, R., Buhendwa, L., Fitzerland, M., Labana, S., Chinji, C., Humblet, P., & Harries, A. D. (2007). Community support is associated with better antiretroviral treatment outcomes in a resource-limited rural district in Malawi. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101(1), 79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Alasdair McIntyre
    • 1
  • Guy de Bruyn
    • 1
  • Glenda Elisabeth Gray
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations