Advertisement

The Situation in the Cradle of AIDS: Congo and Central Africa

  • Marie Laga
  • Richard Matendo
  • Ann Buvé

Keywords

Sexually Transmitted Infection Male Circumcision Central African Republic Medecins Sans Frontier Population Service International 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Anderson, R.M., May, R.M., Boily, M.C., Garnett, G.P., & Rowley, J.T. (1991). The spread of HIV-1 in Africa: sexual contact patterns and the predicted demographic impact of AIDS. Nature, 352, 581–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bangendanye, L., Ngabonziza, M., & Murray, D. (2004). Increasing the success of PMTCT programs: an experience from Rwanda. International Conference on AIDS, July 11–16;15: abstract no. ThPeB7101.Google Scholar
  3. Bassirou, B, Tsague, L., Menyeng, L., Eyong, C., Engozo’o, A., Bungo, J.P., Koulla, S., Tardy, M., Mbitongui, M., Totouom, A., & Zekeng, L. (2004). Synergy between VCT and HAART availability across Cameroon success and challenges. International Conference on AIDS, July 11–16;15: abstract no. TuPeE5386.Google Scholar
  4. Bazabana, M., Loukaka, J.C., & M’Pele, P. (1995). Evolution de la sérosurveillance de l’infection à VIH chez les femmes enceintes au Congo de 1990 à 1993. IXth International Conference on AIDS and STD in Africa. Kampala, Uganda, 10–14 December 1995. Poster MoC497.Google Scholar
  5. Bikandou, B., Takehisa, J., Mboudjeka, I., Ido, E., Kuwata, T., Miyazaki, Y., Moriyama, H., Harada, Y., Taniguchi, Y., Ichimura, H., Ikeda, M., Ndolo, P.J., Nzoukoudi, M.Y., M'Vouenze, R., M'Pandi, M., Parra, H.J., M'Pele, P., & Hayami, M. (2000). Genetic subtypes of HIV type 1 in Republic of Congo. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Journal, 16, 613–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bucyendore, A., Van de Perre, P., Karita, E., Nziyumvira, A., Sow, I., & Fox, E. (1993). Estimating the seroincidence of HIV-1 in the general adult population in Kigali, Rwanda. AIDS, 7, 275–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bugingo, G., Ntilivamunda, A., Nzaramba, D., et al. Nog auteurs toevoegen (1988). Etude sur la séropositivité liée à l’infection au virus de l’immunodéficience humaine au Rwanda. Revue Médicale Rwandaise, 20, 37–42.Google Scholar
  8. Buvé, A., Caraël, M., Hayes, R.J., Auvert, B., Ferry, B., Robinson, N.J., Anagonou, S., Kanhonou, L., Laourou, M., Abega, S., Akam, E., Zekeng, L., Chege, J., Kahindo, M., Rutenberg, N., Kaona, F., Musonda, R., Sukwa, T., Morison, L., Weiss, H.A., & Laga, M. (2001a). Multicentre study on factors determining differences in rate of spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: methods and prevalence of HIV infection. AIDS, supplement 4, S5–S14.Google Scholar
  9. Buvé, A., Caraël, M., Hayes, R.J., Auvert, B., Ferry, B., Robinson, N.J., Anagonou, S., Kanhonou, L., Laourou, M., Abega, S., Akam, E., Zekeng, L., Chege, J., Kahindo, M., Rutenberg, N., Kaona, F., Musonda, R., Sukwa, T., Morison, L., Weiss, H.A., & Laga, M. (2001b). Multicentre study on factors determining differences in rate of spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: summary and conclusions. AIDS, supplement 4, S127–S131.Google Scholar
  10. Central Intelligence Agency (2007). CIA- The World Factbook (Accessed December 30, 2007). https://www.cia/gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/
  11. Chen, Z., Telfier, P., Gettie, A., Reed, P., Zhang, L., Ho, D.D., & Marx P.A. (1996). Genetic characterization of new West African simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm: geographic clustering of household-derived SIV strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop. The Journal of Virology, 70, 3617–27.Google Scholar
  12. Clumeck, N., Mascart-Lemone, F., De Maubeuge, J., Brenez, D., & Marcelis, L. (1983). Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in black Africans. Lancet, 1, 642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Clumeck, N., Sonnet, J., Taelman, H., Mascart-Lemone, F., De Bruyere, M., Vandeperre, P., Dasnoy, J., Marcelis, L., Lamy, M., & Jonas, C. (1984). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in African patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 310, 8, 492–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, J. (1997). The rise and fall of Project SIDA. Science, 278, 5343, 1565–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Delaporte, E., Janssens, W., Peeters, M., Buvé, A., Dibanga, G., Perret, J.L., Ditsambou, V., Mba, J.R., Courbot, M.C., Georges, A., Bourgeois, A., Samb, B., Henzel, D., Heyndrickx, L., Fransen, K., van der Groen, G., & Larouze, B. (1996). Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of HIV infection in Gabon, 1986–1994. AIDS, 10, 8, 903–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Denolf, D., Musongela, J.P., Nzila, N., Tahiri, M., & Colebunders, R. (2001). The HIV epidemic in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 12, 832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Donovan, P. (2002). Rape and HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. Lancet, 360, supplement, S17–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Druce, N., & Nolan, A. (2007). Seizing the big missed opportunity: Linking HIV and maternity care services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 15, 190–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferry, B., Carael, M., Buvé, A., Auvert, B., Laourou, M., Kanhonou, L., de Loenzien, M., Akam, E., Chege, J., & Kaona, F. (2001). Comparison of key parameters of sexual behaviour in four African urban populations with different levels of HIV infection. AIDS, supplement 4, S41–S50.Google Scholar
  20. Freeman, E.E., Orroth, K.K., White, R.G., Glynn, J.R., Bakker, R., Boily, M.C., Habbema, D., Buvé, A., & Hayes, R. (2007). Proportion of new HIV infections attributable to HSV- 2 increases over time: simulations of the changing role of sexually transmitted infections in sub-Saharan African HIV epidemics. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83, i17–i24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao, F., Yue, L., Craig, S., Thornton, C.L., Robertson, D.L., McCutchan, F.E., Bradac, J.A., Sharp, P.M., & Hahn, B.H. (1994). Genetic variation of HIV type 1 in four World Health Organization-sponsored vaccine evaluation sites: generation of functional envelope (glycoprotein 160) clones representative of sequence subtypes A, B, C, and E. WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Journal, 10, 1359–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garcia-Calleja, J.M., Gouw, E., & Ghys, P.D. (2006). National population based HIV prevalence surveys in sub-Saharan Africa: results and implications for HIV and AIDS estimates. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82, supplement 3, iii64–iii70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Glynn, J.R., Buvé, A., Caraël, M., Kahindo, M., Macauley, I.B., Musonda, R.M., Jungmann, E., Tembo, F., & Zekeng, L. (2000). Decreased fertility among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in three African cities. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 25, 4, 345–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gottlieb, M.S., Schroff, R., Schanker, H.M., Weisman, J.D., Fan, P.T., Wolf, R.A., & Saxon, A. (1981). Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men. Evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 1425–1431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Grésenguet, G., Séhonou, J., Bassirou, B., de Dieu Longo, J., Malkin, J., Brogan, T., & Belec, L. (2002). Voluntary HIV counseling and testing: Experience among the sexually active population in Bangui, Central African Republic. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 31, 106–114.Google Scholar
  26. IFC Against AIDS 2003. Congo Brazza. (Accessed December 28, 2007).www.ifc.org/ifcext/aids.nsf/AttachmentsByTitle/CongoBrazza/$FILE/Congo Brazza.doc
  27. IRIN (2007). Country Profile: Burundi, Cameroon. (Accessed December 30, 2007). www.plusnews.org/country-profile.aspx
  28. Kayirangwa, E., Hanson, J., Munyakazi, L., & Kabeja, A. (2006). Current trends in Rwanda's HIV/AIDS epidemic. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 82, supplement 1, i27–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Laga, M., Alary, M., Nzila, N., Manoka, A.T., Tuliza, M., Behets, F., Goeman, J., St Louis, M., & Piot, P. (1994). Condom promotion, sexually transmitted diseases treatment, and declining incidence of HIV-1 infection in female Zairian sex workers. Lancet, 344, 246–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Magazani, K., Laleman, G., Perriens, J.H., Kizonde, K., Mukendi, K., Mpungu, M., Badibanga, N., & Piot, P. (1993). Low and stable HIV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Shaba province, Zaire. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 6, 419–23.Google Scholar
  31. Makuwa, M., Souquiere, S., Apetrei, C., Tevi-Benissan, C., Bedjabaga, I., & Simon, F. (2000). HIV prevalence and strain diversity in Gabon: the end of a paradox. AIDS, 14, 1275–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Matovu, J.K.B., & Makumbi, F.E. (2007). Expanding access to voluntary HIV counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa: alternative approaches for improving uptake, 2001–2007. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12, 1315–1322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Matsika-Claquin, M.D., Massanga, M., Menard, D., Mazi-Nzapako, J., Tenegbia, J.P., Mandeng, M.J., Willybiro-Sacko, J., Fontanet, A., & Talarmin, A. (2004). HIV epidemic in Central African Republic: high prevalence rates in both rural and urban areas. Journal of Medical Virology, 72, 3, 358–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mbopi Keou, F.X., Mbu, R., Mauclere, P., Andela, A., Tetanye, E., Leke, R., Chaouat, G., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Martin, P., & Belec, L. (1998). Antenatal HIV prevalence in Yaounde, Cameroon. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 9, 400–2.Google Scholar
  35. Morison, L., Buvé, A., Zekeng, L., Heyndrickx, L., Anagonou, S., Musonda, R., Kahindo, M., Weiss, H.A., Hayes, R.J., Laga, M., Janssens, W., & Van der Groen, G. (2001). HIV-1 Subtypes and the HIV Epidemics in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS, supplement 4, S109–16.Google Scholar
  36. Mulanga-Kabeya, C., Nzilambi, N., Edidi, B., Minlangu, M., Tshimpaka, T., Kambembo, L., Atibu, L., Mama, N., Ilunga, W., Sema, H., Tshimanga, K., Bongo, B., Peeters, M., & Delaporte, E. (1998). Evidence of stable HIV seroprevalences in selected populations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. AIDS, 12, 905–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mulanga, C., Bazepeo, S.E., Mwamba, J.K., Butel, C., Tshimpaka, J.W., Kashi, M., Lepira, F., Caraël, M., Peeters, M., & Delaporte, E. (2004). Political and socioeconomic instability: how does it affect HIV? A case study in the Democratic Republic of Congo. AIDS, 18, 832–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Muller-Trutwin, M.C., Chaix, M.L., Letourneur, F., Begaud, E., Beaumont, D., Deslandres, A., You, B., Morvan, J., Mathiot, C., Barre-Sinoussi, F., & Saragosti, S. (1999). Increase of HIV-1 subtype A in Central African Republic. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 21, 164–71.Google Scholar
  39. Nahmias, A.J., Weiss, J., Yao, X., Lee, F., Kodsi, R., Schanfield, M., Matthews, T., Bolognesi, D., Durack, D., & Motulsky, A. (1986). Evidence for human infection with HTLV III/LAV-like virus in Central Africa. Lancet, 2, 1279–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nationwide community-based serological survey of HIV-1 and other human retrovirus infections in a central African country. Rwandan HIV Seroprevalence Study Group. (1989). Lancet, 1, 941–3.Google Scholar
  41. Ndongmo, C.B., Pieniazek, D., Holberg-Petersen, M., Holm-Hansen, C., Zekeng, L., Jeansson, S.L., Kaptue, L., & Kalish, M.L. (2006). HIV genetic diversity in Cameroon: possible public health importance. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Journal, 22, 812–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. N’Galy, B., Ryder, R., Francis, H. et al. (1988). IVth International Conference on AIDS. Stockholm, Sweden, 13–14 June 1988. Poster 5632.Google Scholar
  43. Niyongabo, T., Ndayiragije, A., Larouzé, B., & Aubry, P. (2005). Burundi: l’impact de dix années de guerre civile sur les endémo-épidémies. Médecine Tropicale, 2005, 65, 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Orroth, K.K., Freeman, E.E., Bakker, R., Buvé, A., Glynn, J.R., Boily, M.C., White, R.G., Habbema, J.D., & Hayes, R.J. (2007). Understanding the differences between contrasting HIV epidemics in east and West Africa: results from a simulation model of the Four Cities Study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 83, i5–i16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Piot, P., Quinn,T.C., Taelman, H., Feinsod, F.M., Minlangu, K.B., Wobin, O., Mbendi, N., Mazebo, P., Ndangi, K., & Stevens, W. (1984). Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrom in a heterosexual population in Zaïre. Lancet, 2, 65–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Plan Stratégique National de Lutte contre le VIH/SIDA et les MST, République du Burundi, 1999–2003.Google Scholar
  47. Programme National de Lutte contre le SIDA, 1997. Population based serosurvey. Kigali: Ministry of Health, PNLS.Google Scholar
  48. Rijckborst, H., Wesseling, J.L., Van der Borght, S.F., Van Mameren, J.H., De Man, T.A., Lange, J.M., Home, J.L., & Ruys, A. (2004). Heineken’s HIV/AIDS policy, the contribution of a private company. International Conference on AIDS, July 11–16;15: abstract no. MoPeE4155.Google Scholar
  49. Sam-Abbenyi, A., Garcia Calleja, J.M., Zekeng, L., et al. Welke auteurs nog? (1993). HIV sentinel surveillance among pregnant women in six provinces in Cameroon, 1989–1992. VIIIth International Conference on AIDS in Africa. Marrakech, Morocco, 12–16 December 1993. Abstract Th.P.C.069.Google Scholar
  50. Serwadda, D., Mugerwa, R.D., Sewankambo, N.K., Lwegaba, A., Carswell, J.W., Kirya, G.B., Bayley, A.C., Downing, R.G., Tedder, R.S., & Clayden, S.A. (1985). Slim disease: a new disease in Uganda and its association with HTLV-III infection. Lancet, 2, 849–852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sokal, D.C., Buzingo, T., Nitunga, N., Kadende, P., & Standaert, B. (1993). Geographic and temporal stability of HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women in Bujumbura, Burundi. AIDS, 7, 1481–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Spiegel, P.B., Bennedsen, A.R., Claass, J., Bruns, L., Patterson, N., Yiweza, D., & Schilperoord, M. (2007). Prevalence of HIV infection in conflict-affected and displaced people in seven sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review. Lancet, 369, 2187–2195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tsague, L. (2005). Can we scale up PMTCT programs in low resource settings?: Lessons learned and challenges from Cameroon’s experience. Third International IAS Conference on Pathogenesis and Treatment, July 24–27. (Accessed December 29, 2007) http://www.ias-2005.org/planner/Presentations/ppt/2381.ppt
  54. UNAIDS (2006). Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. A UNAIDS 10th anniversary special edition. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2006.Google Scholar
  55. UNAIDS (2007). Country Situation Analysis- Burundi, Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo (Republic of); Gabon; Rwanda (Accessed December 30, 2007); http://www.UNAIDS.org/en/CountryResponses.
  56. UNICEF (2005). PMTCT Report Card: Monitoring Progress on the Implementation of Programs to Prevent Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (Accessed December 30, 2007). www.uniteforchildren.org/knowmore/files/ufc_PMTCTreportcard.pdf
  57. USAID (2006). Men are the “secret ingredient” in Rwandan PMTCT Program. (Accessed December 29, 2007). www.usaid-rwanda.rw
  58. Van de Perre, P., Rouvroy, D., Lepage, P., Bogaerts, J., Kestelyn, P., Kayihigi, J., Hekker, A.C., Butzler, J.P., & Clumeck, N. (1984). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Rwanda. Lancet, 2, 62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Van de Perre, P., Clumeck, N., Carael, M., Nzabihimana, E., Robert-Guroff, M., De Mol, P., Freyens, P., Butzler, J.P., Gallo, R.C., Kanyamupira, J.B. (1985). Female prostitutes: a risk group for infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III. Lancet, 2, 524–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Vandepitte, J.M., Malele, F., Kivuvu, D.M., Edidi, S., Muwonga, J., Lepira, F., Abdellati, S., Kabamba, J., Van Overloop, C., & Buvé, A. (2007). HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, in 2002. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34, 203–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Van Heuverswyn, F., Li, Y., Neel, C., Bailes, E., Keele, B.F., Liu, W., Loul, S., Butel, C., Liegeois, F., Bienvenue, Y., Ngolle, E.M., Sharp, P.M., Shaw, G.M., Delaporte, E., Hahn, B.H., & Peeters, M. (2006). Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas. Nature, 444, 164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Vidal, N., Peeters, M., Mulanga-Kabeya, C., Nzilambi, N., Robertson, D., Ilunga, W., Sema, H., Tshimanga, K., Bongo, B., & Delaporte, E. (2000). Unprecedented degree of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M genetic diversity in the Democratic Republic of Congo suggests that the HIV-1 pandemic originated in Central Africa. The Journal of Virology, 74, 10498–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vidal, N., Niyongabo, T., Nduwimana, J., Butel, C., Ndayiragije, A., Wakana, J., Nduwimana, M., Delaporte, E., & Peeters, M. (2007). HIV type 1 diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Burundi. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses Journal, 23, 175–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wanyu, B., Diom, E., Mitchell, P., Tih, P.M., & Meyer, D.J. (2007). Birth attendants trained in “Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission” provide care in rural Cameroon. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 52, 334–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Welty, T.K., Bulterys, M., Welty, E.R, Tih, P. M., Ndikintum, G., Nkuoh, G., Nkfusai, J., Kayita, J., Nkengasong, J.N., & Wilfert, C. (2005) Integrating prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission into routine antenatal care. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 40, 486–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. World Health Organization (2005). Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up: Central African Republic. (Accessed December 31, 2007) www.who.int/hiv/HIVCP_CAF.pdf
  67. World Health Organization (2006). Rwanda Epidemiological Fact Sheet (Accessed December 30, 2007); www.who.int/globalatlas/predefinedReports/ EFS2006/EFS_PDFs/EFS2006_RW.pdf
  68. World Health Organization (2007). Towards universal access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector. Progress Report, April, 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  69. Zekeng, L., Affana, G., Bela, M., Ateba, A., Mossoko, J.J., Njom Niend, A., Tsague, L., Bassirou, B., Menyeng, L., Gnaore, E;, Dillow, A., & Atangana, N. (2004). Scaling-up HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Cameroon: Lessons learned by the National AIDS Control Committee (NAC). International Conference on AIDS, July 11–16;15: abstract no. TuPeE5320.Google Scholar
  70. Zhu, T., Korber, B.T., Nahmias, A.J., Hooper, E., Sharp, P.M., & Ho, D.D. (1998). An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic. Nature, 391, 6667, 594–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie Laga
    • 1
  • Richard Matendo
    • 2
  • Ann Buvé
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Tropical MedicineAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.Democratic Republic CongoHôpital Général de Kinshasa

Personalised recommendations