Advertisement

Entrepreneurship and Small Business Policies under the Presidential Administrations of Presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush and Clinton: 1977 to 2001

  • Linda Le
Part of the International Studies in Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN, volume 17)

Abstract

The author surveys the entrepreneurial and small business policies from Carter through Clinton, evaluating each based on how they fostered entrepreneurship, or small business ownership, and if these policies seek to create economic efficiency or target market equity for specific groups. It provides a theoretical framework for analyzing each administration’s major small business and entrepreneurship policies and examines each policy’s overall effects on small business and entrepreneurial activities, its qualifications as a target market equity or economic efficiency policy, and the policy’s beneficiaries. This discussion should provide policy makers, researchers, and academics the ability to recognize the types of policies which best foster entrepreneurial and small business activities, and also encourage policy makers to pursue these types of policies.

Keywords

Technology Transfer Small Business Economic Efficiency Business Owner Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

2.9 References

  1. Acs Zoltan J and Audertsch David (May 3, 2001) The Emergence of the Entrepreneurial Society. Presentation for the acceptance of the 2001 International Award for Entrepreship and Small Business Research. StockholmGoogle Scholar
  2. Auerswald Philip E and Branscomb Lewis M (2003) From Start-ups and Spinoffs: Collective Entrepreneurship Between and Innovation in The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy, ed. Hart David. New York, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  3. Auerswald Philip E (May 7, 2006) The simple economics of technology entrepreneurship: Market failure reconsidered. George Mason UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. Black Sandra E, Strahan Philip E (2004) Business Formation and the Deregulation of the Banking Industry, in Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship eds. Holtz-Eakin Douglas, Rosen Harvey S. Cambridge, MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  5. Bremer Howard W (1998) University Technology Transfer: Evolution and Revolution. Council on Governmental Relations. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  6. Bush George H W (February 6, 1990) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1990 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006.)
  7. Bush George H W (February 12, 1991) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1991 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June, 1 2006).
  8. Bush George H W (January 13, 1993) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1993 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  9. Carter Jimmy (January 20, 1978) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1978 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June, 1 2006.)
  10. Carter Jimmy (January 30, 1980-a) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1980 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  11. Carter Jimmy (October 21, 1980-b) "Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980" statement on signing S.1250 into law. The American Presidency Project, www.americanpresidency.org (accessed October 11, 2006).
  12. Carter Jimmy (January 17, 1981) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1981 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  13. Clinton William (December 15, 1993) The President's News Conference. The American Presidency Project. From www.americanpresidency.org (accessed on October 18, 2006).
  14. Clinton William (February 13, 1995) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1995 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  15. Clinton William (October 8, 1998) White House Archives, Presidential Statement on passage of the Internet Tax Freedom Act, Office of the Press Secretary. From http://govinfo.libary.unt.edu/npr/library/news/10898.html (accessed October 16, 2006).
  16. Colorado State University Research Foundation Technology Transfer Office (1999) What is Bayh-Dole and why is it important to Technology Transfer. Fort Collins. From http://www.csurf.org/enews/baydole_403.html (accessed October 11, 2006.)
  17. Budget Office (May 2003) The Effects of NAFTA on U.S. Mexican Trade and GDP. Washington D.C. From http://www.cbo.gov (accessed October, 12, 2006.)
  18. Cooney Stephen, Gleb Bernard, Pirog, Robert (September 9, 2005) Manufacturing Trends: Long Term Context for Today's Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, RL32179. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  19. Crain W Mark (September 2005) The Impact of Regulatory Costs on Small Firms. SBA Office of Advocacy, No. 264. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  20. De Rugy Veronique (April 6, 2006) The Effectiveness of the Small Business Administration. Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. 109th Congress. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  21. General Accounting Office (July 2003) Technology Transfer: Agencies' rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions. GAO-03-536. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  22. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (2004) Babson Park, MA, Babson College and the London Business SchoolGoogle Scholar
  23. Gompers Paul A (Winter 1994) The Rise and Fall of Venture Capital. Business and Economic History, 23 no. 2Google Scholar
  24. Hart, David M (2003) Entrepreneurship Policy: What it is and Where it Came from in The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Policy, ed. Hart, David. New York, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  25. InflationData.com. "Historical Inflation Data from 1914 to the Present." Based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics consumer price index with 1982 base of 100. From http://www.inflationdata.com/inflation/ (accessed on October 11, 2006).
  26. Lichtenberg Frank R (2004) Public Policy and Innovation in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry in Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship eds. Holtz-Eakin Douglas, Rosen Harvey S. Cambridge. MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Morris Fransico (July, 2005) The U.S. Research and Experimentation Tax Credit in the 1990s. Info Brief Science Resources Statistics, National Science Foundation. NSF05-316. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  28. Mossinghoff Gerald J (1998) Overview of the Hatch-Waxman Act and Its Impact on the Drug Development Process. J Food and Drug Law 54Google Scholar
  29. National Academies (2004) National Research Council SBIR Program Diversity and Assessment Challenges, Report of a Symposium. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Nicholson Walter (2005) Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principals and Extensions. Mason, Thompson South-WesternGoogle Scholar
  31. Pulham Elliot G (March 1, 2006) A Day Without Space from The Case for Space. From www.spacefoundation.org (accessed October 9, 2006).
  32. Reagan Ronald (February 2, 1983) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1983 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  33. Reagan Ronald (February 19, 1988) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1988 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006.
  34. Reagan Ronald (January 10, 1989) Economic Report of the President. Accompanying the 1989 Council of Economic Advisors Report to Congress. Washington, D.C. From http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/publications/ERP/ (accessed June 1, 2006).
  35. Wendy (August 3, 2006) Manufacturing Extension Partnership Program: An Overview. Congressional Research Service. 97-104. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  36. Schramm Carl J (January 6, 2006-a) Entrepreneurial Capitalism and the End of Bureaucracy: Reforming the Mutual Dialog of Risk Aversion. American Economic Association 2006 Meeting. Boston Massachusetts. From http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_0304.pdf (accessed on October, 6, 2006).
  37. Schramm Carl J (April 8, 2006-b) Making the Turn: Entrepreneurial Capitalism and its European Promise. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Kansas City From http://www.kaufman.org (accessed on October 6, 2006).
  38. Small Business Act and Small Business Investment Act of 1958: Compilation. 109th Congress. 2nd ed, Committee Print. S.Prt 106-62. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  39. THOMAS.gov. 98th Congress, Library of Congress. National Cooperative Research Act of 1984. S. 1841. Washington D.C. From http://thomas.loc.gov (accessed October 12, 2006).
  40. THOMAS.gov. 99th Congress, Library of Congress. Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. H.R. 3773. Washington D.C. From http:// thomas.loc.gov (accessed on October 13, 2006).
  41. THOMAS. gov. 100th Congress, Library of Congress. National Institute of Standards and Technology Authorization of 1989. H.R. 4417. Washington D.C. From http://thomas.loc.gov (accessed on October 15, 2006).
  42. THOMAS.gov. 101st Congress, Library of Congress. Fiscal Year 1991 Department of Defense Authorizations. H.R. 4739. Washington D.C. From http:// thomas.loc.gov (accessed on October 15, 2006.)
  43. THOMAS.gov. 102nd Congress Library of Congress. Small Business Research and Development Enchancement Act of 1992. S. 2941. Washington D.C. From http://thomas.loc.gov (accessed on October 15, 2006).
  44. THOMAS.gov. 103rd Congress, Library of Congress. Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994. H.R. 3841. Washington D.C. From http://thomas.loc.gov (accessed October 16, 2006).
  45. THOMAS.gov. 105th Congress, Library of Congress. Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997. S. 1139. Washington D.C. From http://thomas.loc.gov (accessed on October 16, 2006).
  46. THOMAS. gov. 105th Congress, Library of Congress. Internet Tax Freedom Act of 1998. S. 442 became part of H.R. 4328. Washington D.C. From http:// thomas.loc.gov (accessed October 16, 2006).
  47. Turner James (Spring 2006) The Next Innovation Revolution: Laying the Groundwork for the United States. Innovations, MIT Press Journals. From http://www.mitpress.mit.edu/innovations (accessed on October 9, 2006.)
  48. Turner Network Television (1999) Pirates of Silicone ValleyGoogle Scholar
  49. United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1977 to 2006. Not seasonally adjusted unemployment rate - series id: LNU04000000. From http://www.data.bls.gov (accessed October 10, 2006).
  50. United States Department of the Treasury. History of the U.S. Tax System: Fact Sheet: Taxes. Washington D.C. From http://www.ustreas.gov/education /factsheets/taxes/ustax.shtml (accessed on October 15, 2006).
  51. United States Small Business Administration. (2004) Overview and History of the SBA: 50 Years of Service to America's Small Business, 1953-2003. From www. sba.gov (accessed September 7, 2006).
  52. United States Small Business Administration. Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, P.L. 96-354. From http://www.sba.gov/ advo/regflex.html (accessed October 11, 2006).
  53. United States Small Business Administration: Office of Advocacy (March 29,1996) The Small Business Regulatory Fairness Act, Title II, P.L.104-121. From http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/sbrefa .html (access on October 16, 2006).
  54. Weiss Eric N (January 20, 2006) Small Business Administration: Primer on Programs. Congressional Research Service, RL33243. Washington D.C.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda Le
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Public PolicyThe George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations