Advertisement

Photobiology pp 479-502 | Cite as

Phototoxicity

  • Lars Olof Björn
  • Pirjo Huovinen

Abstract

Phototoxicity occurs when a substance is toxic only under the action of light and can, depending on the mechanism of toxic action, be divided into type I and type II phototoxicity. Other types are sometimes recongnized, and sometimes toxicity occurs through more than one mechanism. Plants often use phototoxins for their defense. They may be harmful to humans, but may also be exploited for medical treatments. On the other hand, drugs selected for other properties may show unwanted phototoxicity. Some fungi produce phototoxins. Due to other kinds of poisoning or to disease, even the human or animal body may produce phototoxins and be harmed by them. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), widespread environmental contaminants, have a potential to become toxic or acquire increased toxicity when they interact with natural or simulated sunlight. Because of their chemical structure numerous PAHs absorb energy in the UV waveband. Phototoxicity of PAHs occurs mainly via photosensitization and/or photomodification reactions: photosensitization reactions of bioaccumulated PAHs in biological matrices are regarded as important mechanisms for phototoxicity, but PAHs may also be photomodified into more toxic form, e.g., via photooxidation. Phototoxicity of PAHs has been demonstrated in a variety of aquatic organisms, responses ranging from acute lethality to chronic effects. However, a variety of factors affecting the exposure of organisms to PAHs and to UV radiation, as well as interactions between multiple environmental factors and stressors present in natural conditions, complicate the risk assessment for phototoxicity.

Keywords

Fathead Minnow Tiaprofenic Acid Aquatic High Plant Hepatic Porphyria Northern Leopard Frog 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allred, P.M. and Giesy, J.P. (1985) Solar radiation-induced toxicity of anthracene to Daphnia pulex. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 4, 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ankley, G.T., Collyard, S.A., Monson, P.D. and Kosian, P.A. (1994) Influence of ultraviolet light on the toxicity of sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13, 1791–1796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ankley, G.T., Erickson, R.J., Phipps, G.L., Mattson, V.R., Kosian, P.A., Sheedy, B.R. and Cox, J.S. (1995) Effects of light intensity on the phototoxicity of fluoranthene to a benthic macroinvertebrate. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 2828–2833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ankley, G.T., Erickson, R.J., Sheedy, B.R., Kosian, P.A., Mattson, V.R. and Cox, J.S. (1997) Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Aquat. Toxicol. 37, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arfsten, D.P., Schaeffer, D.J. and Mulveny, D.C. (1996) The effects of near ultraviolet radiation on the toxic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animals and plants: a review. Ecotox. Environ. Saf. 33, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barron, M.G., Little, E.E., Calfee, R. and Diamond, S. (2000) Quantifying solar spectral irradiance in aquatic habitats for the assessment of photoenhanced toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 920–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barron, M.G., Carls, M.G., Short, J.W. and Rice, S.D. (2003) Photoenhanced toxicity of aqueous phase and chemically dispersed weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to Pacific herring eggs and larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22, 650–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barron, M.C., Carls, M.G., Short, J.W., Rice, S.D., Heintz, R.A., Rau, M. and DiGiulio, R. (2005) Assessment of the phototoxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to juvenile pink salmon. Chemosphere 60, 105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boese, B.L., Lamberson, J.O., Swartz, R.C. and Ozretich, R.J. (1997) Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to seven marine benthic crustaceans. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 32, 389–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boese, B.L., Lamberson, J.O., Swartz, R.C., Ozretich, R. and Cole, F. (1998) Photoinduced toxicity of PAHs and alkylated PAHs to a marine infaunal amphipod (Rhepoxynius abronius). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34, 235–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boese, B.L., Ozretich, R.J., Lamberson, J.O., Swartz, R.C., Cole, F.A., Pelletier, J. and Jones, J. (1999) Toxicity and phototoxicity of mixtures of highly lipophilic PAH compounds in marine sediment: Can the ∑PAH model be extrapolated? Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 36, 270–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boese, B.L., Ozretich, R.J., Lamberson, J.O., Cole, F.A., Swartz, R.C. and Ferraro, S.P. (2000) Phototoxic evaluation of marine sediments collected from a PAH-contaminated site. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 38, 274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boule, P., Bolte, M. and Richard, C. (1999) Phototransformations induced in aquatic media by NO3 -/NO2 -, Fe^III and humic substances. In: P. Boule (Ed.), The handbook of environmental chemistry. Vol. 2 Part I. Environmental photochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 181–215.Google Scholar
  14. Bowling, J.W., Leversee, G.J., Landrum, P.F. and Giesy, J.P. (1983) Acute mortality of anthracene-contaminated fish exposed to sunlight. Aquat. Toxicol. 3, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bridges, D.H., Camp, B.J., Liningston, C.W., and Bailey, E.M. (1988) Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) poisoning in sheep. Vet. Path. 24, 525–531.Google Scholar
  16. Casteel, S.W., Rottinghaus, G.E., Hohson, G.C., and Wicklow, D.T. (1995) Liver disease in cattle induced by consumption of moldy hay. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 37, 248–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Choi, J. and Oris, J.T. (2000a) Evidence of oxidative stress in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) liver microsomes simultaneously exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation and anthracene. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 1795–1799.Google Scholar
  18. Choi, J. and Oris, J.T. (2000b) Anthracene photoinduced toxicity to PLHC-1 cell line (Poeciliopsis lucida) and the role of lipid peroxidation in toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 2699–2706.Google Scholar
  19. Cleveland, L., Little, E.E., Calfee, R.D. and Barron, M.G. (2000) Photoenhanced toxicity of weathered oil to Mysidopsis bahia. Aquat. Toxicol. 49, 63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cody, T.E., Radike, M.J. and Warshawsky, D. (1984) The phototoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. Environ. Res. 35, 122–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cornick, J.L., Carter, G.K., and Bridges, C.H. (1988) Kleingrass-associated hepatoxicosis in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 193, 932–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Davenport, R. and Spacie, A. (1991) Acute phototoxicity of harbor and tributary sediments from lower Lake Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res. 17, 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daub, M.E. and Ehrenshaft, M. (2000) The photoactivated Cercospora toxin cercosporin: Contributions to plant disease and fundamental biology. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 38, 461–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davenport, R., Johnson, L.R., Schaeffer, D.J. and Balbach, H. (1994) Phototoxicology. 1. Light-enhanced toxicity of TNT and some related compounds to Daphnia magna and Lytechinus variagatus embryos. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 27, 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delaey, E., Vandenbougaerde, A., Merlevede, W., and de Witte, P. (2000) Photocytotoxicity of hypericin in nomroxic and hypoxic conditions. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biology 56, 19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diamond, S.A., Mount, D.R., Burkhard, L.P., Ankley, G.T., Makynen, E.A. and Leonard, E.N. (2000) Effect of irradiance spectra on the photoinduced toxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 1389–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doss, M.O., Kuhnel, A., Gross, U., and Sieg, I. (1999) Hepatic porphyrias and alcohol. Medizinische Klinik 94, 314–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Downmum, K.R. (1992) Light-activated plant defence. New Phytol. 122, 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dunlap, W.C. and Yamamoto, Y. (1995) Small-molecule antioxidants in marine organisms: antioxidant activity of mycosporine-glycine. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 112B, 105–114.Google Scholar
  30. Duxbury, C.L., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1997) Effects of simulated solar radiation on the bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the duckweed Lemna gibba. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 1739–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. El-Alawi, Y.S., Huang, X.-D., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (2002) Quantitative structure-activity relationship for the photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21, 2225–2232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Erickson, R.J., Ankley, G.T., DeFoe, D.L., Kosian, P.A. and Makynen, E.A. (1999) Additive toxicity of binary mixtures of phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 154, 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Foran, J.A., Holst, L.L. and Giesy, J.P. (1991) Effects of photoenhanced toxicity of anthracene on ecological and genetic fitness of Daphnia magna: a reappraisal. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 10, 425–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Frank, J. and Christiano, A.M. (1998) Variegate porphyria: past, present and future. Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol. 11, 310–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Freund, E. (1916) Ü bisher noch nicht beschriebene kunstliche Hautverfarbungen. Dermatol. Wochenschrift 63, 931–933.Google Scholar
  36. Gala, W.R. and Giesy, J.P. (1992) Photo-induced toxicity of anthracene to the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23, 316–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gala, W.R. and Giesy, J.P. (1993) Using the carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicide, Fluridone, to investigate the ability of carotenoid pigments to protect algae from the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene. Aquat. Toxicol. 27, 61–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gala, W.R. and Giesy, J.P. (1994) Flow cytometric determination of the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13, 831–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gauer, E.B., Doss, M.O., and Riemann, J.F. (1995) Erythrohepatic protoporphyria, a rare cause in the differential-diagnosis of parenchymatous jaundice. Deutsche Mediz. Wochenschr. 120, 713–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gensemer, R.W., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1998) Amelioration of the photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a commercial humic acid. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 39, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gensemer, R.W., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1999) Using chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the onset of anthracene photoinduced toxicity in Lemna gibba, and the mitigating effects of a commercial humic acid. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44, 878–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross, U., Hoffmann, G.F., and Doss, M.O. (2000) Erythropoi9etic and hepatic porphyrias. J. Inherited Metabol. Dis. 23, 641–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hansen, D.E., McCoy, R.D., Hedstrom, O.R., Snyder, S.P., and Ballerstedt, P.B. (1994) Photosensitization associated with exposure to Pithomyces cartarum in lambs. J. Vet. Med. Assoc. 204, 1668–1671.Google Scholar
  44. Hall, A.T. and Oris, J.T. (1991) Anthracene reduces reproductive potential and is maternally transferred during long-term exposure in fathead minnows. Aquat. Toxicol. 19, 249–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hatch, A.C. and Burton, G.A., Jr. (1998) Effects of photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene on amphibian embryos and larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 1777–1785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatch, A.C. and Burton, G.A., Jr. (1999a) Phototoxicity of fluoranthene to two freshwater crustaceans, Hyalella azteca and Daphnia magna: measures of feeding inhibition as a toxicological endpoint. Hydrobiol. 400, 243–248.Google Scholar
  47. Hatch, A.C. and Burton, G.A., Jr. (1999b) Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans: effects of mixtures and behavior. Environ. Pollut. 106, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holst, L.L. and Giesy, J.P. (1989) Chronic effects of photoenhanced toxicity of anthracene on Daphnia magna reproduction. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8, 933–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Huang, X.-D., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1993) Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on the toxicity of PAHs to the higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 12, 1067–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huang, X.-D., Krylov, S.N., Ren, L., McConkey, B.J., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1997a) Mechanistic quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. II. An empirical model for the toxicity of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the duckweed Lemna gibba L. G-3. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 2296–2303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Huang, X.-D., McConkey, B.J., Babu, T.S. and Greenberg, B.M. (1997b) Mechanisms of photoinduced toxicity of photomodified anthracene to plants: inhibition of photosynthesis in the aquatic higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 1707–1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Huovinen, P.S., Penttilä, H. and Soimasuo, M.R. (2000) Penetration of UV radiation into Finnish lakes with different characteristics. Int. J. Circumpolar Health 59, 15–21.Google Scholar
  53. Huovinen P.S., Soimasuo M.R. and Oikari, A.O.J. (2001) Photoinduced toxicity of retene to Daphnia magna under enhanced UV-B radiation. Chemosphere 45, 683–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ireland, D.S., Burton, G.A., Jr. and Hess, G.G. (1996) In situ toxicity evaluations of turbidity and photoinduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15, 574–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jalal, M.A.F., Hossain, M.B., Robeson, D.I., and van der Helm, D. (1992) Cercospora beticola phytotoxins: cebetins that are photoactive, Mg2+-binding, chlorinated anthraquinone-xanthone conjugates. J. Am. Chem.Soc. 114, 5967–5971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kagan, J. and Kagan, E.D. (1986) The toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene and pyrene in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, in the dark and in the presence of ultraviolet light. Chemosphere 15, 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kagan, J., Kagan, P.A. and Buhse, H.E., Jr. (1984) Light-dependent toxicity of α-terthienyl and anthracene toward late embryonic stages of Rana pipiens. J. Chem. Ecol. 10, 1115–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kagan, J., Bennett, W.J., Kagan, E.D., Maas, J.L., Sweeney, S.A., Kagan, I.A., Seigneurie, E. and Bindokas, V. (1987) α-Terthienyl as a photoactive insecticide: toxic effects on nontarget organisms. In: J.R. Heitz and K.R. Downum (Eds.), Light-activated pesticides. ACS Symposium Series 339. Washington, D.C., American Chemical Society. pp. 176–191.Google Scholar
  59. Karentz, D., McEuen, F.S., Land, M.C. and Dunlap, W.C. (1991) Survey of mycosporine-like amino acid compounds in Antarctic marine organisms: potential protection from ultraviolet exposure. Mar. Biol. 108, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kelch, W.R., Kerr, I.A., Adair, H.S., and Boyd, G.D. (1992) Suspected buttercup (Ranunculus bulbosus) toxicosis with secondary photosensitization in Charolais heifer. Vet. Hum.Toxicol. 34, 238–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kirk J.T.O. (1994) Optics of UV-B radiation in natural waters. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 43, 1–16.Google Scholar
  62. Kosian, P.A., Makynen, E.A., Monson, P.D., Mount, D.R., Spacie, A., Mekenyan, O.G. and Ankley, G.T. (1998) Application of toxicity-based fractionation techniques and structure-activity relationship models for the identification of phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment pore water. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 1021–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krylov, S.N., Huang, X.-D., Zeiler, L.F., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1997) Mechanistic quantitative structure-activity relationship model for the photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: I. Physical model based on chemical kinetics in a two-compartment system. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 2283–2295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lampi, M.A., Gurska, J., McDonald, K.I.C., Xie, F., Huang, X.-D., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (2006) Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Daphnia magna: Ultraviolet-mediated effects and the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoproducts. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 1079–1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Landrum, P.F., Giesy, J.P., Oris, J.T. and Allred, P.M. (1987) Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to aquatic organisms. In: J.H. Vandermeulen and S.E. Hrudey (Eds.), Oil in freshwater: chemistry, biology, countermeasure technology. Proc. Symp. Oil Pollution in Freshwater, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 304–318.Google Scholar
  66. Larson, R.A. and Berenbaum, M.R. (1988) Environmental phototoxicity. Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the toxicity of natural and man-made chemicals. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22, 354–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lean, D. (1998) Attenuation of solar radiation in humic waters. In: D.O. Hessen and L.J. Tranvik (Eds.), Aquatic humic substances. Ecology and biogeochemistry. Ecol. Studies 133. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 109–124.Google Scholar
  68. Little, E.E., Cleveland, L., Calfee, R. and Barron, M.G. (2000) Assessment of the photoenhanced toxicity of a weathered oil to the tidewater silverside. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 926–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lovell, C.R. (1993) Plants and the skin. Blackwell Scientific Publ., Oxford.Google Scholar
  70. Mallakin, A., McConkey, B.J., Miao, G., McKibben, B., Snieckus, V., Dickson, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1999) Impacts of structural photomodification on the toxicity of environmental contaminants: anthracene photooxidation products. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 43, 204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marwood, C.A., Smith, R.E.H., Solomon, K.R., Charlton, M.N. and Greenberg, B.M. (1999) Intact and photomodified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons inhibit photosynthesis in natural assemblages of Lake Erie phytoplankton exposed to solar radiation. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 44, 322–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McCloskey, J.T. and Oris, J.T. (1993) Effect of anthracene and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on gill ATPase and selected hematologic measurements in the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Aquat. Toxicol. 24, 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McConkey, B.J., Duxbury, C.L., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1997) Toxicity of a PAH photooxidation product to the bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and the duckweed Lemna gibba: Effects of phenanthrene and its primary photoproduct, phenanthrenequinone. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 892–899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McDonald, B.G. and Chapman, P.M. (2002) PAH phototoxicity—an ecologically irrelevant phenomenon? Mar. Poll. Bull. 44, 1321–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mekenyan, O.G., Ankley, G.T., Veith, G.D. and Call, D.J. (1994) QSARs for photoinduced toxicity: I. Acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Daphnia magna. Chemosphere 28, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mezey, P.G., Zimpel, Z., Warburton, P., Walker, P.D., Irvine, D.G., Huang, X.-D., Dixon, D.G. and Greenberg, B.M. (1998) Use of quantitative shape-activity relationships to model the photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Electron density shape features accurately predict toxicity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 1207–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Miles, C.O., Wilkins, A.L., Erasmus, G.L., Kellerman, T.S., and Coetzer, J. (1994) Photosensitivity in South Africa. 7. Chemical composition of biliary crystals from a sheep with experimentally induced geeldikkop. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 61, 215–222.Google Scholar
  78. Miranda, M.A. (ed.) (2001) Phototoxicity of drugs: A decade of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory 2-arylpropionic acids research. Downloadable from the Photochemistry and Photobiology homepage.Google Scholar
  79. Monson, P.D., Ankley, G.T. and Kosian, P.A. (1995) Phototoxic response of Lumbriculus variegatus to sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14, 891–894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Monson, P.D., Call, D.J., Cox, D.A., Liber, K. and Ankley, G.T. (1999) Photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18, 308–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morris, D.P., Zagarese, H., Williamson, C.E., Balseiro, E.G., Hargreaves, B.R., Modenutti, B., Moeller, R. and Queimalinos, C. (1995) The attenuation of solar UV radiation in lakes and the role of dissolved organic carbon. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1381–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morris, D.P. and Hargreaves, B.R. (1997) The role of photochemical degradation of dissolved organic carbon in regulating the UV transparency of three lakes on the Pocono Plateau. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42, 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Muchiri, D.J., Bridges, C.H., Ueckert, D.N., and Bailey, E.M. (1980) Photosensitization of sheep on kleingrass pasture. J. Am. Vet. Sci. Assoc. 177, 353–354.Google Scholar
  84. Neff, J.M. (1979) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources, fates and biological effects. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  85. Neff, J.M. (1985) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In: G.M. Rand and S.R. Petrocelli (Eds.), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology. Methods and applications. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York. pp. 416–454.Google Scholar
  86. Newsted, J.L. and Giesy, J.P. (1987) Predictive models for photoinduced acute toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Daphnia magna, Strauss (Cladocera, Crustacea). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 6, 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Oris, J.T. and Giesy, J.P., Jr. (1985) The photoenhanced toxicity of anthracene to juvenile sunfish (Lepomis spp.). Aquat. Toxicol. 6, 133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oris, J.T. and Giesy, J.P., Jr. (1986) Photoinduced toxicity of anthracene to juvenile bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque): photoperiod effects and predictive hazard evaluation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 5, 761–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Oris, J.T., Hall, A.T. and Tylka, J.D. (1990) Humic acids reduce the photo-induced toxicity of anthracene to fish and daphnia. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 575–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pathak, M.A. (1986) Phytodermatitis. Clin. Dermatol. 4, 102–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pathak, M.A. and Fitzpatrick, T.B. (1992) The evolution of photochemotherapy with psoralens and UVA (PUVA): 2000 BC to 1992 AD. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biolog 14, 3–22.Google Scholar
  92. Peachey, R.B.J. (2005) The synergism between hydrocarbon pollutants and UV radiation: A potential link between coastal pollution and larval mortality. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 315, 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pelletier, M.C., Burgess, R.M., Ho, K.T., Kuhn, A., McKinney, R.A. and Ryba, S.A. (1997) Phototoxicity of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum to marine invertebrate larvae and juveniles. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 2190–2199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pelletier, M.C., Burgess, R.M., Cantwell, M.G., Serbst, J.R., Ho, K.T. and Ryba, S.A. (2000) Importance of maternal transfer of the photoreactive polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene from benthic adult bivalves to their pelagic larvae. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 2691–2698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pelletier, E., Sargian, P. and Demers, S. (2006) Ecotoxicological effects of combined UVB and organic contaminants in costal waters: A review. Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 981–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Puoli, J.R., Reid, R.I., and Belesky, D.P. (1992) Photosensitization in lambs grazing switchgrass. Agron. J. 84, 1077–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Raposo, J.B., Mendez, M.C., de Adrade, B.B., and Riet-Correa, F. (1998) Experimental intoxication by Myoporum kaetyn in cattle. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 40, 275–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Regnault, T.R.H. (1990) Secondary photosensitization of sheep grazing bambatsi grass (Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense). Aust. Vet. J. 67, 419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Samadi, A., Martinez, L.A., Miranda, M.A., and Morera, I.M. (2001) Mechanism of lipid peroxidation photosensitized by tiaprofenic acid: Product studies using linoleic acid and 1,4-cyclohexadienes as model substrates Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 359–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sargian, P., Mostajir, B., Chatila, K., Ferreyra, G.A., Pelletier, E. and Demers, S. (2005) Non-synergistic effects of water-soluble crude oil and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on a natural plankton assemblage. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 294, 63–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schaeffer, D.J. and Larson, R.A. (1999) Phototoxicology. The Chemist July-Aug., 18–24.Google Scholar
  102. Schirmer, K., Chan, A.G.J., Greenberg, B.M., Dixon, D.G. and Bols, N.C. (1998) Ability of 16 priority PAHs to be photocytotoxic to a cell line from the rainbow trout gill. Toxicology 127, 143–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schirmer, K., Herbrick, J.-A.S., Greenberg, B.M., Dixon, D.G. and Bols, N.C. (1999) Use of fish gill cells in culture to evaluate the cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity of intact and photomodified creosote. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18, 1277–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Scully, N.M. and Lean, D.R.S. (1994) The attenuation of ultraviolet radiation in temperate lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 43, 135–144.Google Scholar
  105. Scruggs, D.W. and Blue, G.K. (1994) Toxic hepatopathy and photosensitization in cattle fed moldy alfalfa hay. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 204, 264–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sheth, A.P, Esterly, N.B., Rabinowitz, I.G., and Poh-Fitzpatrick, M.B. (1994) Cutaneous porphyria-like photosensitivity after liver transplantation. Arch. Dermatol. 130, 614–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith, R.C., Prèzelin, B.B., Baker, K.S., Bidigare, R.R., Boucher, N.P., Coley, T., Karentz, D., MacIntyre, S., Matlick, H.A., Menzies, D., Ondrusek, M., Wan, Z. and Waters, K.J. (1992) Ozone depletion: ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters. Science 255, 952–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Southerland, H.A. and Lewitus, A.J. (2004) Physiological responses of estuarine phytoplankton to ultraviolet light-induced fluoranthene toxicity. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 298, 303–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Spehar, R.L., Poucher, S., Brooke, L.T., Hansen, D.J., Champlin, D. and Cox, D.A. (1999) Comparative toxicity of fluoranthene to freshwater and saltwater species under fluorescent and ultraviolet light. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 37, 496–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stoessl, A., Abramowski, Z., Lester, H.H., Rock, G.L., Towers, G.H.N. (1990) Further toxic properties of the fungal metabolite dothistromin. Mycopathologia 112, 179–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Swartz, R.C., Ferraro, S.P., Lamberson, J.O., Cole, F.A., Ozretich, R.J., Boese, B.L., Schults, D.W., Behrenfeld, M. and Ankley, G.T. (1997) Photoactivation and toxicity of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in marine sediment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 16, 2151–2157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Todd, D.J. (1994) Erythropoietic protoporphyria. Br. J. Dermatol. 131, 751–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Veith, G.D., Mekenyan, O.G., Ankley, G.T. and Call, D.J. (1995) A QSAR analysis of substituent effects on the photoinduced acute toxicity of PAHs. Chemosphere 30, 2129–2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Walker, S.E., Taylor, D.H. and Oris, J.T (1998) Behavioral and histopathological effects of fluoranthene on bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 734–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Weinstein, J.E. (2001) Characterization of the acute toxicity of photoactivated fluoranthene to glochidia of the freshwater mussel, Utterbackia imbecillis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20, 412–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Weinstein, J.E. and Oris, J.T. (1999) Humic acids reduce the bioaccumulation and photoinduced toxicity of fluoranthene to fish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18, 2087–2094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Weinstein, J.E., Oris, J.T. and Taylor, D.H. (1997) An ultrastructural examination of the mode of UV-induced toxic action of fluoranthene in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Aquat. Toxicol. 39, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wernersson, A.-S. (2003) Predicting petroleum phototoxicity. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 54, 355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wilkins, A.L., Miles, C.O., DeKock, W.T., Erasmus, G.L., Basson, A.T., and Kellerman, T.S. (1996) Photosensitivity in South Africa. 9. Structure elucidation of a UPalpha-glucosidase-treated saponin from Tribulus terrestris, and the identification of saponin chemotypes of South African T. terrestris. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 63, 327–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Williamson, C.E., Stemberger, R.S., Morris, D.P., Frost, T.M. and Paulsen, S.G. (1996) Ultraviolet radiation in North American lakes: Attenuation estimates from DOC measurements and implications for plankton communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1024–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zaga, A., Little, E.E., Rabeni, C.F. and Ellersieck, M.R. (1998) Photoenhanced toxicity of a carbamate insecticide to early life stage anuran amphibians. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17, 2543–2553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lars Olof Björn
  • Pirjo Huovinen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations