Attention is a cognitive experience that is self-evident, yet difficult to characterize. We are all aware of what attention is: the focusing of our inner resources and state of consciousness. The term attention is part of our everyday vocabulary. As children, we were instructed by our teachers to “pay attention.” The television bombards us with information, soliciting our attention. In the military, a sergeant will order troops to “come to attention.” The athlete who performs suboptimally may attribute the poor performance to lack of concentration. The term “attention” is used to account for a wide range of behavioral phenomena.