Emerging Techniques in Polymer Microscopy


In the previous edition of this book, this chapter was called “New Techniques in Polymer Microscopy.” Now, nearly 10 years later, many of these once new techniques, like atomic force microscopy (AFM), have become standard for many polymer microscopists. Others, such as confocal scanning microscopy, or scanning near-field optical microscopy, have developed and become much more common, but they are rarely applied to polymeric systems. It is still worthwhile to mention these techniques as they might solve the problems arising in some new areas of polymer science and engineering. Therefore the chapter is now called “Emerging Techniques in Polymer Microscopy” and covers both the truly novel techniques that are emerging rapidly, and those that are not as new but have continued to emerge slowly for decades.


Atomic Force Microscopy Surface Enhance Raman Scattering Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Contact Mode Atomic Force Microscopy Color Insert 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. Cuche, P. Marquet and C. Depeursinge, Appl. Optics 38 (1999) 6994.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty and K.A. Nugent, J. Microsc. 206 (2002) 194.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.J. Bellair, C.L. Curl, B.E. Allman, P.J. Harris, A. Roberts, L.M.D. Delbridge and K.A. Nugent, J. Microsc. 214 (2004) 62.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Microscopy Resource Center. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  5. 5.
    MicroscopyU: The Source for Microscopy Education. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  6. 6.
    D.B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging (Wiley-Liss, New York, 2001).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Semwogerere and E.R. Weeks, in Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, edited by G.E. Wnek and G.L. Bowlin (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.R. Hibbs, Confocal Microscopy for Biologists (Springer, New York, 2004).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.B. Pawley, Ed. Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Plenum Press, New York, 2006).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Inoue and T. Inoue, in Cell Biological Applications of Confocal Microscopy (Methods in Cell Biology, 70), edited by B. Matsumoto (Academic Press, New York, 2002).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Wang, C.M. Babbey and K.W. Dunn, J. Microsc. 218 (2005) 148.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Hamilton and T. Wilson, Appl. Phys. B 27 (1982) 211.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Jordan, M. Wegner and H. Tiziani, Measurement Sci. Technol 9 (1998) 1142.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Cox and C.J.R. Sheppard, Micron 32 (2001) 701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L.-P. Sung, J. Jasmin, X. Cu, T. Nguyen and J.W. Martins, JCT Res. 1 (2004) 267.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.V.R. Tata and B. Raj, Bull. Mater. Sci. 21 (1998) 263.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Knoester and G.J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 157 (1990) 105.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.C. Chu, Microscope 46 (1998) 61.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Imberg and P. Hansson, J. Phys. Chem. B 109 (2005) 10830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.C. Cabanelas, B. Serrano, M.G. Gonzalez and J. Baselga, Polymer 46 (2005) 6633.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Hadjur, G. Daty, G. Madry and P. Corcuff, Scanning 24 (2002) 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.D. Burke, J.O. Park, M. Srinivasarao and S.A. Khan, Macromolecules 33 (2000) 7500.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E.G. McFarland, S. Michielsen and W.W. Carr, Appl. Spectrosc. 55 (2001) 481.ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K.D. Clerck, P.V. Oostveldt, H. Rahier, B.V. Mele, P. Westbroek and P. Kiekens, Polymer 45 (2004) 4105.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.F. Aguilar and E.R. Méndez, J. Modern Optics. 42 (1995) 1785.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Wefers and E. Schollmeyer, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 31 (1993) 23.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    P. Lemoine, J.P. Quinn, P.D. Maguire and J.A.D. McLaughlin, Carbon 44 (2006) 2617.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Pope, Mater. World 11 (2003) 19.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.A. Geday, W. Kaminsky, J.G. Lewis and A.M. Glazer, J. Microsc. 198 (2000) 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Zekria, V.A. Shuvaeva and A.M. Glazer, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17 (2005) 1593.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.A. Geday and A.M. Glazer, J. Appl. Crystallogr. 35 (2002) 185.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    F. Massoumian, R. Juskaitis, M.A.A. Neil and T. Wilson, J. Microsc. 209 (2003) 13.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Oldenbourg and G. Mei, J. Microsc. 180 (1995) 140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Oldenbourg, in Live Cell Imaging: A Laboratory Manual, edited by R.D. Goldman and D.L. Spector (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, 2004).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    W.-H. Wang and D.L. Keefe, Cloning and Stem Cells 4 (2002) 269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Hoyt and R. Oldenbourg, Am. Lab. 31 (1999) 34.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. Volkmer, M. Harms, L. Gower and A. Ziegler, Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 44 (2005) 639.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Tugulu, M. Harms, M. Fricke, D. Volkmer and H.-A. Klok, Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 45 (2006) 7458.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Shribak and R. Oldenbourg, Biol. Bull. 205 (2003) 194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Shribak and R. Oldenbourg, Biophotonics Micro-and Nano-Imaging 5 (2004) 57.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Stifter, P. Burgholzer, O. Hoeglinger, E. Goetzinger and C.K. Hitzenberger, Appl. Phys. A 76 (2003) 947.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Stifter, A.D. Sanchis Dufau, E. Breuer, K. Wiesauer, P. Burgholzer, O. Hoglinger, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher and C.K. Hitzenberger, Insight-Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring 47 (2005) 209.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    K. Wiesauer, A.D.S. Dufau, E. Gotzinger, M. Pircher, C.K. Hitzenberger and D. Stifter, Acta Mater. 53 (2005) 2785.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Haider, H. Rose, S. Uhlemann, B. Kabius and K. Urban, J. Electron Microsc. 47 (1998) 395.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    N. Dellby, L. Krivaneka, D. Nellist, E. Batson and R. Lupini, J. Electron Microsc. 50 (2001) 177.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    P.E.D. Batson, N; Krivanek, O.L., Nature 418 (2002) 617.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    P.D. Nellist, M.F. Chisholm, N. Dellby, O.L. Krivanek, M.F. Murfitt, Z.S. Szilagyi, A.R. Lupini, A. Borisevich, J.W.H. Sides and S.J. Pennycook, Science 305 (2004) 1741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    U. Dahmen, Microsc. Microanal. 11 (2005) 2142.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. Van Dyck, S. Van Aert, A. den Dekker and A. van den Bos, Ultramicroscopy 98 (2003) 27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    A.Y. Borisevich, A.R. Lupini, S. Travaglini and S.J. Pennycook, J. Electron Microsc. 55 (2006) 7.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    D.C. Martin, J. Chen, J. Yang, L.F. Drummy and C. Kübel, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 43 (2005) 1749.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H. Dömer and O. Bostanjoglo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 (2003) 4369.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    H. Kazumori, K. Honda, M. Matsuya, M. Date and C. Nielsen, Microsc. Microanal. 10 (2004) 1370.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    D.C. Joy, in Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology 2005; AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 788, edited by D.G. Seiler, et al. (American Institute of Physics, 2005), p 535.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    N. Yao, in Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by N. Yao and Z.L. Wang (Kluwer Academic, New York, 2005), p. 247.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. Notte, R. Hill, S. McVey, L. Farkas, R. Percival and B. Ward, Microsc. Microanal. 12 (2006) 126.ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    B.W. Ward, J.A. Notte and N.P. Economou, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24 (2006), 287.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ultra High Resolution Ion Microscope Life Sciences Image Gallery. Available at Accessed November 2006.
  59. 59.
    R.J. Composto, R.M. Walters and J. Genzer, Mater. Sci. Eng. R 38 (2002) 174.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Noy, D.V. Vezenov and C.M. Lieber, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27 (1997) 381.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D.V. Vezenov, A. Noy and P. Ashby, J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 19 (2005) 313.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    G.J. Vancso. 223rd ACS National Meeting, Orlando, FL, 2002, p. ANYL193.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    G.J. Vancso, H. Hillborg and H. Schoenherr, Adv. Polym. Sci. 182 (2005) 55.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    V.V. Tsukruk, V.N. Bliznyuk and J. Wu, ACS Symp. Ser. 694 (1998) 321.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    H. Schonherr, C.L. Feng, N. Tomczak and G.J. Vancso, Macromol. Symp. 230 (2005) 149.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    C.D. Frisbie, L.F. Rozsnyai, A. Noy, M.S. Wrighton and C.M. Lieber, Science 265 (1994) 2071.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    G.F. Meyers, B.M. DeKoven, M.T. Dineen, A. Strandjord, P.J. O’Connor, T. Hu, Y.-H. Chiao, H.M. Pollock and A. Hammiche, ACS Symp. Ser. 741 (2000) 190.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    K. Feldman, T. Tervoort, P. Smith and N.D. Spencer, Langmuir 14 (1998) 372.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    B.D. Beake, J.S.G. Ling and G.J. Leggett, J. Mater. Chem. 8 (1998) 2845.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    H. Schonherr, Z. Hruska and G.J. Vancso, Macromolecules 33 (2000) 4532.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    H. Schonherr and J. Vansco, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 36 (1998) 2483.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    A.S. Duwez and B. Nysten, Langmuir 17 (2001) 8287.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    H. Hillborg, N. Tomczak, A. Olah, H. Schoenherr and G.J. Vancso, Langmuir 20 (2004) 785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    B.D. Beake and G.J. Leggett, Polymer 40 (1999) 5973.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    B.D. Beake, N.J. Brewer and G.J. Leggett, Macromol. Symp. 167 (2001) 101.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    H. Schonherr and J. Vancso, Macromolecules 30 (1997) 6391.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    T. Nguyen, X. Gu, M. Fasolka, K. Briggman, J. Hwang, A. Karim and J. Martin, PMSE Preprints 90 (2004) 141.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    X. Gu, T. Nguyen, M.J. Fasolka, D. Julthongpiput, L.J. Chen, M.R. VanLandingham, Y.C. Jean and J.W. Martin. Proc. 27th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, (Adhesion Society Inc., Blacksburg, VA, 2004), p361.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    X. Gu, M.R. VanLandingham, M. Fasolka, J.W. Martin, J.Y. Jean and T. Nguyen. Proc. 26th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, (Adesion Society Inc., Blacksburg, VA, 2003), p185.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    D. Julthongpiput, M.J. Fasolka, W. Zhang, T. Nguyen and E.J. Amis, Nano Lett. 5 (2005) 1535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. Nguyen, X. Gu, L. Chen, D. Julthongpiput, M. Fasolka, K. Briggman, J. Hwang and J. Martin. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., (Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA, 2005), p. O15.5.1.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    X. Gu, T. Nguyen, L.-P. Sung, M.R. VanLandingham, M. Fasolka, J. Martin, Y. Jean, L. Nguyen, N.K. Chang and T.Y. Wu, J. Coatings Technol. Res. 1 (2004) 191.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    J. Tamayo and R. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71 (1997) 2394.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    J. Tamayo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999) 3569.ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Hillenbrand, M. Stark and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (2000) 3478.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    R. Stark and W. Heckl, Surf. Sci. 457 (2000) 219.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. Stark, R.W. Stark, W.M. Heckl and R. Guckenberger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77 (2000) 3293.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Stark, R. Stark, W. Heckl and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (2002) 8473.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    R.W. Stark and M. Stark, in Applied Scanning Probe Methods II Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, edited by B. Bushan and H. Fuchs (Springer, Berlin, 2006), p. 1.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    F. Jamitzky, M. Stark, W. Bunk, W. Heckl and R. Stark, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) S213.ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    O. Sahin and A. Atalar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 (2001) 4455.ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Ulcinas and V. Snitka, Ultramicroscopy 86 (2001) 217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    R.W. Stark and W.M. Heckl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 (2003) 5111.ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    O. Sahin, C.F. Quate, O. Solgaard and A. Atalar, Phys. Rev. B 69 (2004) 165416.ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    O. Sahin, C.F. Quate and O. Solgaard. NSTI Nanotech, (NSTI Cambridge, MA, Anaheim, CA, United States, 2005), p663.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    S. Crittenden, A. Raman and R. Reifenberger, Phys. Rev. B 72 (2005) 235422/1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    P. Hansma, G. Schitter, G. Fantner and C. Prater, Science 314 (2006) 601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    R.C. Barrett and C.F. Quate, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9 (1991) 302.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    S.W. Park, H.T. Soh, C.F. Quate and S.I. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67 (1995) 2415.ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    J.P. Bourgin, R.V. Sudiwala and S. Palacin, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14 (1996) 3381.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    S.R. Manalis, S.C. Minne and C.F. Quate, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68 (1996) 871.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    S. Watanabe, T. Fujiu and T. Fujii, ISAF’ 96, Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, 10th, East Brunswick, NJ, Aug. 18–21, 1996 1 (IEEE NY, NY, 1996), 199.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    T. Sulchek, R. Hsieh, J.D. Adams, G.G. Yaralioglu, S.C. Minne, C.F. Quate, J.P. Cleveland, A. Atalar and D.M. Adderton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76 (2000) 1473.ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    N. Ookubo and S. Yumoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999) 2149.ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    T.J. McMaster, J.K. Hobbs, P.J. Barham and M.J. Miles, Probe Microsc. 1 (1997) 43.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    J. Hobbs, T. McMaster, M. Miles and P. Barham, Polymer 39 (1998) 2437.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    D.A. Walters, J.P. Cleveland, N.H. Thomson, P.K. Hansma, M.A. Wendman, G. Gurley and V. Elings, Rev. Sci. Instrum 67 (1996) 3583.ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    M.B. Viani, T.E. Schaffer, A. Chand, M. Rief, H.E. Gaub and P.K. Hansma, J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 2258.ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    N. Kodera, M. Sakashita and T. Ando, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 (2006) 083704/1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    T. Uchihashi, N. Kodera, H. Itoh, H. Yamashita and T. Ando, Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 1 45 (2006) 1904.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    T. Ando, N. Kodera, E. Takai, D. Maruyama, K. Saito and A. Toda, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (2001) 12468.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. Chand, M.B. Viani, T.E. Schaffer and P.K. Hansma, J. Microelectromech. Systems 9 (2000) 112.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    T.E. Schaffer, M. Viani, D.A. Walters, B. Drake, E.K. Runge, J.P. Clevaland, M.A. Wendman and P.K. Hansma, Proc SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng 3009 (1997) 48.ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    M.B. Viani, T.E. Schaffer, G.T. Paloczi, L.I. Pietrasanta, B.L. Smith, J.B. Thompson, M. Richter, M. Rief, H.E. Gaub, K.W. Plaxco, A.N. Cleland, H.G. Hansma and P.K. Hansma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70 (1999) 4300.ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    J.H. Kindt, G.E. Fantner, J.A. Cutroni and P.K. Hansma, Ultramicroscopy 100 (2004) 259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    T.E. Schaffer and P.K. Hansma, J. Appl. Phys. 84 (1998) 4661.ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    P. Vettiger, M. Despont, U. Drechsler, U. Durig, W. Haberle, M.I. Lutwyche, H.E. Rothuizen, R. Stutz, R. Widmer and G.K. Binnig, IBM J. Res. Dev. 44 (2000) 323.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    J. Legleiter and T. Kowalewski, Abstracts, 35th Central Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, October 19–22 (2003) 84.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    T. Kowalewski and J. Legleiter, J. Appl. Phys. 99 (2006) 64903.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    T. Sulchek, G.G. Yaralioglu, C.F. Quate and S.C. Minne, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73 (2002) 2928.ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    J.H. Kindt, J.B. Thompson, M.B. Viani and P.K. Hansma, Rev. Sci. Instrum 73 (2002) 2305.ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    C. Su, L. Huang, K. Kjoller and K. Babcock, Ultramicroscopy 97 (2003) 135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    G.E. Fantner, P. Hegarty, J.H. Kindt, G. Schitter, G.A.G. Cidade and P.K. Hansma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76 (2005) 026118/1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    G. Schitter, G. Fantner, J. Kindt, P. Thurner and P. Hansma. 2005 IEEE/ASME, International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Monterey, CA, July 24–28, 2005.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    G.E. Fantner, G. Schitter, J.H. Kindt, T. Ivanov, K. Ivanova, R. Patel, N. Holten-Andersen, J. Adams, P.J. Thurner, I.W. Rangelow and P.K. Hansma, Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    J.K. Hobbs, C. Vasilev and A.D.L. Humphris, Polymer 46 (2005) 10226.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    J.K. Hobbs, C. Vasilev and A.D.L. Humphris, Analyst (Cambridge) 131 (2006) 251.ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    R. Pylkki, P. Moyer and P. West, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1994) 3785.ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    A. Majumdar, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 29 (1999) 505.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    H.M. Polock and A. Hammiche, J. Phys. D 34 (2001) R23.ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    A. Hammiche, M. Song, H.M. Pollock, M. Reading and D.J. Hourston. Polymer Preprints 37 (2) (1996) 585.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    A. Hammiche, H.M. Pollock, M. Song and D.J. Hourston. Measurement Sci. Technol. 7 (1996) 142.ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    R. Smallwood, P. Metherall, D. Hose, M. Delves, H. Pollock, A. Hammiche, C. Hodges, V. Mathot and P. Willcocks, Thermochim. Acta 385 (2002) 19.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Anasys Instruments: nano-TA TM Probes. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  135. 135.
    A. Murray and J. Leckenby, Mater. World 3 (1995) 227.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    D.M. Price, M. Reading, A. Hammiche, H.M. Pollock and M.G. Branch, Thermochim. Acta 332 (1999) 143.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    A. Hammiche, M. Song, H.M. Pollock, D.J. Hourston and M. Reading, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 75 (1996) 275.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    A. Hammiche, D.J. Hourston, H.M. Pollock, M. Reading and M. Song, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14 (1996) 1486.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    H.M. Pollock, A. Hammiche, M. Song, D.J. Hourston and M. Reading, Polymer Preprints 37 (2) (1996) 69.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    H.M. Pollock, A. Hammiche, M. Song, D.J. Hourston and M. Reading, J. Adhes. 67 (1998) 217.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    L. Barral, J. Cano, F.J. Diez, J. Lopez, C. Ramirez, M.J. Abad and A. Ares, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 40 (2001) 284.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    A. Hammiche, L. Bozec, M. Conroy, H.M. Pollock, G. Mills, J.M.R. Weaver, D.M. Price, M. Reading, D.J. Hourston and M. Song, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18 (2000) 1322.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    M. Tillman, B. Hayes and J. Seferis, J. Appl. Poly. Sci. 80 (2001) 1643.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    G.F. Meyers, M.T. Dineen, E.O. Shaffer, H.T. Stokich, Jr. and J.-H. Im, Polymer Preprints 41 (2) (2000) 1419.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    G.F. Meyers, B.M. DeKoven, M.T. Dineen, A. Strandjord, P. O’Connor, T. Hu, Y.-H. Chiao, H.M. Pollock and A. Hammiche, in Microstructure and Microtribology of Polymer Surfaces, edited by V.V. Tsukruk and K.W. Wahl (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2000). p. 190.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    F.A. Boroumand, A. Hammiche, G. Hill and D.G. Lidzey, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim) 16 (2004) 252.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    F.A. Boroumand, M. Voigt, D.G. Lidzey, A. Hammiche and G. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 4890.ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    V.V. Gorbunov, N. Fuchigami, J.L. Hazel and V.V. Tsukruk, Langmuir 15 (1999) 8340.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    V.V. Gorbunov, N. Fuchigami and V.V. Tsukruk, Polymer Preprints 41 (2) (2000) 1495.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    V.V. Tsukruk, V.V. Gorbunov and N. Fuchigami, Thermochim. Acta. 395 (2003) 151.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    D. Fryer and P.N. de Pablo, Macromolecules 33 (2000) 6439.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    V. Gorbunov, N. Fuchigami, I. Luzinov and V.V. Tsukruk, Polymer Preprints 41 (2) (2000) 1493.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    H. Fischer, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 844.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    B. Chui, T. Stowe, Y. Ju, K. Goodson, T. Kenny, H. Mamin, B. Terris, R. Ried and D. Rugar, J. Microelectromech. Systems 7 (1998) 69.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    W. King, T. Kenny, K. Goodson, G. Cross, M. Despont, U. Dürig, H. Rothuizen, G. Binnig and P. Vettiger, J. Microelectromech. Systems 11 (2002) 765.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    W. King, J. Micromech. Microeng. 15 (2005) 2441.ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    A. Hammiche and H. Pollock, unpublished data.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    A. Hammiche, H.M. Pollock, M. Reading, M. Claybourn, P.H. Turner and K. Jewkes, Appl. Spectrosc. 53 (1999) 810.ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    L. Bozec, A. Hammiche, H.M. Pollock, M. Conroy, J.M. Chalmers, N.J. Everall and L. Turin, J. Appl. Phys. 90 (2001) 5159.ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    L. Bozec, A. Hammiche, H. Pollock and M. Conroy, Anal. Sci. 17 (2001) s494.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    L. Bozec, A. Hammiche, M.J. Tobin, J.M. Chalmers, N.J. Everall and H.M. Pollock, Measurement Sci. Technol. 13 (2002) 1217.ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    A. Hammiche, L. Bozec, H.M. Pollock, M. German and M. Reading, J. Microsc. 213 (2004) 129.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    A. Hammiche, M. German, R. Hewitt H. Pollock and F. Martiny, Biophys. J. 88 (2005) 3699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    K.P. Ghiggino, M.R. Harris, and P.G. Spizzitri, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2999.ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    M. Isaacson, A. Cline and H. Barshatzky, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9 (1991) 103.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    D.W. Pohl, in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, edited by M.S. Guntherodt and R. Wiesendanger (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    E. Betzig and J.K. Trautman, Science 257 (1992) 189.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    J.M. Guerra, M. Srinivasarao and R. Stein, Science 262 (1993) 1395.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    J.K. Trautman, E. Betzig, F.S. Weinet, D.J. DiGiovanni, T.D. Harris, F. Hellman and E.M. Gyotgy, J. Appl. Phys. 71 (1992) 4659.ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    D. Brinbaum, S.-K. Kook and P.C.H.R. Kopelman, Phys. Chem. 97 (1993) 91.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    J.A. DeAro, K.D. Weston and S.K. Buratto, Phase Transitions 68 (1999) 27.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    P. Camorani, M. Labardi and M. Allegrini, Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. Sci. Technol. A 372 (2002) 365.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    J.E. Hall and D.A. Higgins, ACS Symp. Ser. 897 (2005) 25.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    M. Fujihira, S. Itoh, A. Takahara, O. Karthaus, S. Okazaki and K. Kajikawa, Springer Series in Optical Sciences 84 (2002) 151.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    D. Richards and F. Cacialli, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A., 362 (2004) 771.ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    D. Richards, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 361 (2003) 2843.ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    R.D. Schaller, L.F. Lee, T.-Q. Nguyen, P.T. Snee and R.J. Saykally, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1. 42 (2003) 4799.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    H. Liang, W.L. Cao, I. Smolyaninov, W.N. Herman and C.H. Lee, Polym. News 29 (2004) 6.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    S. Ito and H. Aoki, Adv. Polym. Sci. 182 (2005) 131.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    S. Knight, R. Dixson, R.L. Jones, E.K. Lin, N.G. Orji, R. Silver, J. Villarrubia, A. Vladar and W.-L. Wu, Comptes Rendus Physique 7 (2006) 931–941.ADSGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    B. Foster, Am. Lab. 37 (2005) 42.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    D. Studer and H. Gnaegi, J. Microsc. 197 (2000) 94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    J.D. Harris and J.S. Vastenhout, Microsc. Today 14 (2006) 20.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    M. Ericson and H. Lindberg, Polymer 38 (1997) 4485.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    R. Langford, Microsc. Res. Tech. 69 (2006) 538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    N. Virgilio, B.D. Favis, M.-F. Pepin, P. Desjardins and G. ĽEsperance, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 2368.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    J. Melngailis, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 5 (1987) 469.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Y. Thomann, R. Thomann, G. Bar, M. Ganter, B. Machutta and R. Mulhaupt, J. Microsc. 195 (1999) 161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    D. Wouters, B.G.G. Lohmeijer, A.A. Alexeev, S. Saunin and U.S. Schubert, PMSE Preprints 90 (2004) 803.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    R. Neffati, A. Alexeev, S. Saunin, J. Brokken-Zijp, D. Wouters, S. Schmatloch, U. Schubert and J. Loos, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 24 (2003) 113.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    B.-J. De Gans, C. Sanchez, D. Kozodaev, D. Wouters, A. Alexeev, M.J. Escuti, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer and U.S. Schubert, J. Combinatorial Chem. 8 (2006) 228.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    N. Adams, B.-J.D. Gans, D. Kozodaev, C. Sanchez, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer and U.S. Schubert, J. Combinatorial Chem. 8 (2006) 184.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    B.-J. De Gans, S. Wijnans, D. Woutes and U.S. Schubert, J. Combinatorial Chem. 7 (2005) 952.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    J. Li, G.F. Meyers, S. Werner and C. Reinhardt, Abstracts, 38th Central Regional Meeting of the American Chemical, Society, Frankenmuth, MI, May 16–20 (2006) CRM-226.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    M. Kuwahara, P. Fons, J. Tominaga, K. Honma, A. Egawa, T. Miyatani, K. Nakajima, H. Abe and H. Tokumoto, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76 (2005) 083706/1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    C. Hyon, S. Oh, H. Kim, S. Sull, S. Hwang, D. Ahn, Y. Park and E. Kim, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73 (2002) 3245.ADSGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    T.S. Spisz, Y. Fang, I.N. Bankman, R.H. Reeves and J.H. Hoh, Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest 20 (1999) 135.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    E. Ficarra, L. Benini, E. Macii and G. Zuccheri, IEEE Trans. Information Technol. Biomed. 9 (2005) 508.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    T.S. Spisz, Y. Fang, R.H. Reeves, C.K. Seymour, I.N. Bankman and J.H. Hoh, Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 36 (1998) 667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    E. Ficarra, D. Masotti, E. Macii, L. Benini, G. Zuccheri and B. Samori, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52 (2005) 2074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    K.J. Ziegler, U. Rauwald, Z. Gu, F. Liang, W.E. Billups, R.H. Hauge and R.E. Smalley, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7 (2007) 2917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    G. Kollensperger, G. Friedbacher, M. Grasserbauer and L. Dorffner, Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 358 (1997) 268.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    S. Venkataraman, D.P. Allison, H. Qi, J.L. Morrell-Falvey, N.L. Kallewaard, J.E. Crowe and M.J. Doktycz, Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    D.A. Chernoff, C.S. Cook and D.L. Burkhead, Polymer Preprints 41 (2) (2000) 1464.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    D.A. Chernoff and D.L. Burkhead, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17 (1999) 1457.ADSGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    S.P. Gurden, V.F. Monteiro, E. Longo and M.M.C. Ferreira, J. Microsc. 215 (2004) 13.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    S. Sheiko, M. de Silva, D. Shirvaniants, I. La Rue, S. Prokhorova, M. Moeller, K. Beers and K. Matyjaszewski, JACS 125 (2003) 6725.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    R. Raiteri, H.-J. Butt, D. Beyer and S. Jonas, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1 (1999) 4881.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    C. Gergely, B. Senger, J.C. Voegel, J.K.H. Horber, P. Schaaf, and J. Hemmerle, Ultramicroscopy 87 (2001) 67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    D.A. Ivanov, Z. Amalou and S.N. Magonov, Macromolecules 34 (2001) 8944.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    H. Jinnai, Y. Nishikawa, T. Ikehara and T. Nishi, Adv. Polym. Sci. 170 (2004) 115.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    C. Thomas, P. De Vries, J. Hardin and J. White, Science 273 (1996) 603.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    D. Gerlich, J. Beaudouin, M. Gebhard, J. Ellenberg and R. Eils, Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (2001) 852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    S. Schmidt, S.F. Nielsen, C. Gundlach, L. Margulies, X. Huang and D.J. Jensen, Science 305 (2004) 229.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    P.C. Cheng, P.P. Hwang, J.L. Wu, G. Wang and H. Kim, Eds. Focus on Multidimensional Microscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    D. Chernoff and S. Magonov, in Comprehensive Desk Reference of Polymer Characterization and Analysis, edited by R. Brady (Oxford University Press, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    M.E. Gehm and D.J. Brady, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 6090 (2006) 13.ADSGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    X. Gong-hai, S. Rong and X. Yong-qi, Optics and Procision Engineering 12 (2004) 367.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    P.G. Kotula, M.R. Keenan and J.R. Michael, Microsc. Microanal. 12 (2006) 36.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    B. Minnich, H. Leeb, E.W.N. Bernroider and A. Lametschwandtner, J. Microsc. 195 (1999) 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    MeX; Alicona Imaging GmbH. Available at Scholar
  222. 222.
    B. Javidi and F. Okano, Eds. Three-Dimensional Television, Video, and Display Technologies (Springer, New York, 2002).Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    T. Okosi, Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1976).Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    N.A. Dogson, Appl. Optics 35 (1996) 1705.ADSGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    H. Tanaka, T. Kojima, H. Tsuruta, J. Chen, T. Tanji and M. Ichihashi, J. Mater. Sci. 41 (2006) 2659.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    A.P. Hitchcock, T. Araki, H. Ikeura-Sekiguchi, N. Iwata and K. Tani, J. Phys. IV, Proc (France) 104 (2003) 509.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    J.C. Fiala, J. Microsc. 218 (2005) 52.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    W. Denk and H. Horstmann, PLoS Biol. 2 (2004) e329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    J. Alkemper and P.W. Voorhees, J. Microsc. 201 (2001) 388.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    R. Magerle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (2000) 2749.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    R. Magerle, M. Konrad, A. Knoll, N. Rehse and G. Krausch, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 84 (2001) 461.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    O. Rabinovych, R. Pedrak, I.W. Rangelow, H. Ruehling and M. Maniak, Microelectronic Engineering 73–74 (2004) 843.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    N. Rehse, S. Marr, S. Scherdel and R. Magerle, Adv. Mater. 17 (2005) 2203.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    M.W. Phaneuf, Micron 30 (1999) 277–288.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    M. Marko, C.-E. Hsieh, W.J. MoberlyChan, C.A. Mannella and J. Frank, Microsc. Microanal. 11 (2005) 802.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    L.A. Giannuzzi and F.A. Stevie, Micron 30 (1999) 197.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    H. White, Y. Pu, M. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, A.H. King, L.A. Giannuzzi, C. Urbanik-Shannon, B.W. Kempshall, A. Eisenberg, S.A. Schwarz and Y.M. Strzhemechny, Polymer 42 (2001) 1613.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    V.G.M. Sivel, J. van Den Brand, W.R. Wang, H. Mohdadi, F.D. Tichelaar, P.F.A. Alkemade and H.W. Zandbergen, J. Microsc. 214 (2004) 237.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    T. Sakata, T. Ogiwara, H. Takahashi and T. Sekine, 8th Asian Test Symposium (ATS’99) (IEEE Los Alamitus, CA, Shanghai, China, (1999), p. 389.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    E. Beach, M. Keefe, W. Heeschen and D. Rothe, Polymer 46 (2005) 11195.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    M. Kato, T. Ito, Y. Aoyama, K. Sawa, T. Kaneko, N. Kawase and H. Jinnai. 55th SPSJ Annual Meeting, May 24–26 2006, (Soc. Polymer Science Japan, Tokyo, Nagoya, Japan, 2006), p. 903.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    M.R. Arnison, C.J. Cogswell, N.I. Smith, P.W. Fekete and K.G. Larkin, J. Microsc. 199 (2000) 79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    J.G. McNally, T. Karpova, J. Cooper, and J.A. Conchello, Methods 19 (1999) 373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    J.K. Stevens, L.R. Mills and J.E. Trogadis, Eds. Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy: Volume Investigation of Biological Specimens (Academic Press, New York, 1994).Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    R. Hamza, X.-d. Zhang, C.W. Macosko, R. Stevens, and M. Listemann, Proc. ACS Aug 25–29, Orlando, FL., 1996, p. 803.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    A.E. Ribbe, Trends Polym. Sci. 5 (1997) 333.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    A.W. Watkins and K.S. Anseth, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 1326.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    F. Fergg, F.J. Keil and H. Quader, Colloid Polym. Sci. 279 (2001) 61.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    A.O. Brightman, B.P. Rajwa, J.E. Sturgis, M.E. McCallister, J.P. Robinson and S.L. Voytik-Harbin, Biopolymers 54 (2000) 222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    N.J. Zaluzec, Microsc. Today 6 (2003) 8.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    J.J. Einspahr and P.M. Voyles, Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F.D. Bene, J. Wittbordt and E.H.K. Stelzer, Science 305 (2004) 1007.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    M.A.A. Neil, R. Juskaitis and T. Wilson, Optics Lett. 22 (1997) 1905.ADSGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    C.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Mong and W.-C. Lin, Optics Lett. 27 (2002) 1773.ADSGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    S. Thomas, R. Zinter, Z. Cseresnyés, B. Hutter-Paier and A. Hofmeister, Am. Biotechnol. Lab. 21 (2003) 14.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    J. Mitic, T. Anhut, M. Meier, M. Ducros, A. Serov and T. Lasser, Optics Lett. 28 (2003) 698.ADSGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    D. Huang, E.A. Swanson, C.P. Lin, J.S. Schuman, W.G. Stinson, W. Chang and M.R. Hee, Science 254 (1991) 1178.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    J.P. Dunkers, R.S. Parnas, C.G. Zimba, R.C. Peterson, K.M. Flynn, J.G. Fujimoto and B.E. Bouma, Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 30 (1999) 139.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    J.P. Dunkers, D.P. Sanders, D.L. Hunston, M.J. Everett and W.H. Green, J. Adhes. 78 (2002) 129.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Y. Yang, R.K. Wang, E. Guyot, A.E. Haj and A. Dubois, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5690 (2005) 18.ADSGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    J. Kastner, E. Schlotthauer, D. Stifter and P. Burgholzer, Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography and X-ray Computed Tomography for Characterization of Glass-Fibre Polmer Matrix Composities. Available at Accessed November 2006.
  262. 262.
    J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sorensen, R. Baldock and D. Davidson, Science 296 (2002) 541.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    OPT scanners now available. Available at Accessed November 2006.
  264. 264.
    R.E. Botto, G.D. Cody, S.L. Dieckman, D.C. French, N. Gopalsami and P. Rizo, Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 6 (1996) 389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    L. Ciobanu and C.H. Pennington, Solid State Nucl. Magn. Reson. 25 (2004) 138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    C.G. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S.V. Roth, R. Gehrke, N. Stribeck, A. Almendarez-Camarillo and B. Lengeler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (2006) 164102.ADSGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    N. Stribeck, A.A. Camarilla, U. Nochel, C. Schroer, M. Kuhlmann, S.V. Roth, R. Gehrke and R.K. Bayer, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207 (2006) 1139.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    H. Sugimori, T. Nishi and H. Jinnai, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 10226.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    J. Frank, Ed. Electron Tomography: Methods for Three-dimensional Visualization of Structures in the Cell (Springer, New York, 2006).Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    R.J. Spontak, M.C. Williams and D.A. Agard, Polymer 29 (1988) 387.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    R.J. Spontak, J.C. Fung, M.B. Braunfeld J.W. Sedat, D.A. Agard, L. Kane, S.D. Smith, M.M. Satkowski, A. Ashraf, D.A. Hajduk and S.M. Gruner, Macromolecules 29 (1996) 4494.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    A. Takano, S. Wada, S. Sato, T. Araki, K. Hirahara, T. Kazama, S. Kawahara, Y. Isono, A. Ohno, N. Tanaka and Y. Matsushita, Macromolecules 37 (2004) 9941.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    C. Kübel, D.P. Lawrence and D.C. Martin, Macromolecules 34 (2001) 9053.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    C. Kübel, unpublished micrographs.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    P. Sengupta and J.W.M. Noordermeer, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 26 (2005) 542.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    N. Kawase, M. Kato, H. Nishioka, T. Kaneko, Y. Nishikawa and H. Jinnai. 55th SPSJ Annual Meeting, May 24–26, 2006, (Soc. Polymer Science Japan Tokyo, Nagoya, Japan, 2006), p. 1102.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    S. Kohjiya, A. Katoh, J. Shimanuki, T. Hasegawa and Y. Ikeda, Polymer 46 (2005) 4440.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    M. Weyland and P.A. Midgley, Mater. Today 7 (2004) 32.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    P.A. Midgley, in Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by N. Yao and Z.L. Wang, (Kluwer Academic, New York, 2005), p. 601.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    P.A. Midgley, M. Weyland, T.J.V. Yates, I. Arslan, R.E. Dunin-Borkowski and J.M. Thomas, J. Microsc. 223 (2006) 185.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    P.A. Midgley and M. Weyland, Ultramicroscopy 96 (2003) 413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    K. Yamauchi, K. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, H. Iatrou, N. Hadjichristidis, T. Kaneko, Y. Nishikawa, H. Jinnai, T. Matsui, H. Nishioka, M. Shimizu and H. Furukawa, Macromolecules 36 (2003) 6962.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    C. Bathias and A. Cagnasso, ASTM Special Technical Publication 1128 (1992) 35.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    L. Salvo, P. Cloetens, E. Maire, S. Zabler, J.J. Blandin, J.Y. Buffiere, W. Ludwig, E. Boller, D. Bellet and C. Josserond, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 200 (2003) 273.ADSGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    P. Weiss, D.L. Nihouannen, C. Rau, P. Pilet, E. Aguado, O. Gauthier, A. Jean and G. Daculsi, Eur. Cells Mater. 9 (2005) 48.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    W.C. Conner, S.W. Webb, P. Spanne and K.W. Jones, Macromolecules 23 (1990) 4742.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    J.S.U. Schell, M. Renggli, G.H. van Lenthe, R. Muller and P. Ermanni, Compos. Sci. Technol. 66 (2006) 2016.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    E. Bayraktar, F. Montembault and C. Bathias, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 20 (2004) 27.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    P.J. Schilling, B.R. Karedla, A.K. Tatiparthi, M.A. Verges and P.D. Herrington, Compos. Sci. Technol. 65 (2005) 2071.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    O. Gauthier, R. Muller, D. Von Stechow, B. Lamy, P. Weiss, J.-M. Bouler, E. Aguado and G. Daculsi, Biomaterials 26 (2005) 5444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    A. Elmoutaouakkil, G. Fuchs, P. Bergounhon, R. Peres and F. Peyrin, J. Phys. D 36 (2003) 37.ADSGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    T. Donath, F. Beckmann, R.G.J.C. Heijkants, O. Brunke and A. Schreyer, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc., Opt. Eng. 5535 (2004) 775.ADSGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    T.E. Gureyev, C. Raven, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva and S.W. Wilkins, J. Phys. D. 32 (1999) 563.ADSGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    C.G. Schroer, P. Cloetens, M. Rivers, A. Snigirev, A. Takeuchi and W. Yun. MRS Bull. 29 (2004) 157.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, D. Van Dyck, J.P. Guigay, M. Schlenker, and J. Baruchel, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 3772 (1999) 279.ADSGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    P. Cloetens, W. Ludwig, J. Baruchel, D. van Dyck, J. van Landuyt, J.P. Guigay and M. Schlenker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75 (1999) 2912.ADSGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    A. Momose, A. Fujii, H. Kadowaki and H. Jinnai, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 7197.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    J. Baruchel, J.-Y. Buffiere, P. Cloetens, M. Di Michiel, E. Ferrie, W. Ludwig, E. Maire and L. Salvo, Scripta, Mater. 55 (2006) 41.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    W.S. Haddad, I. McNulty, J.E. Trebes, E.H. Anderson, R.A. Levesque and L. Yang, Science 266 (1994) 1213.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Y. Wang, C. Jacobsen, J. Maseri and A. Osanna, J. Microsc. 197 (2000) 80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    W. Chao, B.D. Harteneck, J.A. Liddle, E.H. Anderson and D.T. Attwood, Nat. Cell Biol. 435 (2005) 1210.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    D.I. Bower and W.F. Maddams, The Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polymers, Reprint Ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992).Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    J.L. Koenig, Spectroscopy of Polymers, 2nd ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1999).Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    P.M. Cooke, Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 169R.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    M. Navratil, G.A. Mabbott and E.A. Arriaga, Anal. Chem. 78 (2006) 4005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    C. Marcott, R.C. Reeder, E.P. Paschalist, A.L. Boskeyt and R. Mendelsohnt. 19th International Conference—IEEE/EMBS, (IEEE NY, NY, 1997), p. 693.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    C.P. Schultz, Spectroscopy 16 (2001) 24.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    W.J. McCarthy, Microsc. Today 13 (2005) 22.Google Scholar
  309. 309.
    P. Dumas and M.J. Tobin, Spectrosc. Europe 15 (2003) 17.Google Scholar
  310. 310.
    P. Dumas, N. Jamin, J.L. Teillaud, L.M. Miller and B. Beccard, Faraday, Discuss 126 (2004) 289.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    G. Ellis, C. Marco and M. Gomez, Infrared Phys. Technol 45 (2004) 349.ADSGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    G. Ellis, C. Marco, M.A. Gomez, E.P. Collar and J.M. Garcia-Martinez, J. Macromol. Sci. Phys. 43 B (2004) 253.Google Scholar
  313. 313.
    R. Appel, W. Xu, T.W. Zerda and Z. Hu, Macromolecules 31 (1998) 5071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    T.W. Zerda, R. Appel and Z. Hu, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 82 (2001) 1040.Google Scholar
  315. 315.
    D. Garcia, M.P. Nelson and P.J. Treado, Technical Papers—American Chemical Society, Rubber Division, Spring Technical Program, 161 st. Savannah, GA, Apr. 29–May 1, 2002 (2002) 287.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    W. Schrof, J. Klingler W. Heckmann and D. Horn, Colloid Polym. Sci. 276 (1998) 577.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    C. Sammon, S. Hajatdoost, P. Eaton, C. Mura and J. Yarwood, Macromol. Symp. 141 (1999) 247.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    N.J. Everall, Appl. Spectrosc. 52 (1998) 1498.ADSGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    M. Ofuji, Y. Takano, Y. Houkawa, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, T. Mori, M. Goh, S. Guo and K. Akagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 45 (2006) 1710.Google Scholar
  320. 320.
    S. Natarajan and S. Michielsen, Textile Res. J. 69 (1999) 903.Google Scholar
  321. 321.
    U. Schmidt, S. Hild, W. Ibach and O. Hollricher, Macromol. Symp. 230 (2005) 133.Google Scholar
  322. 322.
    S.J. Stranick, D.B. Chase and C.A. Michaels, Annual Technical Conference—Society of Plastics Engineers 59th (SPE, Brookfield, CT, 2001) 1961.Google Scholar
  323. 323.
    W.X. Sun and Z.X. Shen, J. Raman Spectrosc. 34 (2003) 668.Google Scholar
  324. 324.
    D. Richards, R.G. Milner, F. Huang and F. Festy, J. Raman Spectrosc. 34 (2003) 663.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    J.A. Dieringer, A.D. McFarland, N.C. Shah, D.A. Stuart, A.V. Whitney, C.R. Yonzon, M.A. Young, X. Zhang and R.P.V. Duyne, Faraday Discuss. 132 (2006) 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    J.-X. Cheng and X.S. Xie, J. Phys. Chem. B 108 (2004) 827.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    A.G. Caster, S.-H. Lim, O. Nicolet and S.R. Leone, Spectroscopy 21 (2006) 27.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    A. Zumbusch, G. Holtom and X. Xie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 4142.ADSGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    J. Cheng, Y. Jia, G. Zheng and X. Xie, Biophys. J. 83 (2002) 502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science (Plenum Press, New York, 1996).Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    L. Reimer, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, 4th ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1997).Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    B. Fultz and J.M. Howe, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 2005).Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    R.F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, 2nd ed. (Plenum Press, New York, 1996).Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    C.C. Ahn, Ed. Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and the EELS Atlas (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005).Google Scholar
  335. 335.
    M.R. Libera and M.M. Disko, in Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and the EELS Atlas, edited by C.C. Ahn (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005).Google Scholar
  336. 336.
    L. Reimer, Ed. Energy-Filtering Transmission Electron Microscopy (Springer, New York, 1995).Google Scholar
  337. 337.
    A. Du Chesne, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200 (1999) 1813.ADSGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    A.E. Ribbe, Recent Res. Dev. Macromol. 7 (2003) 171.Google Scholar
  339. 339.
    K. Varlot, J.M. Martin, D. Gonbeau and C. Quet, Polymer 40 (1999) 5691.Google Scholar
  340. 340.
    K. Varlot, J.M. Martin and C. Quet, Polymer 41 (2000) 4599.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    C.A. Correa, B.C. Bonse, C.R. Chinaglia, J. Hage, E. and L.A. Pessan, Polym. Testing 23 (2004) 775.Google Scholar
  342. 342.
    G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann and O. Christ, Q. Rev. Biophys. 13 (1980) 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttman, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl, Proc. Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. SPIE 2516 (1995) 90.ADSGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    C. Jacobsen, S. Williams, E. Anderson, M.T. Browne, C.J. Buckley, D. Kern, J. Kirz, M. Rivers and X. Zhang, Optics Commun. 86 (1991) 351.ADSGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    H. Ade and S.G. Urquhart, in Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, edited by T.K. Sham (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002).Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    H. Ade, Trends Polym. Sci. (Cambridge) 5 (1997) 58.Google Scholar
  347. 347.
    H. Ade, A.P. Smith, S. Cameron, R. Cieslinski, G. Mitchell, B. Hsiao and E. Rightor, Polymer 36 (1995) 1843.Google Scholar
  348. 348.
    R. Takekoh, M. Okubo, T. Araki, H.D.H. Stoever and A.P. Hitchcock, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 542.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, D.C. Joy, C.E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L.C. Sawyer and J.R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  350. 350.
    A. Benninghoven, F.G. Rudenauer and H.W. Werner, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: Basic Concepts, Instrumental Aspects, Applications, and Trends (Wiley, New York, 1987).Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    R.G. Wilson, F.A. Stevie and C.W. Magee, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry: A Practical Handbook for Depth Profiling and Bulk Impurity Analysis (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1989).Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Analysis Techniques: SIMS. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  353. 353.
    D. Briggs, Surface Analysis of Polymers by XPS and Static SIMS (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998).Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    L.-T. Weng and C.-M. Chan, Appl. Surf. Sci. 252 (2006) 6570.ADSGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    W.A. Lamberti, in Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by N. Yao and Z.L. Wang (Kluwer Academic, New York, 2005), p. 207.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    C.W.T. Bulle-Lieuwma, W.J.H. Van Gennip, J.K.J. Van Duren, P. Jonkheijm, R.A.J. Janssen and J.W. Niemantsverdriet, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203–204 (2002) 547.Google Scholar
  357. 357.
    M.S. Wagner, Anal. Chem. 77 (2005) 911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    K.H. Gray, S. Gould, R.M. Leasure, I.H. Musselman, J.J. Lee, T.J. Meyer and R.W. Linton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10 (1992) 2679.ADSGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    J. Feng, C.-M. Chan and L.-T. Weng, Annual Technical Conference—Society of Plastics Engineers 58th (SPE, Brookfield, CT, 2000) 2434.Google Scholar
  360. 360.
    S. Chandra, Appl. Surf. Sci. 203–204 (2003) 679.Google Scholar
  361. 361.
    A.J. Eccles and T.A. Steele, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes. 21 (2001) 281.Google Scholar
  362. 362.
    A.J. Eccles, T.A. Steele and A.W. Robinson, Appl. Surf. Sci. 144–145 (1999) 106.Google Scholar
  363. 363.
    MILLBROOK, MiniSIMS Applications. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  364. 364.
    CAMECA, NanoSIMS Materials/Geology Application Booklet. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  365. 365.
    N. Sanada, A. Yamamoto, R. Oiwa and Y. Ohashi, Surf. Interface Anal. 36 (2004) 280.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    PHI Quantera Scanning X-ray Microprobe. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  367. 367.
    PHI Quantera Scanning X-ray Microprobe. Available at Accessed December 2006.

Copyright information

© Linda C. Sawyer, David T. Grubb 2008

Personalised recommendations