Fundamentals of Microscopy


Microscopy is the study of the fine structure and morphology of objects with the use of a microscope. Microscopes form magnified images, magnified from a few times in an optical stereo microscope to more than a million times in microscopes that can resolve individual atoms in suitable samples. Some instruments give information about a surface and not the specimen interior, but preparation methods can create an internal surface that may be imaged. Many modern microscopes are integrated with systems that give local chemical information, adding to the structural image. Apart from this, the size and visibility of the structure to be characterized generally determines which instruments are to be used. For example, the fracture of a multiphase polymer may require a light-optical technique for the ‘big picture’ but a study at higher resolution using electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy to see fine details on the fracture surface.


Atomic Force Microscope Scanning Transmission Electron Micro Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Transmission Electron Micro Magnetic Force Microscope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Spencer, Fundamentals in Light Microscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.J. Rawlins, Light Microscopy (BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 1992).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W.G. Hartley, Hartley’s Microscopy (Senecio Publishing, Charlbury, 1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Bradbury, An Introduction to the Optical Microscope (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    T.G. Rochow and P.A. Tucker, An Introduction to Microscopy by Means of Light, Electrons, X-rays, or Acoustics, 2nd ed. (Plenum, New York, 1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Telle and G. Petzow, in Materials Science and Technology, edited by E. Lifshin (VCH Publishers, Weinheim, 1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.H. Richardson, Optical Microscopy for Materials Sciences (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C.W. Mason, Handbook of Chemical Microscopy (Wiley, New York, 1983).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N.H. Hartshorne and A. Stuart, Crystals and the Polarizing Microscope (Arnold, London, 1970).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.C. Robinson and S. Bradbury, Qualitative Polarized-Light Microscopy (Oxford University Press, New York, 1992).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W.C. McCrone and J.G. Delly, Particle Atlas (Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D.B. Murphy, Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging (Wiley-Liss, Hoboken, NJ, 2001).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.A. Hemsley, Ed. Applied Polymer Light Microscopy (Elsevier Applied Science, London, New York, 1989).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.W. Davidson and M. Abramowitz, Optical Microscopy Primer. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  15. 15.
    Microscopy U: The Source for Microscopy Education. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  16. 16.
    Microscopy Resource Center. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  17. 17.
    G.E. Schlueter and W.E. Gumpertz, Am. Lab. Apr (1976) 61.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.W. Davidson and M. Abramowitz, Phase Contrast Microscopy. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  19. 19.
    R. Hoffman, J. Microsc. 110 (1977) 209.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Principles and Applications of Two-Beam Interferometry. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  21. 21.
    Differential Interference Contrast. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  22. 22.
    Refractive Index Determination by Oblique Illumination. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  23. 23.
    E1976–98 Standard Test Method for the Automated Determinaton of Refractive Index of Glass Samples Using the Oil Immersion Method and a Phase Contrast Microscope, in ASTM Annual Books of Standards (ASTM International, 2003).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E.A. Wood, Crystals and Light (Dover, New York, 1977).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Introduction to Polarized Light Microscopy. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  26. 26.
    P. Gay, An Introduction to Crystal Optics (Longmans, London, 1967).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    N.H. Hartshorne, The Microscopy of Liquid Crystals (Microscope Publications, Chicago, 1974).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    P.F. Kerr, Optical Mineralogy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Oldenbourg, Nature 381 (1996) 811.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, D.C. Joy, C.E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L.C. Sawyer and J.R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Plenum, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S.L. Flegler, J.W. Heckman and K.L. Klomparens, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy: An Introduction (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Reimer, Image Formation in Low-Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1993).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Reimer and P.W. Hawkes, Eds. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis (Springer, Berlin, 1998).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.R. White and E.L. Thomas, Rubber Chem. Technol. 57 (1984) 457.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L.C. Sawyer and D.T. Grubb, Polymer Microscopy (Chapman and Hall, London, 1987, 1996).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C.J. Catto and K.C. Smith, J. Microsc. 98 (1973) 417.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Obtained using CASINO, Monte Carlo simulation software freely downloadable from [38], a site at Universitede Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. Drouin, CASINO. Accessed July 2006.
  39. 39.
    T.E. Everhart, R.F. Herzog, M.S. Chang and W.J. DeVore. In Proc. 6th Intl. Conf. on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis, edited by G. Shinoda, K. Kohra and T. Ichinokawa (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1972), p. 81.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    V.N.E. Robinson, Scanning 3 (1980) 15.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. Autrata, Scanning Microsc. 3 (1989) 739.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    E.D. Boyes, Microsc. Microanal. 6 (2000) 307.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    C. Gaillard, P.A. Stadelmann, C.J.G. Plummer and G. Fuchs, Scanning 26 (2004) 122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.L. Vezie, W.W. Adams and E.L. Thomas, Polymer 36 (1995) 1761.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Tagawa, J. Mori, S. Aita and K. Ogura, Micron 9 (1978) 215.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D.W. Schwark, D.L. Vezie, J.R. Reffner, E.L. Thomas and B.K. Annis, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 11 (1992) 352.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    L.C. Sawyer, R.T. Chen, M.G. Jamieson, I.H. Musselman and P.E. Russell, J. Mater. Sci. 28 (1993) 225.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    S.K. Chapman, Scanning Microsc. 13 (1999) 141.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A Guide to Scanning Microscope Observation. Available at Accessed June 2006.
  50. 50.
    D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Textbook for Materials Science (Plenum Press, New York, 1996).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    L. Reimer, Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis (Springer, Berlin, 1997).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.D. Graef, Introduction to Conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    B. Fultz and J.M. Howe, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, 2nd Ed. (Springer, New York, 2002).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    R.G. Vadimsky, in Methods of Experimental Physics, edited by R.A. Fava (Academic Press, New York, 1980).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    D.T. Grubb, in Developments in Crystalline Polymers, edited by D.C. Bassett (Applied Science Publishers, London, 1982).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.E. Hall, J. Appl. Phys. 22 (1951) 655.ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    B.D. Lauterwasser and E.J. Kramer, Philos. Mag. A39 (1979) 469.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    P.B. Hirsch, A. Howie, R.B. Nicholson, D.W. Pashley and M.J. Whelan, Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals (Butterworths, London, 1965).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    E.L. Thomas, in The Structure of Crystalline Polymers, edited by I.H. Hall. (Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1984), p. 79.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.R. White, J. Mater. Sci. 9 (1974) 1860.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. Tosaka, R. Danev and K. Nagayama, Macromolecules 38 (2005) 7884.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.J. Miles and J. Petermann, J. Macromol. Sci. Phys. 2 (1979) 243.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    H.P. Zingsheim and L. Bachmann, Koll. Z. u Z. Polym. 246 (1971) 36.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    D.J. Johnson and D. Crawford, J. Microsc. 98 (1973) 313.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    D.L. Handlin and E.L. Thomas, Macromolecules 16 (1983) 1514.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    L.W. Hobbs, Ultramicroscopy 23 (1987) 339.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    V.E. Cosslett, Phys. Status Solidi 55 (1979) 545.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    P. Goodman, Fifty Years of Electron Diffraction (Riedel, Dordrecht, 1981).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    P.E. Champness, Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope (BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 2001).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D.L. Dorset, Structural Electron Crystallography (Springer, New York, 1995).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. Buseck, J. Cowley and L. Eyring, Eds. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Associated Techniques (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J.C.H. Spence, High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, 3rd ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    F. Ernst and M. Rühle, Eds. High-Resolution Imaging and Spectrometry of Materials (Springer, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    D.C. Martin and E.L. Thomas, Polymer 36 (1995) 1743.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. Tsuji and S. Kohjiya, Prog. Polym. Sci. 20 (1995) 259.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    D.C. Martin, J. Chen, J. Yang, L.F. Drummy and C. Kübel, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 43 (2005) 1749.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    C.J.G. Plummer, R. Gensler and H.-H. Kausch, Colloid Polym. Sci. 275 (1997) 1068.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    M. Tsuji, M. Fujita, T. Shimizu and S. Kohjiya, Macromolecules 34 (2001) 4827.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    M. Tosaka, M. Tsuji, S. Kohjiya, L. Cartier and B. Lotz, Macromolecules 32 (1999) 4905.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    M.G. Dobb, A.M. Hindeleh, D.J. Johnson and B.P. Saville, Nature 253 (1975) 189.ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    C. Kübel, D.P. Lawrence and D.C. Martin, Macromolecules 34 (2001) 9053.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    K. Shimamura, J.R. Minter and E.L. Thomas, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 18 (1983) 54.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    W.W. Adams, S. Kumar, D.C. Martin and K. Shimamura, Polym. Commun. 30 (1989) 285.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D.C. Martin and E.L. Thomas, Macromolecules 24 (1991) 2460.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    D.C. Martin and E.L. Thomas, J. Mater. Sci. 26 (1991) 5171.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    I.G. Voigt-Martin and H. Durst, Macromolecules 22 (1989) 186.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    I.G. Voigt-Martin, H. Krug and D.V. Dyck, J. Phys., Paris 51 (1990) 2347.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    D.C. Martin, L.L. Berger and K.H. Gardner, Macromolecules 24 (1991) 3921.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    G. Binnig, H. Rohrer, C. Gerber and H. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49 (1982) 57.ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    S. Magonov and M.-H. Whangbo, Surface Analysis with STM and AFM: Experimental and Theoretical Aspects of Image Analysis (VCH, Weinheim, 1996).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    E. Meyer, H. Hug and R. Bennewitz, Scanning Probe Microscopy: The Lab on a Tip (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    R. Wiessendanger, Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Methods and Applications (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    L.A. Bottomley, Anal. Chem. 70 (1998) 425R.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    R. Overney and V. Tsukruk, in Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers, edited by B. Ratner and V. Tsukruk (ACS, Washington, DC, 1998), p. 2.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    B.D. Ratner and V.V. Tsukruk, Eds. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers. ACS Symp. Ser. Vol 694 (ACS, Washington DC, 1998).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    S.N. Magonov and D.H. Reneker, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27 (1997) 175.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    G. Krausch, Spec. Publ. Roy. Soc. Chem. 263 (2001) 291.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    S.N. Magonov, in Handbook of Surfaces and Interfaces of Materials 2, edited by H.S. Nalwa (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001), p. 393.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    D.A. Chernoff and S.N. Magonov, in Comprehensive Desk Reference of Polymer Characterization and Analysis, edited by R.F. Brady (ACS, Oxford Press, 2003), p. 490.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    V.V. Tsukruk and N.D. Spencer, Eds. Recent Advances in Scanning Probe Microscopy of Polymers (Proc. Symp. August 2000), in Macromol. Symp. 167 (2001).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    J.D. Batteas, C.A. Michaels and G.C. Walker, Eds. Applications of Scanned Probe Microscopy to Polymers ACS Symp. Ser. 897 (ACS, Washington DC, 2005).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy: With Applications to Electric, Magnetic, and Atomic Forces (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    R. Garcia and R. Perez, Surface Science Reports 47 (2002) 197.MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. Schirmeisen, B. Anczykowski and H. Fuchs, in Applied Scanning Probe Methods, edited by B. Bushan, H. Fuchs and S. Hosaka (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), p. 3.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    F.J. Giessibl, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75 (2003) 949.ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    J.S. Villarrubia, in Applied Scanning Probe Methods, edited by B. Bushan, H. Fuchs and S. Hosaka, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003), p. 147.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    D.H. Reneker, R. Patil, S.J. Kim and V. Tsukruk, in Crystallization of Polymers, NATO ASI Series, Vol 405, edited by M. Dosière, (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1993), p. 357.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    B. Lotz, J.C. Wittmann and A.J. Lovinger, Polymer 37 (1996) 4979.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    B. Lotz, Adv. Polym. Sci. 180 (2005) 17.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J.K. Hobbs, A.K. Winkel, T.J. McMaster, A.D.L. Humphris, A.A. Baker, S. Blakely, M. Aissaoui and M.J. Miles, Macromol. Symp. 167 (2001) 1.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    S.N. Magonov and N.A. Yerina, in Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology, edited by N. Yao and Z.L. Wang (Springer, 2005), p. 113.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    S.N. Magonov and Y. Godovsky, American Laboratory 30 (1998) 15.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    D.A. Ivanov and S.N. Magonov, in Polymer Crystallization: Observations, Concepts and Interpretations, edited by J.-U. Sommer and G. Reiter (Springer, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    C.-M. Chan and L. Li, Adv. Polym. Sci. 188 (2005) 1.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    W.P. King and K.E. Goodson, Developments in Heat Transfer 13 (2004) 131.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    D.M. Price, M. Reading and T.J. Lever, J. Therm. Anal. Calorimetry 56 (1999) 673.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B. Wunderlich, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 81 (1999) 242.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    H.M. Pollock and A. Hammiche, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 34 (2001) R23.ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    M.J. Abad, A. Ares, J. Cano, F.J. Diez, J. Lopez, C. Ramirez and L. Barral, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1 (2002) 221.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    M.R. VanLandingham, J.S. Villarrubia, W.F. Guthrie and G.F. Meyers, Macromol. Symp. 167 (2001) 15.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    V. Tsukruk and V. Gorbunov, Probe Microsc. 2 (2002) 241.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    G.H. Michler, J. Macromol. Sci., Phys. B40 (2001) 277.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    T. Hugel and M. Seitz, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 22 (2001) 989.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    B. Bushan, in Applied Scanned Probe Methods, edited by B. Bushan, H. Fuchs and S. Hosaka (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2004), p. 171.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    C.M. Mate, IBM J. Res. Dev. 39 (1995) 617.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    J.A. Zasadzinski, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 1 (1996) 264.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    K. Feldman, M. Fritz, G. Hahner, A. Marti and N.D. Spencer, Tribol. Int. 31 (1998) 99.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    D. Vezenov, A. Noy and P. Ashby, J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 19 (2005) 313.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    G.J. Vancso, H. Hillborg and H. Schoenherr, Adv. Polym. Sci. 182 (2005) 55.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    M.C. Goh, Adv. Chem. Phys. 91 (1995) 1.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    V.V. Tsukruk and D.H. Reneker, Polymer 36 (1995) 1791.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    J.L. Keddie, Mater. Sci. Eng. R R21 (1997) 101.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    D.C. Sundberg and Y.G. Durant, Polym. Reaction Eng. 11 (2003) 379.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    J. Li, W. Liang, G.F. Meyers and W.A. Heeschen, Polym. News 29 (2004) 335.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    S.E. Woodcock, W.C. Johnson and Z. Chen, Polym. News 29 (2004) 176.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J.-K. Kim and A. Hodzic, J. Adhesion 79 (2003) 383.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    M. Munz, B. Cappella, H. Sturm, M. Geuss and E. Schulz, Adv. Polym. Sci. 164 (2003) 87.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    G.K. Bar and G.F. Meyers, MRS Bull. 29 (2004) 464.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    J. Teetsov, L. Denault, A. Alizadeh, S. Ghanti, W. Cicha and E. Hall, Annual Technical Conference —Society of Plastics Engineers 62nd (2004) 2357.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    F.M. Mirabella, Jr. and A. Weiskettel, Polym. News 30 (2005) 143.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    G. Binnig, C.F. Quate and C. Gerber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 (1986) 930.PubMedADSGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    O. Marti, J. Colchero and J. Mlynek, Nanotechnology 1 (1990), 141.ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    G. Neubauer, S.R. Cohen, G.M. McClelland, D. Horne and C.M. Mate, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61 (1990) 2296.ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    M. Radmacher, R.W. Tillmann and H.E. Gaub, Biophys. J. 64 (1993) 735.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    H.-N. Lin, T.-T. Hung, E.-C. Chang and S.-A. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74 (1999) 2785.ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    A. Majumdar, J.P. Carrejo and J. Lai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62 (1993) 2501.ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    F. Houze, R. Meyer, O. Schneegans and L. Boyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (1996) 1975.ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    R.C. Barrett and C.F. Quate, J. Appl. Phys. 70 (1991) 2725.ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    J. Loos, A. Alexeev and M.M. Koetse, Ultramicroscopy 106 (2006) 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    M. Knite, V. Teteris, B. Polyakov and D. Erts, Mater. Sci. Eng. C C19 (2002) 15.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    S.-H. Cho and S.-M. Park. 208th Meeting of The Electrochemical Society, Oct. 16–21 2005, ECS, Los Angeles, (2005), p. 2548.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Q. Zhong, D. Innis, K. Kjoller and V. Elings, Surf. Sci. Lett. 290 (1993), L688.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    D.A. Chernoff, in Proc. JMSA Proceedings Microscopy and MicroAnalysis 1995, edited by G.W. Bailey et al. (Jones and Begell, New York, 1995), p. 888.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Y. Martin and H.K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50 (1987) 1455.ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Y. Martin, D.W. Abraham and H.K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (1988) 1103.ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    A.V. Krayev and R.V. Talroze, Polymer 45 (2004) 8195.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    E. Schulz, H. Sturm, W. Stark and V. Bovtoun. Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE 9th International Symposium on Electrets, ISE 9, Sep. 25–27 1996, Shanghai, China, (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 334Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    T.R. Albrecht, S. Akamine, T.E. Carver and C.F. Quate, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6 (1990) 3386.ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    M. Nonnenmacher, J. Greschner, O. Wolter and R. Kassing, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9 (1991) 1358.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nanosciences, CNTekTM AFM Probes. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  161. 161.
    Nanosciences, Hi’RES AFM Probes. Available at Accessed December 2006.
  162. 162.
    D.A. Walters, D. Hampton, B. Drake, H.G. Hansma and P.K. Hansma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (1994) 787.ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    A. Folch, M.S. Wrighton and M.A. Schmidt, J. Microelectromech. Systems 6 (1997) 303.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    R.B. Marcus, T.S. Ravi, T. Gmitter, K. Chin, D. Liu, W.J. Orvis, D.R. Ciarlo, C.E. Hunt and J. Trujillo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 236.ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    S.S. Wong, A.T. Woolley, T.W. Odom, J.-L. Huang, P. Kim, D.V. Vezenov and C.M. Lieber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73 (1998) 3465.ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    J.H. Afner, C.-L. Cheung, A.T. Woolley and C.M. Lieber, Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 77 (2001) 73.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    D. Klinov and S. Magonov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 2697.ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    M.S. Isaacson, in Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, edited by M. Hayat (Van Nostrand, New York, 1977).Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    D.T. Grubb, J. Mater. Sci. 9 (1974) 1715.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    G. Kanig, Koll. Z. u Z. Polym. 251 (1973) 176.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    G. Kanig, J. Crystal Growth 48 (1980) 303.ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    D.C. Bassett and A.M. Hodge, Polymer 19 (1978) 469.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    D.C. Bassett and A.M. Hodge, Proc. Roy. Soc. A377 (1981) 25.ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    D.C. Bassett, Crit. Rev.Solid State Mater Sci. 12 (1984) 97.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    J.K. Hobbs, in Polymer Crystallization: Observations, Concepts and Interpretations, edited by J.-U. Sommer and G. Reiter (Springer, New York, 2003), p. 82.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    L.C. Sawyer and M. Jaffe, J. Mater. Sci. 21 (1986) 1897.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    R.C. Williams and H.W. Fischer, J. Mol. Biol. 52 (1970) 121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Y. Fujiyoshi, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishizuka, N. Uyeda, Y. Ishida and Y. Harada, Ultramicroscopy 5 (1980) 459.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    J. Chang, M. Marsh, F. Rixon and W. Chiu, Microsc. Microanal. 11 (Suppl 2) (2005) 308.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    K. Kobayashi and K. Sakaoku, Lab. Invest. 14 (1965) 1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    D.L. Dorset and F. Zemlin, Ultramicroscopy 17 (1985) 229.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    J.G. Grasselli and B.J. Bulkin. Eds. Analytical Raman Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1991).Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    A. Garton, D.N. Batchelder and C. Cheng, Appl. Spectrosc. 47 (1993) 922.ADSGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    R.F. Egerton, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope (Plenum Press, New York, 1986).Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    C.C. Ahn, Ed. Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and The EELS Atlas (Wiley-VCH, 2004).Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    M.R. Libera and M.M. Disko, in Transmission Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry in Materials Science and The EELS Atlas, edited by C.C. Ahn (Wiley-VCH 2004), p. 419.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    K.F.J. Heinrich and D.E. Newbury, Electron Probe Quantitation (Plenum Press, New York, 1991).Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    N.J. DiNardo, in Materials Science and Technology, edited by E. Lifshin, (VCH Publishers, Weinheim, 1994).Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    D.C. Joy, A.D. Romig and J.I. Goldstein, Principles of Analytical Electron Microscopy (Plenum, New York, 1986).Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    E.L. Hall, in Materials Science and Technology Vol 2A, edited by E. Lifshin (VCH Publishers, Weinheim, 1993).Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    J.C. Russ, Computer-Assisted Microscopy—The Measurement and Analysis of Images (Plenum Press, New York, 1990).Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    H.E. Exner, in Materials Science and Technology, edited by E. Lifshin (VCH Publishers, Weinheim, 1994).Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    D.P. Hader, Image Analysis: Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002).Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    J.C. Russ, The Image Processing Handbook, 4th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2002).Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    J.C. Russ and R.T. Dehoff, Practical Stereology, 2nd ed. (Springer, New York, 2000).Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    C.V. Howard and M.G. Reed, Unbiased Stereology (Advanced Methods), 2nd ed. (BIOS Scientific Publishers, Oxford, 2005).Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    J.K. Taylor and C. Cihon, Statistical Techniques for Data Analysis, 2nd ed. (Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 2004).MATHGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    A.C. Tamhane and D.D. Dunlop, Statistics and Data Analysis: From Elementary to Intermediate (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1999).Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    N.A. Burnham, X. Chen, C.S. Hodges, G.A. Matei, C.J.T. Roberts, M.C. Davie and S.J.B. Tendler, Nanotechnology 14 (2003) 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    J.P. Cleveland, I. Manne, D. Bocek and P.K. Hansma, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 (1993) 403.ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    C.T. Gibson, G.S. Watson and S. Myhra, Nanotechnology 7 (1996) 259.ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    J.R. Pratt, J.A. Kramar, D.B. Newell and D.T. Smith, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16 (2005) 2129.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    M.A. Poggl, A.W. McFarland, J.S. Colton and L.A. Bottomley, Anal. Chem. 77 (2005) 1192.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    J.E. Sader, J.W.M. Chon and P. Mulvaney, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70 (1999) 3967.ADSGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    J.L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64 (1993) 1868.ADSGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    J.E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84 (1998) 64.ADSGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    M.J. Higgins, R. Proksch, J.E. Sader, M. Polcik, S.M. Endoo, J.P. Cleveland and S.P. Jarvis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 (2006) 13701.ADSGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    E1813-96 Standard Practice for Measuring and Reporting Probe Tip Shape in Scanning Probe Microscopy, in ASTM Annual Books of Standards, Vol. 03.06 (ASTM International, 2002).Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    J.S. Villarrubia, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102 (1997) 425.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    K. Wetzig and D. Schulze, Eds. In Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy in Materials Research (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1995).Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    A.W. Agar, R.H. Alderson and D. Chescoe, Principles and Practice of Electron Microscope Operation, Vol 2 of Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, edited by A.M. Glauert (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1974).Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    E.P. Butler and K.F. Hale, Dynamic Experiments in the Electron Microscope, Vol 9 of Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy, edited by A.M. Glauert. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981).Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    J.A. Reffner, Am., Lab. May (1984) 29.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    A.M. Donald and B.L. Thiel, in Structure and Dynamics of Materials in the Mesoscopic Domain, Proceedings of the Royal Society-Unilever Indo-UK Forum in Materials Science and Engineering, edited by M. Lal (World Scientific, 1999), p. 1.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    D.J. Stokes, J.-Y. Mugnier and C.J. Clarke, J. Microsc. 213 (2004) 198.PubMedMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    S. Kitching and A.M. Donald, J. Microsc. 190 (1998) 357.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    P.J. James, T.J. McMaster, J.M. Newton and M.J. Miles, Polymer 41 (2000) 4223.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    G.V. Lubarsky, M.R. Davidson and R.H. Bradley, Surf. Sci. 558 (2004) 135.ADSGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    J.W.S. Hearle, J.T. Sparrow and P.M. Cross, The Use of the Scanning Electron Microscope (Pergamon, Oxford, 1972).Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    G.R. Loppnow and R.A. Mathis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (1989) 2628.ADSGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    K.A. Taylor, R.A. Milligan, C. Raeburn and P.N.T. Unwin, Ultramicroscopy 13 (1984) 185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    P.K. Vinson, J.R. Bellare, H.T. Davis, W.G. Miller and L.E. Scriven, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 142 (1992) 74.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    M.S. Silverstein, Y. Talmon and M. Narkis, Polymer 30 (1989) 416.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    N.H. Hartshorne, The Microscope 23 (1975) 177.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    S. Rastogi, in Polymer Crystallization: Observations, Concepts and Interpretations, edited by J.-U. Sommer and G. Reiter (Springer, New York, 2003).Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    J.A. Moore and J.-H. Kim, Macromolecules 25 (1992) 1427.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Linda C. Sawyer, David T. Grubb 2008

Personalised recommendations