Advertisement

Holocene Hunter–Gatherers

  • Robert L. Bettinger

Because Holocene hunter–gatherers are the best known representatives of the original human lifeway, they are popularly viewed as representing the whole of that lifeway. The term Holocene should give pause here, however, for it roughly translates in Greek as “wholly modern,” and, as we shall see, Holocene hunter–gatherers constitute but a very special case of the larger pattern. Holocene hunter–gatherers do share a good deal in common with Pleistocene hunter–gatherers, but outward similarities can be deceiving. Humans share 98% of their DNA in common with chimpanzees, for example, but humans make poor chimp analogs, just as chimps are poor analogs for much of what humans do.

Keywords

Great Basin Evolutionary Stable Strategy Diet Breadth Small Game Collector Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, A. L., Leonard, R. D., and Jones, G. T., 1996, Explaining the Change from Biface to Flake Technology. In Darwinian Archaeologies, edited by H. D. G. Maschner, pp. 33-42. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aikens, C. M. and Akazawa, T., 1996, The Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Japan and Adjacent Northeast Asia: Climate and Biotic Change, Broad-Spectrum Diet, Pottery, and Sedentism. In Humans at the End of the Ice Age, edited by L. G. Straus, B. V. Eriksen, J. M. Erlandson, and D. R. Yesner, pp. 215-227. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Allen, H., 1975, The Bagundji of the Darling Basin: Cereal Gatherers in an Uncertain Environment. World Archaeology 5:309-322.Google Scholar
  4. Arnold, J. E., 1986, Technology and Economy: Microblade Core Production from the Channel Islands. In The Organization of Core Technology, edited by J. K. Johnson and C. A. Morrow, pp. 207-237. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, R. C. and Headland, T. N., 1991, The Tropical Rainforest: Is It a Productive Environment for Human Foragers? Human Ecology 19:261-285.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, R. C., Head, G., Jenike, M., Owen, B., Rechtman, R., and Zechenter, E., 1989, Hunting and Gathering in Tropical Rain Forest: Is It Possible? American Anthropologist 91:59-82.Google Scholar
  7. Balicki, A., 1970, The Netsilik Eskimo. Natural History Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Bamforth, D. B. and Bleed, P., 1997, Technology, Flaked Stone Tools, and Risk. In Rediscovering Darwin: Evolutionary Theory in Archaeological Explanation, edited by C. M. Barton and G. A. Clark, pp. 109-139. American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  9. Barlow, K. R. and Metcalfe, D., 1996, Plant Utility Indices: Two Great Basin Examples. Journal of Archaeological Science 23:351-371.Google Scholar
  10. Barnola, J. M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Y. S., and Loris, C., 1987, Vostok Ice Core Provides 160,000-Year Record of Atmospheric CO2. Nature 329(1):408-414.Google Scholar
  11. Basgall, M. E., 1987, Resource Intensification Among Hunter-Gatherers: Acorn Economics in Prehistoric California. Research in Economic Anthropology 9:21-52.Google Scholar
  12. Basgall, M. E., 1993, Early Holocene Prehistory of the North-Central Mojave Desert. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  13. Bean, L. J. and King, T. F. (editor), 1974, ‘Antap: California Political and Economic Organization. Ballena Press Anthropological Papers 2. Ballena Press, Ramona.Google Scholar
  14. Beaton, J., 1990, The Importance of Past Population for Prehistory. In Hunter-Gatherer Demography, edited by B. Meehan and N. White, pp. 23-40. Oceania Monographs 39. University of Sydney, Sydney.Google Scholar
  15. Belfer-Cohen, A., 1991, The Natufian in the Levant. Annual Review of Anthropology 20:167-186.Google Scholar
  16. Belfer-Cohen, A., 1998, Comment on Rosenberg. Current Anthropology 39:664-665.Google Scholar
  17. Bellwood, P., 1996, The Origins and Spread of Agriculture in the Indo-Pacific Region: Gradualism and Diffusion or Revolution and Colonization. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by D. R. Harris, pp. 465-498. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Belovsky, G. E., 1987, Hunter-Gatherer Foraging: A Linear Programming Approach. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:29-76.Google Scholar
  19. Belovsky, G. E., 1988, An Optimal Foraging-Based Model of Hunter-Gatherer Population Dynamics. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7:329-372.Google Scholar
  20. Bettinger, R. L., 1980, Explanatory-Predictive Models of Hunter-Gatherer Behavior. Advances in Archaeological Theory and Method 3:189-255.Google Scholar
  21. Bettinger, R. L., 1991a, Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological and Evolutionary Perspectives. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Bettinger, R. L., 1991b, Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Bettinger, R. L., 1993, Doing Great Basin Archaeology Recently: Coping with Variability. Journal of Archaeological Research 1:43-66.Google Scholar
  24. Bettinger, R. L., 1994, How, When, and Why Numic Spread. In Across the West: Human Population Movement and the Expansion of the Numa, edited by D. B. Madsen and D. R. Rhode, pp. 44-55. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  25. Bettinger, R. L., 1999a, From Traveler to Processor: Regional Trajectories of Hunter-Gatherer Sedentism in the Inyo-Mono Region, California. In Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas: Fifty Years Since Virú, edited by B. R. Billman and G. M. Feinman, pp. 39-55. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  26. Bettinger, R. L., 1999b, What Happened in the Medithermal? In Models for the Millennium: Great Basin Anthropology Today, edited by C. Beck, pp. 62-74. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  27. Bettinger, R. L., 1999c, Faces in Prehistory: Great Basin Wetlands Skeletal Populations. In Prehistoric Lifeways in the Great Basin Wetlands: Bioarchaeological Reconstruction and Interpretation, edited by B. E. Hemphill and C. S. Larsen, pp. 321-332. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  28. Bettinger, R. L. and Baumhoff, M. A., 1982, The Numic Spread: Great Basin Cultures in Competition. American Antiquity 47:485-503.Google Scholar
  29. Bettinger, R. L., Madsen, D. B., and Elston, R. G., 1994, Prehistoric Settlement Categories and Settlement Systems in the Alashan Desert of Inner Mongolia, PRC. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 13:74-101.Google Scholar
  30. Bettinger, R. L., Malhi, R., and McCarthy, H., 1997, Central Place Models of Acorn and Mussell Processing. Journal of Archaeological Science 24:887-899.Google Scholar
  31. Binford, L. R., 1964, A Consideration of Archaeological Research Design. American Antiquity 29:425-441.Google Scholar
  32. Binford, L. R., 1968, Post-Pleistocene Adaptations. In New Perspectives in Archaeology, edited by S. R. Binford and L. R. Binford, pp. 313-341. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  33. Binford, L. R., 1978, Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Binford, L. R., 1980, Willow Smoke and Dog’s Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation. American Antiquity 45:4-20.Google Scholar
  35. Bleed, P., 1987, Optimal Design of Hunting Weapons. American Antiquity 51:737-747.Google Scholar
  36. Blitz, J. H., 1988, Adoption of the Bow in Prehistoric North America. North American Archaeologist 9:123-145.Google Scholar
  37. Blurton-Jones, N. G., 1984, A Selfish Origin for Human Food Sharing: Tolerated Theft. Ethnology and Sociobiology 5:1-3.Google Scholar
  38. Bokelmann, K., 1991, Some New Thoughts on Old Data on Humans and Reindeer in the Ahernburgian Tunnel Valley in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In The Late Glacial in North-West Europe, edited by N. Barton, A. J. Roberts, and D. A. Roe, pp. 72-81. Alden, Oxford.Google Scholar
  39. Bond, G., Showers, W., Cheseby, M., Lotti, R., Almasi, P., deMenocal, P., Priore, P., Cullen, H., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G., 1997, A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates. Science 278:1257-1266.Google Scholar
  40. Bowler, J. M., Jones, R., Allen, H., and Thorne, A. G., 1970, Pleistocene Human Remains from Australia: A Living Site and Human Cremation from Lake Mungo, Western New South Wales. World Archaeology 2:39-60.Google Scholar
  41. Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J., 1985, Culture and the Evolutionary Process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  42. Bratlund, B., 1991, A Study of Hunting Lesions Containing Flint Fragments on Reindeer Bones at Stellmoor, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. In The Late Glacial in North-West Europe, edited by N. Barton, A. J. Roberts, and D. A. Roe, pp. 193-212. Alden, Oxford.Google Scholar
  43. Broecker, W. S., 1992, Climate Cycles: Upset for Milankovitch Hypothesis. Nature 359:779-780.Google Scholar
  44. Clark, G., 1967, The Stone Age Hunters. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Clark, J. D., 1959, The Prehistory of Southern Africa. Penguin Books, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  46. Clark, J. G. D., 1952, Prehistoric Europe: The Economic Basis. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  47. Clarke, D. L., 1968, Analytical Archaeology. Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  48. Clastres, P., 1972, The Guayaki. In Hunters and Gatherers Today, edited by M. G. Bicchieri, pp. 138-174. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Coltrain, J. B., 1993, Fremont Corn Agriculture: A Pilot Stable Carbon Isotope Study. Utah Archaeology 6:49-55.Google Scholar
  50. Cowgill, G., 1975, On Causes and Consequences of Ancient and Modern Population Changes. American Anthropologist 77:505-525.Google Scholar
  51. Dansgaard, W., Clausen, H. B., Grundestrup, N., Hammer, C. U., Johnsen, S. F., Kristinsdottir, P. M., and Reeh, N., 1982, A New Greenland Deep Ice Core. Science 218:1273-1277.Google Scholar
  52. Davidson, I., 1989, La Economía del Final del Paleolítico en la España Oriental. Servicio de Investigación Prehistórica, Valencia.Google Scholar
  53. Deacon, J., 1984, Later Stone Age People and Their Descendants in Southern Africa. In Southern African Prehistory and Paleoenvironments, edited by R. G. Klein, pp. 221-328. A. A. Balkema, Boston.Google Scholar
  54. Delacorte, M. G., Hall, M. C., and Basgall, M. E., 1995, Final Report on the Evaluation of Twelve Archaeological Sites in the Southern Owens Valley, Inyo County, California. Far Western Anthropological Research Group. Submitted to California Department of Transportation, Sacramento. Contract No. 09HO78.Google Scholar
  55. Dyson-Hudson, R. and Smith, E. A., 1978, Human Territoriality: An Ecological Reassessment. American Anthropologist 80:21-41.Google Scholar
  56. Elston, R. G., Xu, C., Madsen, D. B., Zhong, K., Bettinger, R. L., Li, J., Brantingham, P. J., Wang, H., and Yu, J., 1997, New Dates for the North China Mesolithic. Antiquity 71(274):985-993.Google Scholar
  57. Fellner, R. O., 1995, Cultural Change and the Epipaleolithic of Palestine. BAR International Series, Volume 599. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  58. Fiedel, S. J., 1999, Older Than We Thought: Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity 64:95-115.Google Scholar
  59. Firth, R., 1964, Capital, Saving and Credit in Peasant Societies: A Viewpoint from Economic Anthropology. In Capital, Saving and Credit in Peasant Societies, edited by R. Firth and B. S. Yamey, pp. 15-34. George Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  60. Flannery, K. V., 1968, Archaeological Systems Theory and Early Mesoamerica. In Anthropological Archaeology in the Americas, edited by B. J. Meggers, pp. 67-87. Anthropological Society of Washington, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  61. Flannery, K. V., 1971, The Origins and Ecological Effects of Early Domestication in Iran and the Near East. In The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, edited by S. Struever, pp. 50-79. American Museum Sourcebooks in Anthropology. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York.Google Scholar
  62. Flannery, K. V. and Marcus, J., 1998, Cognitive Archaeology. In Reader in Archaeological Theory: PostProcessual and Cognitive Approaches, edited by D. S. Whitley, pp. 35-48. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  63. Flenniken, J. J., 1987, The Paleolithic Dyuktai Pressure Blade Technique of Siberia. Arctic Anthropology 24:117-132.Google Scholar
  64. Flenniken, J. J. and Wilke, P. J., 1989, Typology, Technology, and Chronology of Great Basin Dart Points. American Anthropologist 91:149-158.Google Scholar
  65. Fried, M., 1967, The Evolution of Political Society: An Essay in Political Anthropology. Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Genthon, C. J., Barnola, M., Raynaud, D., Lorius, C., Jouzel, J., Barkov, N. I., Korotkevich, Y. S., and Kotlyakov, V. M., 1987, Vostok Ice Core: Climatic Response to CO2 and Orbital Forcing Changes Over the Last Climatic Cycle. Nature 329:414-418.Google Scholar
  67. Giere, R. N., 1988, Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  68. Gifford, E., 1971, California Balanophagy. In The California Indians: A Source Book, edited by R. F. Heizer and M. A. Whipple, pp. 301-305. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  69. Gilreath, A. J., and Hildebrant, W. R., 1997, Prehistoric Use of the Coso Volcanic Field. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility, Volume 56. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  70. Godelier, M., 1973, Marxist Perspectives in Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  71. Godelier, M., 1975, Modes of Production, Kinship, and Demographic Structures. In Marxist Analyses and Social Anthropology, edited by M. Bloch, pp. 3-27. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Goland, C., 1991, The Ecological Context of Hunter-Gatherer Storage: Environmental Predictability and Environmental Risk. Michigan Discussions in Anthropology 10:107-125.Google Scholar
  73. Gopher, A., 1995, Early Pottery-Bearing Groups in Israel—the Pottery Neolithic Period. In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, edited by T. E. Levy, pp. 205-225. Leicester University Press, London.Google Scholar
  74. Goring-Morris, A. N., 1987, At the Edge: Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers in the Negev and Sinai, Part i. BAR International Series, Volume 361(ii). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  75. Goring-Morris, A. N., 1989, Developments in Terminal Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherer Socio-Cultural Systems: A Perspective from the Negev and Sinai Deserts. In People and Culture Change, edited by I. Hershkovits, pp. 2-28. BAR International Series, Volume 508(2). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Goring-Morris, A. N., 1995, Complex Hunter-Gatherers at the End of the Paleolithic (20,000-10,000 B.P.). In The Archaeology of the Holy Land, edited by T. E. Levy, pp. 141-168. Leicester University Press, London.Google Scholar
  77. Goring-Morris, N. and Belfer-Cohen, A., 1998, The Articulation of Cultural Processes and Late Quaternary Environmental Changes in Cisjordan. Paleorient 23:71-93.Google Scholar
  78. Gould, R. A., 1969, Yiwara: Foragers of the Australian Desert. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  79. Green, F. E., 1963, The Clovis Blades: An Important Addition to the Llano Complex. American Antiquity 29:145-165.Google Scholar
  80. Hall, R. L., 1977, An Anthropocentric Perspective for Eastern United States Prehistory. American Antiquity 42:499-518.Google Scholar
  81. Hamilton, W. D., 1964, The Genetical Theory of Altruistic Behavior I, II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1-52.Google Scholar
  82. Hardin, R., 1968, Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162:1243-1248.Google Scholar
  83. Hardin, R., 1982, Collective Action. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  84. Hawkes, K., 1990, Why Do Men Hunt? Benefits for Risky Choices. In Risk and Uncertainty in Tribal and Peasant Economies, edited by E. Cashdan, pp. 145-166. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  85. Hawkes, K., 1991, Showing Off: Tests of an Hypothesis About Men’s Foraging Goals. Ethology and Sociobiology 12:29-54.Google Scholar
  86. Hawkes, K. and O’Connell, J. F., 1981, Affluent Hunters? Some Comments in Light of the Alywara Case. American Anthropologist 83:622-626.Google Scholar
  87. Hawkes, K. and O’Connell, J. F., 1992, On Optimal Foraging Models and Subsistence Transitions. Current Anthropology 33:63-66.Google Scholar
  88. Hawkes, K., Hill, K. and O’Connell, J. F., 1982, Why Hunters Gather: Optimal Foraging and the Ache of Eastern Paraguay. American Ethnologist 9:379-398.Google Scholar
  89. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., and Blurton-Jones, N. G., 1991, Hunting Income Patterns Among the Hadza: Big Game, Common Goods, Foraging Goals and Evolution of the Human Diet. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B No. 334, London.Google Scholar
  90. Hawkes, K., O’Connell, J. F., Blurton-Jones, N. G., Alvarez, H., and Charnov, E. L., 1998, Grandmothering, Menopause, and the Evolution of Human Life Histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95(3):1336-1339.Google Scholar
  91. Hayden, B., 1981, Research and Development Back in the Stone Age: Technological Transitions Among Pleistocene Hunter-Gatherers. Current Anthropology 22:519-548.Google Scholar
  92. Hayden, B., 1987, From Chopper to Celt: The Evolution of Resharpening Techniques. Lithic Technology 16:33-43.Google Scholar
  93. Hayden, B., 1992, Contrasting Expectations in Theories of Domestication. In Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory, edited by A. Gebauer and T. Price, pp. 11-19. Prehistory Press, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  94. Hayden, B., 1995a, A New Overview of Domestication. In Last Hunters—First Farmers, edited by T. D. Price and A. B. Gebauer, pp. 273-299. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  95. Hayden, B., 1995b, Pathways to Power: Principles for Creating Socioeconomic Inequalities. In Foundations of Social Inequality, edited by T. D. Price and G. M. Feinman, pp. 15-85. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  96. Hayden, B., Deal, M., Cannon, A., and Casey, J., 1986, Ecological Determinants of Women’s Status Among Hunter-Gatherers. Human Evolution 1:449-474.Google Scholar
  97. Headland, T. N., 1997, Revisionism in Ecological Anthropology. Current Anthropology 38:605-630.Google Scholar
  98. Headland, T. N., and Reid, L. A., 1989, Hunter-Gatherers and Their Neighbors from Prehistory to the Present. Current Anthropology 30:43-66.Google Scholar
  99. Heizer, R. F., 1941, The Direct-Historical Approach to California Archaeology. American Antiquity 7:98-122.Google Scholar
  100. Hemphill, B. E. and Larsen, C. S. (editor), 1999, Prehistoric Lifeways in the Great Basin Wetlands: Bioarchaeological Reconstruction and Interpretation. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  101. Henry, D. O., 1989, From Foraging to Agriculture: The Levant at the End of the Ice Age. University of Pennsylvannia Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  102. Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M., 1996, Ache Life History. Aldine De Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
  103. Hill, K. and Kaplan, H., 1988, Tradeoffs in Male and Female Reproductive Strategies Among the Ache, Part 1. In Human Reproductive Behavior: A Darwinian Perspective, edited by L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff-Mulder, and P. Turke, pp. 277-289. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Hiscock, P., 1994, Technological Response to Risk in Holocene Australia. Journal of World Prehistory 8:267-292.Google Scholar
  105. Hiscock, P., and Attenbrow, V., 1998, Early Holocene Backed Artefacts from Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 33:49-62.Google Scholar
  106. Ingold, T., 1980, Hunters, Pastoralists, and Ranchers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  107. Ingold, T., 1988, Notes on the Foraging Mode of Production. In Hunter-gatherers: History, Evolution, and Social Change, edited by T. Ingold, D. Riches, and J. Woodburn, pp. 269-285. Berg, Oxford.Google Scholar
  108. Ives, J. W., 1993, Developmental Processes in the Pre-Contact History of Athapaskan, Algonquian, and Numic Kin Systems. In Transformations of Kinship, edited by M. Godelier, T. R. Trautmann, and F. E. T. S. Fat, pp. 94-139. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  109. Jochim, M. A., 1976, Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence and Settlement: A Predictive Model. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Jouzel, J., Lorius, C., Petit, J. R., Genthon, C., Barkov, N. I., Kotlyakov, V. M., and Petrov, V. M., 1987, Vostok Ice Core: A Continuous Isotope Temperature Record Over the Last Climatic Cycle (160,000 years). Nature 329:403-408.Google Scholar
  111. Kaplan, H., and Hill, K., 1985, Food Sharing among Ache Foragers: Tests of Explanatory Hypotheses. Current Anthropology 26:223-246.Google Scholar
  112. Keeley, L. H., 1988, Hunter-Gatherer Economic Complexity and “Population Pressure”: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Journal of Anthropological Anthropology 7:373-411.Google Scholar
  113. Keeley, L. H., 1991, Ethnographic Models for Late Glacial Hunter-Gatherers. In The Late Glacial in NorthWest Europe: Human Adaptation and Environmental Change at the End of the Pleistocene, edited by N. Barton, A. J. Roberts, and D. A. Roe, pp. 179-190. Alden, Oxford.Google Scholar
  114. Keeley, L. H., 1992, The Use of Plant Foods Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Survey. In Prehistoire de l’Agriculture: Nouvelles Approaches Experimentales et Ethnographiques, edited by P. C. Anderson, pp. 29-38. Monographie du CRA, Volume 6. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  115. Kelly, R. L., 1983, Hunter-Gatherer Mobility Strategies. In Journal of Anthropological Research, 39:277-306.Google Scholar
  116. Kelly, R. L., 1988, Archaeological Context. In Preliminary Investigations in Stillwater Marsh: Human Prehistory and Geoarchaeology, edited by C. Raven and R. G. Elston, pp. 5-20. Cultural Resource Series No. 1. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 1, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  117. Kelly, R. L., 1995, The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., and London.Google Scholar
  118. Kent, S., 1993, Sharing In An Egalitarian Kalahari Community. Man 28:479-514.Google Scholar
  119. Kent, S., 1995, Does Sedentarization Promote Inequality: A Case Study from the Kalahari. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1:513-536.Google Scholar
  120. Kerr, R. A., 1993, Even Warm Climates Get the Shivers. Science 261:292.Google Scholar
  121. Kerr, R. A., 1998, Sea Floor Records Reveal Interglacial Climatic Cycles. Science 279:1304-1305.Google Scholar
  122. Klein, R. G., 1999, The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  123. Knauft, B. M., 1987, Reconsidering Violence in Simple Human Societies: Homicide Among the Gebusi of New Guinea. Current Anthropology 28:457-500.Google Scholar
  124. Kroeber, A. L., 1939, Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America. Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 38. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  125. Kuhn, T. S., 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  126. Kutzbach, J. E. and Webb, I. T., 1993, Conceptual Basis for Understanding Late-Quaternary Climates. In Global Climates Since the Last Glacial Maximum, edited by J. H. E. Wright, J. E. Kutzbach, W. F. Ruddiman, F. A. Street-Perrott, I. T. Webb, and P. J. Bartlein, pp. 5-11. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  127. Larsen, C., 1982, The Anthropology of St. Catherines Island, Volume 3: Prehistoric Human Biological Adaptation. Anthropological Papers, Volume 57(3). American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Layton, R., 1992, Australian Rock Art: A Synthesis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  129. Layton, R., Foley, R., and Williams, E., 1991, The Transition between Hunting and Gathering and the Specialized Husbandry of Resources. Current Anthropology 32:255-274.Google Scholar
  130. LeBlanc, S. A., 1997, Modeling Warfare in Southwestern Prehistory. North American Archaeologist 18:235-276.Google Scholar
  131. Lee, R. B., 1969, !Kung Bushman Subsistence: An Input-Output Analysis. In Contributions to Anthropology: Ecological Essays, edited by D. Damas, pp. 73-94. National Museum Canada Bulletin No. 230. Ottawa.Google Scholar
  132. Lee, R. B., 1979, The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  133. Lee, R. B., 1984, The Dobe !Kung. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  134. Lewis-Williams, J. D., 1982, The Economic and Social Context of Southern San Rock Art. Current Anthropology 23:429-449.Google Scholar
  135. Lewis-Williams, J. D., 1988, The Sign of All Times: Entopic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art. Current Anthropology 24:201-245.Google Scholar
  136. Lourandos, H., 1993, Hunter-Gatherer Cultural Dynamics: Long- and Short-Term Trends in Australian Prehistory. Journal of Archaeological Research 1:67-88.Google Scholar
  137. MacArthur, R. H. and Pianka, E., 1966, On Optimal Use of a Patchy Environment. American Naturalist 100:603-609.Google Scholar
  138. Madsen, D. B. and Schmitt, D. N., 1998, Mass Collecting and the Diet Breadth Model: A Great Basin Example. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:445-455.Google Scholar
  139. Maschner, H. D. G., 1992, The Origins of Hunter-Gatherer Sedentism and Political Complexity: A Case Study from the Northern Northwest Coast. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  140. Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Whitlow, S., Twickler, M. S., Morrison, M. C., Alley, R. B., Bloomfield, P., and Taylor, K., 1993, The Atmosphere During the Younger Dryas. Science 261:195-200.Google Scholar
  141. Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Twickler, M. S., Whitlow, S., Yang, Q., Lyons, W. B., and Prentice, M., 1997, Major Features and Forcing of High-Latitude Northern Atmospheric Circulation Using a 110,000 YearLong Glaciochemical Series. Journal of Geophysical Research 102(C12):26, 345-26, 366.Google Scholar
  142. Maynard Smith, J., 1982, Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  143. Maynard Smith, J., 1991, Theories of Sexual Selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:146-151.Google Scholar
  144. Mazel, A. and Parkington, J., 1981, Stone Tools and Resources: A Case Study from Southern Africa. World Archaeology 13:17-29.Google Scholar
  145. McCarthy, H., 1993, A Political Economy of Western Mono Acorn Production. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  146. McGhee, R., 1984, Thule Prehistory of Canada. In Artic, edited by D. Damas, pp. 369-376. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 5. W. Sturtevant, general editor. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  147. McGuire, K. R. and Hall, M. C., 1988, The Archaeology of Tiefort Basin, Fort Irwin, San Bernardino County, California. Far Western Anthropological Research Group, Davis, CA.Google Scholar
  148. Meillassoux, C., 1973, On the Mode of Production of the Hunting Band. In French Perspectives in African Studies, edited by P. Alexandre, pp. 187-203. International African Institute, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  149. Milankovitch, M. M., 1941, Canon of Insolation and the Ice-Age Problem. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Department of Commerce and National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  150. Moratto, M. J., King, T. F., and Woolfenden, W. B., 1978, Archaeology and California’s Climate. Journal of California Anthropology 5:147-162.Google Scholar
  151. Morwood, M. J., 1984, The Prehistory of the Central Queensland Highlands. Advances in World Prehistory 3:325-380.Google Scholar
  152. Mueller, J. W. (editor), 1975, Sampling in Archaeology. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  153. Murphy, R. F., 1970, Basin Ethnography and Ecological Theory. In Languages and Cultures of Western North America: Essays in Honor of Sven Liljeblad, pp. 152-171. Idaho State University Press, Pocatello.Google Scholar
  154. Nelson, M. C., 1991, The Study of Technological Organization. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 3:57-100.Google Scholar
  155. Nelson, W., 1996, A Paleodietary Approach to Late Prehistoric Hunter-gatherer Settlement-Subsistence Change in the Great Basin: The Fish Slough Cave Example. Paper presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, New Orleans.Google Scholar
  156. O’Brien, S. R., Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Meese, D. A., Twickler, M. S., and Whitlow, S. I., 1995, Complexity of Holocene Climate as Reconstructed from a Greenland Ice Core. Science 270:1962-1964.Google Scholar
  157. O’Connell, J. F., 1974, Spoons, Knives, and Scrapers: The Function of Yilugwa in Central Australia. Mankind 9:189-194.Google Scholar
  158. O’Connell, J. F., 1979, Room to Move: Contemporary Alyawara Settlement Patterns and Their Implications for Aboriginal Housing Policy. In A Black Reality: Aboriginal Camps and Housing in Remote Australia, edited by M. Heppell, pp. 97-120. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.Google Scholar
  159. O’Connell, J. F. and Hawkes, K., 1981, Alyawara Plant Use and Optimal Foraging Theory. In Hunter-Gatherer Foraging Strategies: Ethnographic and Archaeological Analyses, edited by B. Winterhalder and E. A. Smith, pp. 99-125. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  160. O’Connell, J. F. and Hawkes, K., 1984, Food Choice and Foraging Sites Among the Alyawara. Journal of Anthropological Research 40:504-535.Google Scholar
  161. Oppo, D., 1997, Millennial Climate Oscillations. Science 278:1244-1246.Google Scholar
  162. Orlean, A., 1988, Money and Mimetic Speculation. In Violence and Truth: On the Work of René Girard, edited by P. Dumouchel, pp. 101-112. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  163. Oswalt, W. H., 1976, An Anthropological Analysis of Food-Getting Technology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  164. Parkington, J. E., 1984, Changing Views of the Later Stone Age of South Africa. Advances in World Prehistory 3:89-142.Google Scholar
  165. Parkington, J., Yates, R., Manhire, A., and Halkett, D., 1986, Social Impact of Pastoralism in the Southwestern Cape. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:313-329.Google Scholar
  166. Parry, W. J. and Kelly, R. L., 1987, Expedient Core Technology and Sedentism. In The Organization of Core Technology, edited by J. K. Johnson and C. A. Morrow, pp. 285-304. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  167. Pate, F. D., 1998, Stable Carbon Isotope and Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Diet in the Lower Murray River Basin, South Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 33:92-99.Google Scholar
  168. Peregrine, P. N. and Ember, M., 1997, HRAF and Archaeology: Collection of Archaeology and Encyclopedia of Prehistory. HRAF News, Series 21(3):3.Google Scholar
  169. Price, T. D., 1983, The European Mesolithic. American Antiquity 48:761-778.Google Scholar
  170. Price, T. D., 1985, Affluent Foragers of the Mesolithic Southern Scandinavia. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Complexity, edited by T. D. Price and J. A. Brown, pp. 341-363. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  171. Price, T. D., 1991, The Mesolithic of Northern Europe. Annual Review of Anthropology 20:211-233.Google Scholar
  172. Price, T. D. and Brown, J. A., 1985a, Aspects of Hunter-Gatherer Complexity. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity, edited by T. D. Price and J. A. Brown, pp. 3-20. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  173. Price, T. D. and Brown, J. A. (editor), 1985b, Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity. Academic Press, Orlando.Google Scholar
  174. Rappaport, R. A., 1971, The Sacred in Human Evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2:23-44.Google Scholar
  175. Rey, P. P., 1979, Class Contradiction in Lineage Societies. Critique of Anthropology 13/14:41-60.Google Scholar
  176. Roberts, D. F., 1953, Body Weight, Race, and Climate. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 11:533-558.Google Scholar
  177. Rosenberg, M., 1998, Cheating at Musical Chairs: Territoriality and Sedentism in an Evolutionary Context. Current Anthropology 39:653-680.Google Scholar
  178. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1983, Sedentary Hunters: The Ertbolle Example. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory, edited by G. N. Bailey, pp. 111-126. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  179. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1998a, Review Article: On the Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism—Are the Grey Horses Dead? International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 8:218-224.Google Scholar
  180. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1998b, Cemeteries, Seasonality, and Complexity in the Ertebolle of Southern Scandinavia. In Harvesting the Sea, Farming the Forest: The Emergence of Neolithic Societies in the Baltic Region, edited by M. Zvelebil, L. Domanska, and R. Dennell, pp. 193-202. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.Google Scholar
  181. Rowley-Conwy, P., 1999, Economic Prehistory in Southern Scandinavia. In World Prehistory: Studies in Memory of Grahame Clark, edited by J. Coles, R. Brewley, and P. Mellars, pp. 125-159. Proceedings of the British Academy, Volume 99. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  182. Rowley-Conwy, P., 2000, Complexity in the Mesolithic of the Atlantic Facade: Development or Adaptation. In The Mesolithic of the Atlantic Facade, edited by M. G. Morales and G. A. Clark. Oxbow Books, Oxford, in press.Google Scholar
  183. Rowley-Conwy, P., and Zvelebil, M., 1989, Saving It for Later: Storage by Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers in Europe. In Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty, edited by P. Halstead and J. O’Shea, pp. 40-56. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  184. Ruff, C. B., 1999, Skeletal Structure and Behavioral Patterns of Prehistoric Great Basin Populations. In Prehistoric Lifeways in the Great Basin Wetlands: Bioarchaeological Reconstruction and Interpretation , edited by B. E. Hemphill and C. S. Larsen, pp. 290-320. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
  185. Rust, A., 1943, Die alt-und mittelsteinzeilichen Funde von Stellmoor. Wachholtz, Neumunster.Google Scholar
  186. Sage, R. A., 1995, Was Low Atmospheric CO2 During the Pleistocene a Limiting Factor for the Origin of Agriculture? Global Change Biology 1:93-106.Google Scholar
  187. Sahlins, M. D., 1968, Notes on the Original Affluent Society. In Man the Hunter, edited by R. B. Lee and I. Devore, pp. 85-89. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  188. Sampson, C. G., 1974, The Stone Age Archaeology of Southern Africa. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  189. Sampson, C. G., 1988, Stylistic Boundaries Among Mobile Hunter-Foragers. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  190. Sandweiss, D. H., Richardson, J. B., Reitz, E. J., Rollins, H. B., and Maash, K. A., 1996, Geoarchaeological Evidence from Peru for a 5000 Years B.P. Onset of El Nino. Science 273(5281):1531-1533.Google Scholar
  191. Schelling, T. C., 1978, Micromotives and Macrobehavior. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  192. Schoeninger, M. J. and Moore, K., 1992, Bone Stable Isotope Studies in Archaeology. Journal of World Prehistory 6:247-296.Google Scholar
  193. Sealy, J., 1986, Stable Carbon Isotopes and Prehistoric Diets in the South-Western Cape Province, South Africa. BAR International Series 293. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.Google Scholar
  194. Sealy, J. and van der Merwe, N. J., 1988, Social, Spatial, and Chronological Patterning in Marine Food Use as Determined by Delta-13C Measurements of Holocene Human Skeletons from the Southwestern Cape, South Africa. World Archaeology 20:87-102.Google Scholar
  195. Silberbauer, G. B., 1972, The G/Wi Bushmen. In Hunters and Gatherers Today, edited by M. G. Bicchieri, pp. 271-326. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  196. Smith, C. and Bonsall, C., 1991, Late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Chronology: Points of Interest from Recent Research. In The Late Glacial in North-West Europe, edited by N. Barton, A. J. Roberts, and D. A. Roe, pp. 208-212. Alden, Oxford.Google Scholar
  197. Smith, M. A., 1986, The Antiquity of Seedgrinding in Arid Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 21:29-39.Google Scholar
  198. Sollas, W. J., 1915, Ancient Hunters and Their Modern Representatives. 2nd ed. Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  199. Speth, J., and Spielmann, K., 1983, Energy Source, Protein Metabolism, and Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Strategies. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 2:1-31.Google Scholar
  200. Spielmann, K. A., Schoeninger, M. J., and Moore, K., 1991, Plains-Pueblo Interdependence and Human Diet at Pecos Pueblo, New Mexico. American Antiquity 55:745-765.Google Scholar
  201. Spielmann, K. A. and Eder, J. F., 1994, Hunters and Farmers: Then and Now. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:303-323.Google Scholar
  202. Stephens, D. W. and Charnov, E. L., 1982, Optimal Foraging: Some Simple Stochastic Models. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10:251-263.Google Scholar
  203. Steward, J. H., 1936, The Economic and Social Basis of Primitive Bands. In Essays in Honor of A. L. Kroeber, edited by R. Lowie, pp. 331-350. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  204. Steward, J. H., 1937, Ecological Aspects of Southwestern Society. Anthropos 32:85-104.Google Scholar
  205. Steward, J. H., 1938, Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, Volume 120. Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  206. Steward, J. H., 1942, The Direct Historical Approach to Archaeology. American Antiquity 7:337-443.Google Scholar
  207. Steward, J. H., 1955, Theory of Culture Change. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  208. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Beck, J. W., Burr, G. S., Hughen, K. A., Kromer, B., McCormack, G., Plicht, J. V. D., and Spurk, M., 1998, INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000-0 cal B.P. Radiocarbon 40 (3):1041-1083.Google Scholar
  209. Sugden, R., 1986, The Economics of Rights, Co-Operation and Welfare. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  210. Taylor, W. W., 1948, A Study of Archaeology. Memoirs, Volume 69. American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  211. Testart, A., 1982, The Significance of Food Storage Among Hunter-Gatherers: Residence Patterns, Population Densities, and Social Inequities. Current Anthropology 23:523-537.Google Scholar
  212. Testart, A., 1987, Game Sharing Systems and Kinship Systems Among Hunter-gatherers. Man 22:287-304.Google Scholar
  213. Thomas, D. H., 1969, Regional Sampling in Archaeology: A Pilot Great Basin Research Design. In University of California Archaeological Survey Annual Report, Volume 11, pp. 87-100. University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  214. Thomas, D. H., 1983, The Archaeology of Monitor Valley 1. Epistemology. Anthropological Papers, Volume 58 (1). American Museum of Natural History, New York.Google Scholar
  215. Tindale, N. B., 1972, The Pitjandjara. In Hunters and Gatherers Today, edited by M. G. Bicchieri, pp. 217-268. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York.Google Scholar
  216. Torrence, R., 1983, Time Budgeting and Hunter-Gatherer Technology. In Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory: A European Perspective, edited by G. Bailey, pp. 11-22. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  217. Torrence, R., 1989, Re-Tooling: Towards a Behavioral Theory of Stone Tools. In Time, Energy, and Stone Tools, edited by R. Torrence, pp. 57-66. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  218. Valla, F., 1995, The First Settled Societies—Natufian (12,500-10,200 B.P.). In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, edited by T. E. Levy, pp. 169-187. Leicester University Press, London.Google Scholar
  219. Vayda, A. P. and Rappaport, R. A., 1968, Ecology, Cultural and Non-Cultural. In Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, edited by J. A. Clifton, pp. 477-497. Houghton, Boston.Google Scholar
  220. Wallace, E., 1978, Sexual Status and Role Differences. In Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8: California), edited by R. F. Heizer, pp. 683-689. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  221. Wedel, W. R., 1938, The Direct-Historical Approach to Pawnee Archeology. In: Miscellaneous Collections, Volume 97(7). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  222. Weissner, P., 1983, Style and Social Information in Kalahari San Projectile Points. American Antiquity 48:235-276.Google Scholar
  223. Wells, L., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Wells, L. E., Noller, J. S., Sandweiss, D. H., Richardson III J. B., Reitz, E. J., Rollins, H. B., and Maasch, K., 1997, Determining the Early History of El Nino. Science 276(5214):965-967.Google Scholar
  224. White, J. P., 1968, Ston Naip Bilong Tumbunda: The Living Stone Age in New Guinea. In La Prehistoire: Problemes et Tendances, edited by D. de Sonneville-Bordes, pp. 511-516. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris.Google Scholar
  225. White, J. P. and O’Connell, J. F., 1982, A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  226. Whitley, D. S., 1998, By the Hunter, for the Gatherer. In Reader in Archaeological Theory: Post-Processual and Cognitive Approaches, edited by D. S. Whitley, pp. 257-274. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  227. Williams, G., 1966, Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  228. Wilmsen, E. N., 1989, Land Filled with Flies. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  229. Wilson, E. O., 1978, On Human Nature. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  230. Winterhalder, B., 1980, Canadian Fur Bearer Cycles and Cree-Ojibwa Hunting and Trapping Practices. American Naturalist 115:870-879.Google Scholar
  231. Winterhalder, B., 1986a, Diet Choice, Risk, and Food Sharing in a Stochastic Environment. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5:369-392.Google Scholar
  232. Winterhalder, B., 1986b, Optimal Foraging: Simulation Studies of Diet Choice in a Stochastic Environment. Journal of Ethnobiology 6:205-223.Google Scholar
  233. Winterhalder, B., 1990, An Ecological Explanation For Limted-Effort Foraging. Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Hunting and Gathering Societies, Fairbanks, AK.Google Scholar
  234. Winterhalder, B., 1996, A Marginal Model of Tolerated Theft. Ethology and Sociobiology 17:37-53.Google Scholar
  235. Winterhalder, B. and Goland, C., 1993, On Population, Foraging Efficiency, and Plant Domestication. Current Anthropology 34:710-715.Google Scholar
  236. Winterhalder, B., Baillargeon, W., Cappelletto, F., Daniel, Jr., I. R., and Prescott, C., 1988, The Population Ecology of Hunter-Gatherers and Their Prey. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 7:289-328.Google Scholar
  237. Wobst, H. M., 1974, Boundary Conditions for Paleolithic Social Systems: A Simulation Approach. American Antiquity 39:147-178.Google Scholar
  238. Wobst, H. M., 1978, The Archaeo-Ethnology of Hunter-Gatherers or the Tyranny of the Ethnographic Record in Archaeology. American Antiquity 43:303-309.Google Scholar
  239. Wohlgemuth, E., 1996, Resource Intensification in Prehistoric Central California : Evidence from Archaeobotanical Data. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 18:81-103.Google Scholar
  240. Woodborne, S., Hart, K., and Parkington, J., 1995, Seal Bones as Indicators of the Timing and Duration of Hunter-gatherer Coastal Visits. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:727-740.Google Scholar
  241. Woodburn, J., 1980, Hunter-Gatherers Today and Reconstruction of the Past. In Soviet and Western Anthropology, edited by E. Gellner, pp. 95-117. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  242. Woodburn, J., 1982, Egalitarian Societies. Man 17:431-451.Google Scholar
  243. Wynne-Edwards, V. C., 1962, Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  244. Yengoyan, A., 1968, Demographic and Ecological Influences on Aboriginal Australian Marriage Sections. In Man the Hunter, edited by R. B. Lee and I. Devore, pp. 185-199. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  245. Young, D. A. and Bettinger, R. L., 1992, The Numic Spread: A Computer Simulation. American Antiquity 57:85-99.Google Scholar
  246. Zvelebil, M., 1993, The Evolution of Postglacial Lithic Technologies in Northern Europe. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  247. Zvelebil, M., 1996, The Agricultural Frontier and the Transition to Farming in the Circum-Baltic Region. In The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, edited by D. R. Harris, pp. 323-345. University College London Press, London.Google Scholar
  248. Zvelebil, M. and Rowley-Conwy, P., 1986a, Foragers and Farmers in Atlantic Europe. In Hunters in Transition, edited by M. Zvelebil, pp. 67-93. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  249. Zvelebil, M. and Rowley-Conwy, P., 1986b, The Transition to Farming in Northern Europe: A Hunter-Gatherer Perspective. In Hunters in Transition: Mesolithic Societies of Temperature Eurasia and Their Transition to Farming, edited by M. Zvelebil, pp. 67-93. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Bettinger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations