Advertisement

Fully Modern Humans

  • Richard G. Klein

For decades paleoanthropologists have pondered whether modern humans evolved throughout the human geographic range or in only a small part. Debate continues, but the accumulating fossil, archaeological, and genetic evidence increasingly points to a restricted origin in Africa from which modern humans spread to replace or swamp their nonmodern contemporaries elsewhere. The case is particularly clear with regard to the replacement of the Neanderthals in Europe and western Asia beginning 50,000 to 40,000 years ago and more uncertain with respect to the fate of nonmodern people in eastern Asia. It is not that eastern Asia suggests a contrary result, but that it presents too few data for any persuasive conclusion.

Keywords

Electron Spin Resonance Optically Stimulate Luminescence Modern Human Physical Anthropology Stone Artifact 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ambrose, S. H., 1998a, Chronology of the Later Stone Age and Food Production in East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:377-392.Google Scholar
  2. Ambrose, S. H., 1998b, Late Pleistocene Human Population Bottlenecks, Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans. Journal of Human Evolution 34:623-651.Google Scholar
  3. Arensburg, B., Schepartz, L. A., Tillier, A. M., Vandermeersch, B., and Rak, Y., 1990, Reappraisal of the Anatomical Basis for Speech in Middle Palaeolithic Hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 83:137-146.Google Scholar
  4. Arsuaga, J. L., Martínez, I., Gracia, A., and Lorenzo, C., 1997, The Sima de los Huesos Crania (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain): A Comparative Study. Journal of Human Evolution 33:219-281.Google Scholar
  5. Avery, G., Cruz-Uribe, K., Goldberg, P., Grine, F. E., Klein, R. G., Lenardi, M. J., Marean, C. W., Rink, W. J., Schwarcz, H. P., Thackeray, A. I., and Wilson, M. L., 1997, The 1992-1993 Excavations at the Die Kelders Middle and Later Stone Age Cave Site, South Africa. Journal of Field Archaeology 24:263-291.Google Scholar
  6. Bahn, P., 1998, Archaeology: Neanderthals Emancipated. Nature 394:719-721.Google Scholar
  7. Bar-Yosef, O., 1994, The Contributions of Southwest Asia to the Study of the Origin of Modern Humans. In Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans, edited by M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki, pp. 23-66. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Bar-Yosef, O., 1998a, The Chronology of the Middle Paleolithic of the Levant. In Neandertals and Modern Humans in Western Asia, edited by T. Akazawa, K. Aoki and O. Bar-Yosef, pp. 39-56. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Yosef, O., 1998b, On the Nature of Transitions: The Middle to Upper Palaeolithic and the Neolithic Revolution. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8:141-163.Google Scholar
  10. Bar-Yosef, O. and Vandermeersch, B., 1993, Modern Humans in the Levant. Scientific American April 1993:94-100.Google Scholar
  11. Bednarik, R. G., 1992, Palaeoart and Archaeological Myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2:27-42.Google Scholar
  12. Berger, T. D. and Trinkaus, E., 1995, Patterns of Trauma Among the Neandertals. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:841-852.Google Scholar
  13. Bickerton, D., 1990, Language and Species. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  14. Bischoff, J. L., Julia, R., and Mora, R., 1988, Uranium-Series Dating of the Mousterian Occupation at Abric Romaní, Spain. Nature 332:668-670.Google Scholar
  15. Bischoff, J. L., Ludwig, K., Garcia, J. F., Carbonell, E., Vaquero, M., Stafford, T. W. J., and Jull, A. J. T., 1994, Dating of the Basal Aurignacian Sandwich at Abric Romaní (Catalunya, Spain) by Radiocarbon and Uranium-Series. Journal of Archaeological Science 21:541-551.Google Scholar
  16. Bischoff, J. L., Soler, N., Marot, J., and Julia, R., 1989, Abrupt Mousterian/Aurignacian Boundary at c. 40 ka bp: Accelerator 14C Dates from L’Arbreda Cave (Catalunya, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 16:563-576.Google Scholar
  17. Bordes, F. H., 1952, Sur l’Usage Probable de la Peinture Corporelle dans Certaines Moustériennes. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 49:169-171.Google Scholar
  18. Bordes, F. H., 1968, The Old Stone Age. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Bordes, F. H., 1981, Vingt-Cinq ans Après: Le Complexe Moustérien Révisité. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 78:77-87.Google Scholar
  20. Bräuer, G., 1992, Africa’s Place in the Evolution of Homo sapiens. In Continuity or Replacement: Controversies in Homo sapiens Evolution, edited by G. Bräuer and F. H. Smith, pp. 83-98. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  21. Brennan, M. U., 1991, Health and Disease in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic of Southwestern France: A Bioarcheological Study. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks, A. S., Helgren, D. M., Cramer, J. S., Franklin, A., Hornyak, W., Keating, J. M., Klein, R. G., Rink, W. J., Schwarcz, H. P., Leith Smith, J. N., Stewart, K., Todd, N. E., Verniers, J., and Yellen, J. E., 1995, Dating and Context of Three Middle Stone Age Sites with Bone Points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science 268:548-553.Google Scholar
  23. Camps, G., 1975, The Prehistoric Cultures of North Africa: Radiocarbon Chronology. In Problems in Prehistory: North Africa and the Levant, edited by F. Wendorf and A. E. Marks, pp. 181-192. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.Google Scholar
  24. Chase, P. G. and Dibble, H. L., 1987, Middle Paleolithic Symbolism: A Review of Current Evidence and Interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-296.Google Scholar
  25. Chase, P. and Dibble, H. L., 1992, Scientific Archaeology and the Origins of Symbolism: A Review of Current Evidence and Interpretations. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2:43-51.Google Scholar
  26. Chernysh, A. P., 1982, Molodova I: A Unique Mousterian Settlement on the Middle Dnestr (in Russian). Nauka, Moscow.Google Scholar
  27. Clark, G. A., 1997, The Middle-Upper Paleolithic Transition in Europe: An American Perspective. Norwegian Archaeological Review 30:25-53.Google Scholar
  28. Close, A. E. and Wendorf, F., 1990, North Africa at 18,000 B.P. In: The World at 18,000 B.P., edited by C. Gamble and O. Soffer, pp. 41-57. Unwin Hyman, London.Google Scholar
  29. Combier, J., 1988, Témoins Moustériens d’Activités Volontaires. In De Néandertal à Cro-Magnon, edited by J.-B. Roy and A.-S. LeClerc, pp. 69-72. Musée de Préhistoire d’Ile de France, Nemours.Google Scholar
  30. Cremaschi, M., Di Lernia, S., and Garcea, E. A. A., 1998, Some Insights on the Aterian in the Libyan Sahara: Chronology, Environment, and Archaeology. African Archaeological Review 15:261-286.Google Scholar
  31. Damblon, F., Haesaerts, P., and van der Pflict, J., 1996, New Datings and Considerations on the Chronology of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in the Great Eurasiatic Plain. Préhistoire Européene 9:177-231.Google Scholar
  32. Davidson, I. and Noble, W., 1989, The Archaeology of Perception: Traces of Depiction and Language. Current Anthropology 30:125-155.Google Scholar
  33. Deacon, H. J. and Thackeray, J. F., 1984, Late Pleistocene Environmental Changes and Implications for the Archaeological Record in Southern Africa. In Late Cainozoic Palaeoclimates of the Southern Hemisphere, edited by J. C. Vogel, pp. 375-390. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  34. Dean, D., Hublin, J.-J., Ziegler, R., and Holloway, R., 1994, The Middle Pleistocene Pre-Neanderthal Partial Skull from Reilingen (Germany). American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement 18:77.Google Scholar
  35. DeGusta, D., Gilbert, W. H., and Turner, S. P., 1999, Hypoglossal Canal Size and Hominid Speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96:1800-1804.Google Scholar
  36. D’Errico, F., Villa, P., Pinto Llona, A. C., and Ruiz Idarraga, R., 1998a, A Middle Palaeolithic Origin of Music? Using Cave-Bear Bone Accumulations to Assess the Divje Babe I Bone “Flute.” Antiquity 72:65-79.Google Scholar
  37. D’Errico, F., Zilhão, J., Julien, M., Baffier, D., and Pelegrin, J., 1998b, Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? A Critical Review of the Evidence and Its Interpretation. Current Anthropology 39:S1-S44.Google Scholar
  38. Dibble, H. L. and Rolland, N., 1992, On Assemblage Variability in the Middle Paleolithic of Western Europe: History, Perspectives, and a New Synthesis. In: The Middle Paleolithic: Adaptation, Behavior, and Variability, edited by H. L. Dibble and P. A. Mellars, pp. 1-28. Monograph 72. University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  39. Eldredge, N. and Gould, S. J., 1972, Punctuated Equilibrium: An Alternative to Phyletic Gradualism. In Models in Paleobiology, edited by T. Schopf, pp. 82-115. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  40. Farizy, C., 1990, The Transition from Middle to Upper Palaeolithic at Arcy-sur-Cure (Yonne, France): Technological, Economic and Social Aspects. In The Emergence of Modern Humans: An Archaeological Perspective, edited by P. Mellars, pp. 303-326. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  41. Farizy, C., 1994, Behavioral and Cultural Changes at the Middle to Upper Paleolithic Transition in Western Europe. In Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans, edited by M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki, pp. 93-100. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Feathers, J. K., 1996, Luminescence Dating and Modern Human Origins. Evolutionary Anthropology 5:25-36.Google Scholar
  43. Feathers, J. K. and Bush, D. A., 2000, Luminescence Dating of Middle Stone Age Deposits at Die Kelders. Journal of Human Evolution 38:91-119.Google Scholar
  44. Frayer, D. W., Wolpoff, M. H., Thorne, A. G., Smith, F. H., and Pope, G. G., 1993, Theories of Modern Human Origins: The Paleontological Test. American Anthropologist 95:14-50.Google Scholar
  45. Freeman, L. G., 1980, Occupaciones Musterienses. In El yacimiento de la Cueva de “El Pendo” (Excavaciones 1953-57), edited by J. González-Echegaray, pp. 29-74. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid.Google Scholar
  46. Gambier, D., 1989, Fossil Hominids from the Early Upper Paleolithic (Aurignacian) of France. In The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, edited by P. Mellars and C. Stringer, pp. 194-211. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  47. Gambier, D., 1997, Modern Humans at the Beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in France. In Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research, edited by G. A. Clark and C. M. Willermet, pp. 117-131. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
  48. Gaudzinski, S., 1999, Middle Palaeolithic Bone Tools from the Open-Air Site Salzgitter-Lebenstedt (Germany). Journal of Archaeological Science 26:125-141.Google Scholar
  49. Goebel, T., 1995, The Record of Human Occupation of the Russian Subarctic and Arctic. Byrd Polar Research Center Miscellaneous Series M-335:41-46.Google Scholar
  50. Granger, J.-M. and Lévêque, F., 1997, Parure Castelperronienne et Aurignacienne: Étude de Trois Séries Inédites de Dents Percées et Comparaisons. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, Science de la Terre et des Planètes 325:537-533.Google Scholar
  51. Grün, R., Brink, J. S., Spooner, N. A., Taylor, L., Stringer, C. B., Franciscus, R. G., and Murray, A. S., 1996, Direct Dating of Florisbad Hominid. Nature 382:500-501.Google Scholar
  52. Grün, R. and Stringer, C. B., 1991, Electron Spin Resonance Dating and the Evolution of Modern Humans. Archaeometry 33:153-199.Google Scholar
  53. Harpending, H. C., 1994, Gene Frequencies, DNA Sequences, and Human Origins. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 37:384-394.Google Scholar
  54. Harpending, H. and Relethford, J., 1997, Population Perspectives on Human Origins Research. In Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research, edited by G. A. Clark and C. M. Willermet, pp. 361-368. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Harrold, F. B., 1989, Mousterian, Chatelperronian and Early Aurignacian in Western Europe: Continuity or Discontinuity? In The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, edited by P. A. Mellars and C. B. Stringer, pp. 677-713. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  56. Hayden, B., 1993, The Cultural Capacities of the Neanderthals: A Review and Re-evaluation. Journal of Human Evolution 24:113-146.Google Scholar
  57. Haynes, C. V., 1992, Contributions of Radiocarbon Dating to the Geochronology of the Peopling of the New World. In: Radiocarbon After Four Decades, edited by R. E. Taylor, A. Long, and R. S. Kra, pp. 355-374. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Henshilwood, C., 1998, Blombos Cave. In Excursion Guide to Sites North and East of Cape Town: DUAL Congress 1998, edited by H. J. Deacon, pp. 42-46. DUAL Congress 1998, Stellenbosch.Google Scholar
  59. Henshilwood, C. and Sealy, J., 1997, Bone Artifacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa. Current Anthropology 38:890-895.Google Scholar
  60. Henshilwood, C. and Sealy, J., 1998, Blombos Cave: Exciting New Finds from the Middle Stone Age. The Digging Stick 15:1-4.Google Scholar
  61. Hoffecker, J. F., Powers, W. R., and Goebel, T., 1993, The Colonization of Beringia and the Peopling of the New World. Science 259:46-53.Google Scholar
  62. Holliday, T. W., 1997, Postcranial Evidence of Cold Adaptations in European Neanderthals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 104:245-258.Google Scholar
  63. Houghton, P., 1993, Neanderthal Supralaryngeal Vocal Tract. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90:139-146.Google Scholar
  64. Hublin, J.-J., 1993, Recent Human Evolution in Northwestern Africa. In The Origins of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating, edited by M. J. Aitken, C. B. Stringer, and P. A. Mellars, pp. 118-131. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  65. Hublin, J.-J., 1996, The First Europeans. Archaeology 49(1):36-44.Google Scholar
  66. Hublin, J.-J., 1998, Climatic Changes, Paleogeography, and the Evolution of the Neandertals. In Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia, edited by T. Akazawa, K. Aoki, and O. Bar-Yosef, pp. 291-310. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Hublin, J.-J., Barroso Ruiz, C., Medina Lara, P., Fontugne, M., and Reyss, J.-L., 1995, The Mousterian Site of Zafarraya (Andalucia, Spain): Dating and Implications on the Palaeolithic Peopling Processes of Western Europe. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris Série IIa, 321:931-937.Google Scholar
  68. Hublin, J.-J., Spoor, F., Braun, M., and Zonneveld, F., 1996, A Late Neanderthal Associated with Upper Paleolithic Artifacts. Nature 381:224-226.Google Scholar
  69. Jelinek, A. J., 1994, Hominids, Energy, Environment, and Behavior in the Late Pleistocene. In Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans, edited by M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki, pp. 67-92. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, R., 1992, The Human Colonisation of the Australian Continent. In Continuity or Replacement: Contro-versies in Homo sapiens Evolution, edited by G. Bräuer and F. H. Smith, pp. 289-301. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  71. Kay, R. F., Cartmill, M., and Balow, M., 1998, The Hypoglossal Canal and the Origin of Human Vocal Behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 95:5417-5419.Google Scholar
  72. Klein, R. G., 1994, Southern Africa Before the Iron Age. In Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, edited by R. S. Corruccini and R. L. Ciochon, pp. 471-519. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  73. Krings, M., Stone, A., Schmitz, R. W., Krainitzki, H., Stoneking, M., and Pääbo, S., 1997, Neanderthal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans. Cell 90:19-30.Google Scholar
  74. Kuzmin, Y. V. and Orlova, L. A., 1998, Radiocarbon Chronology of the Siberian Paleolithic. Journal of World Prehistory 12:1-53.Google Scholar
  75. Lahr, M. M., 1994, The Multiregional Model of Modern Human Origins: A Reassessment of Its Morphological Basis. Journal of Human Evolution 26:23-56.Google Scholar
  76. Lahr, M. M. and Foley, R., 1994, Multiple Dispersals and Modern Human Origins. Evolutionary Anthropology 3:48-60.Google Scholar
  77. Leroi-Gourhan, A., 1965, Le Châtelperronien: Problème ethnologique. In Miscelanea en Homenaje al Abate Henri Breuil, Volume 2, edited by E. Ripoll Perello, pp. 75-81. Diputación Provincial de Barcelona, Instituto de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  78. Lévêque, F., Backer, A. M., and Guilbaud, M., 1993, Context of a Late Neanderthal: Implications of Multidisciplinary Research for the Transition to Upper Paleolithic Adaptations at Saint-Césaire, CharenteMaritime, France. Prehistory Press, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  79. Lieberman, D. E., 1995, Testing Hypotheses About Recent Human Evolution from Skulls. Current Anthropology 36:159-197.Google Scholar
  80. Lieberman, P., Laitman, J. T., Reidenberg, J. S., and Gannon, P. J., 1992, The Anatomy, Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception of Speech: Essential Elements in the Analysis of the Evolution of Human Speech. Journal of Human Evolution 23:447-467.Google Scholar
  81. Manderscheid, E. J. and Rogers, A. R., 1996, Genetic Admixture in the Late Pleistocene. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 100:1-5.Google Scholar
  82. Marshack, A., 1991, A Reply to Davidson on Mania and Mania. Rock Art Research 8:47-58.Google Scholar
  83. McDermott, F., Stringer, C. B., Grün, R., Williams, C. T., Din, V. K., and Hawkesworth, C. J., 1996, New LatePleistocene Uranium-Thorium and ESR Dates for the Singa Hominid (Sudan). Journal of Human Evolution 31:507-516.Google Scholar
  84. Mellars, P. A., 1993, Archaeology and the Population-Dispersal Hypothesis of Modern Human Origins in Europe. In The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating, edited by M. J. Aitken, C. B. Stringer, and P. A. Mellars, pp. 196-216. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  85. Mellars, P. A., 1996, The Neanderthal Legacy: an Archaeological Perspective from Western Europe. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  86. Mellars, P. A., 1998, Comment on “Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? A Critical review.” Current Anthropology 39:S25-S27.Google Scholar
  87. Meltzer, D. J., 1995, Clocking the First Americans. Annual Review of Anthropology 24:21-45.Google Scholar
  88. Mercier, N. and Valladas, H., 1994, Thermoluminescence Dates for the Paleolithic Levant. In Late Quaternary Chronology and Paleoclimates of the Eastern Mediterranean, edited by O. Bar-Yosef and R. S. Kra, pp. 13-20. American School of Prehistoric Research, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  89. Milo, R. G. and Quiatt, D., 1994, Language in the Middle and Late Stone Ages: Glottogenesis in Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens. In Hominid Culture in Primate Perspective, edited by D. Quiatt and J. Itani, pp. 321-329. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO.Google Scholar
  90. Moore, A. T. M. and Hillman, C., 1992, The Pleistocene to Holocene Transition and Human Economy in Southwest Asia: The Impact of the Younger Dryas. American Antiquity 57:482-494.Google Scholar
  91. O’Connell, J. F. and Allen, J., 1998, When Did Humans First Arrive in Greater Australia, and Why Is It Important to Know? Evolutionary Anthropology 6:132-146.Google Scholar
  92. Oakley, K. P., 1964, The Problem of Man’s Antiquity: An Historical Survey. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology 9:86-155.Google Scholar
  93. Otte, M. and Straus, L. G., 1995, Conclusions et Résumé. In Le Trou Magrite: Fouilles 1991-1992, edited by M. Otte and L. G. Straus, pp. 229-238. Études et Recherches Archéologiques de l’Université de Liège 69. Centre de Recherches Archéologiques, Université de Liège, Liège.Google Scholar
  94. Relethford, J. H., 1995, Genetics and Modern Human Origins. Evolutionary Anthropology 4:53-63.Google Scholar
  95. Richter, D., Waiblinger, J., Rink, W. J., and Wagner, G. A., 2000, TL, ESR and 14C-Dating of the Late Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic Site of Geissenklösterle Cave, Southern Germany. Journal of Archaeological Science 27:71-81.Google Scholar
  96. Rightmire, G. P., 1998, Human Evolution in the Middle Pleistocene: The Role of Homo heidelbergensis. Evolutionary Anthropology 6:218-227.Google Scholar
  97. Rightmire, G. P. and Deacon, H. J., 1991, Comparative Studies of Late Pleistocene Human Remains from Klasies River Mouth, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 20:131-156.Google Scholar
  98. Roberts, R. G., Jones, R., Spooner, N. A., Head, M. J., Murray, A. S., and Smith, M. A., 1994, The Human Colonisation of Australia: Optical Dates of 53,000 and 60,000 Years Bracket Human Arrival at Deaf Adder Gorge, Northern Territory. Quaternary Science Reviews 13:575-586.Google Scholar
  99. Roebroeks, W., 1996, The English Palaeolithic Record: Absence of Evidence, Evidence of Absence and the First Occupation of Europe. In The English Palaeolithic Reviewed, edited by C. S. Gamble and A. J. Lawson, pp. 57-62. Trust for Wessex Archaeology, Wessex.Google Scholar
  100. Schwarcz, H. P. and Grün, R., 1993, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Dating of the Origins of Modern Man. In The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating, edited by M. J. Aitken, C. B. Stringer, and P. A. Mellars, pp. 40-48. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  101. Schweitzer, F. R., 1979, Excavations at Die Kelders, Cape Province, South Africa: The Holocene Deposits. Annals of the South African Museum 78:101-233.Google Scholar
  102. Singer, R. S. and Wymer, J. J., 1982, The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, F. H., 1994, Samples, Species, and Populations in the Study of Modern Human Origins. In Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans, edited by M. H. Nitecki and D. V. Nitecki, pp. 227-249. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  104. Soffer, O., 1990, Before Beringia: Late Pleistocene Bio-social Transformations and the Colonization of Northern Eurasia. In Chronostratigraphy of the Paleolithic in North, Central, East Asia and America, edited by Anonymous. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Novosibirsk.Google Scholar
  105. Spoor, F. and Zonneveld, F., 1998, Comparative Review of the Human Bony Labyrinth. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 41:211-251.Google Scholar
  106. Stoneking, M., 1993, DNA and Recent Human Evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 2:60-73.Google Scholar
  107. Straus, L. G., 1997, The Iberian Situation Between 40,000 and 30,000 B.P., in Light of European Models of Migration and Convergence. In Conceptual Issues in Modern Human Origins Research, edited by G. A. Clark and C. M. Willermet, pp. 235-252. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.Google Scholar
  108. Stringer, C. and Gamble, C., 1993, In Search of the Neanderthals. Thames and Hudson, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Stringer, C. B. and McKie, R., 1996, African Exodus: The Origin of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape, London.Google Scholar
  110. Stringer, C. B., Hublin, J.-J., and Vandermeersch, B., 1984, The Origin of Anatomically Modern Humans in Western Europe. In The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence, edited by F. H. Smith and F. Spencer, pp. 51-135. Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Tattersall, I., 1998, Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness. Harcourt, Brace, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Tchernov, E., 1992, Biochronology, Paleoecology, and Dispersal Events of Hominids in the Southern Levant. In The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia, edited by T. Akazawa, K. Aoki, and T. Kimura, pp. 149-188. Hokusen-Sha, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  113. Thackeray, A. I., 1992, The Middle Stone Age South of the Limpopo River. Journal of World Prehistory 6:385-440.Google Scholar
  114. Trinkaus, E., 1989, The Upper Pleistocene Transition. In The Emergence of Modern Humans: Biocultural Adaptations in the Later Pleistocene, edited by E. Trinkaus, pp. 42-66. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  115. Trinkaus, E., 1992, Morphological Contrasts Between the Near Eastern Qafzeh-Skhul and Late Archaic Human Samples: Grounds for a Behavioral Difference. In The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia, edited by T. Akazawa, K. Aoki, and T. Kimura, pp. 278-294. Hokusen-Sha, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  116. Trinkaus, E., 1995, Neanderthal Mortality Patterns. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:121-142.Google Scholar
  117. Trinkaus, E. and Shipman, P., 1993a, The Neanderthals: Changing the Image of Mankind. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Trinkaus, E. and Shipman, P., 1993b, Neanderthals: Images of Ourselves. Evolutionary Anthropology 1:194-201.Google Scholar
  119. Trinkaus, E., Ruff, C. B., and Churchill, S. E., 1998, Upper Limb versus Lower Loading Patterns Among Near Eastern Middle Paleolithic Hominids. In Neanderthals and Modern Humans in Western Asia, edited by T. Akazawa, K. Aoki, and O. Bar-Yosef, pp. 391-404. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  120. Turk, I., Dirjec, J., Kavur, B., and Bastiani, G., 1997, Description and Explanation of the Origin of the Suspected Bone Flute. In Mousterian “Bone Flute” and Other Finds from Divje Babe I Cave Site in Slovenia, edited by I. Turk, pp. 157-175. Zanstvenoraziskovakni Center SAZU, Ljubljana.Google Scholar
  121. Valladas, H., Geneste, J. M., Joron, J. L., and Chadelle, J. P., 1986, Thermoluminescence Dating of Le Moustier (Dordogne, France). Nature 322:452-454.Google Scholar
  122. van Andel, T. H. and Tzedakis, P. C., 1996, Palaeolithic Landscapes of Europe and Environs: 150,000-25,000 Years Ago: An Overview. Quaternary Science Reviews 15:481-500.Google Scholar
  123. Velleman, P. F., 1995, Data Desk Version 5.0. Statistics Guide. Data Description, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  124. Vogel, J. C. and Beaumont, P. B., 1972, Revised Radiocarbon Chronology for the Stone Age in South Africa. Nature 237:50-51.Google Scholar
  125. Wendorf, F., 1992, The Impact of Radiocarbon Dating on North African Archaeology. In Radiocarbon After Four Decades: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by R. E. Taylor, A. Long, and R. S. Kra, pp. 310-324. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  126. White, R. K., 1998, Comment on “Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? A Critical Review.” Current Anthropology 39:S30-S32.Google Scholar
  127. Wolpoff, M. H., 1996, Human Evolution: 1996-1997 Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Wu, X. and Poirier, F. E., 1995, Human Evolution in China: A Metric Description of the Fossils and a Review of the Sites. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Yellen, J. E., 1998, Barbed Bone Points: Tradition and Continuity in Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa. African Archaeological Review 15:173-198.Google Scholar
  130. Yellen, J. E., Brooks, A. S., Cornelissen, E., Mehlman, M. J., and Stewart, K., 1995, A Middle Stone Age Worked Bone Industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science 268:553-556.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard G. Klein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations