Advertisement

As a beginning graduate student in anthropology in the late 1970s, I took my required core course in the archaeology of complex societies from one of the leading scholars in the discipline. The semester was spent developing data-rich theoretical models for the emergence of social inequality, ranked societies, and the origins and functioning of early states. Discussion of empires, the largest premodern states, filled less than an hour on the last day of the semester (admittedly with the acknowledgment that this was a topic worthy of further study). Similarly, in the last major assessment of the status of North American archaeology published on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Society for American Archaeology (Meltzer et al., 1986), the only article on complex societies addressed primary state emergence (Wright, 1986). Larger and later states were not considered. That this volume considers an article on the archaeology of empires a worthy contribution attests to some significant changes in disciplinary focus over the last 20 years.

Keywords

Imperial Center American Archaeology Imperial Incorporation Factional Competition Imperial Subject 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alcock, S. E., 1993, Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Alcock, S. E., 2001, The Reconfiguration of Memory in the Eastern Roman Empire. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 323-350. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Alcock, S. E., D’Altroy, T. N., Morrison, K. D., and Sinopoli, C. M. (editors), 2001, Empires. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  4. Algaze, G., 1993, The Uruk World System: The Dynamics of Expansion of Early Mesopotamian Civilization. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  5. Appadurai, A., 1993, Number in the Colonial Imagination. In Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia, edited by C. Breckenridge and P. van der Veer, pp. 314-339. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  6. Asher, C. B., 1992, Architecture of Mughal India. The New Cambridge History of India 1.4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  7. Astour, M. C., 1989, Hittite History and Absolute Chronology of the Bronze Age. Åströms Förlag, Partille.Google Scholar
  8. Bagnall, R. S., 1991, The Beginnings of the Roman Census in Egypt. Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 32:255-265.Google Scholar
  9. Barfield, T., 1989, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, 221 B.C. to A.D. 1757. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  10. Barfield, T., 2001, The Shadow Empires: Imperial State Formation along the Chinese-Nomad Border. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Barker, G. and Lloyd, J. (editors), 1991, Roman Landscapes: Archaeological Survey in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeological Monographs No. 2. British School at Rome, London.Google Scholar
  12. Barkey, K., 1994, Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  13. Bauer, B. S., 1996, Legitimation of the State in Inca Myth and Ritual. American Anthropologist 98:338-351.Google Scholar
  14. Begley, V., and De Puma, R. D. (editors), 1991, Rome and India: The Ancient Sea Trade. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.Google Scholar
  15. Berdan, F. F., 1987, The Economics of Aztec Luxury Trade and Tribute. In The Aztec Templo Mayor, edited by E. H. Boone, pp. 161-183. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Berdan, F. F. and Anawalt, P. R., 1997, The Essential Codex Mendoza. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  17. Berdan, F. F., Blanton, R. E., Boone, E. H., Hodge, M. G., Smith, M. E., and Umberger, E., 1996, Aztec Imperial Strategies. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Blake, S. P., 1990, Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  19. Blake, S. P., 1997, The Patrimonial-Bureaucratic Empire of the Mughals. In The State in India 1000-1700, edited by Hermann Kulke, pp. 278-303. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  20. Blanton, R. and Feinman, G. M., 1984, The Mesoamerican World System: A Comparative Perspective. American Anthropologist 86:673-682.Google Scholar
  21. Blanton, R. E., Kowalewski, S. A., and Feinman, G. M., 1992, The Mesoamerican World System. Review 15:419-426.Google Scholar
  22. Blanton, R.E., Feinman, G. M., Kowalewski, S. A., and Peregrine, P. N., 1996, A Dual-Processual Theory for the Evolution of Mesoamerican Civilization. Current Anthropology 37:1-14.Google Scholar
  23. Bourdieu, P., 1977, Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Brumfiel, E. M., 1991, Weaving and Cooking: Women’s Production in Aztec Mexico. In Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, edited by J. M. Gero and M. W. Conkey, pp. 224-254. Basil Blackwell, London.Google Scholar
  25. Brumfield, E. M., 1992, Distinguished Lecture in Archaeology: Breaking and Entering the Ecosystem—Gender, Class and Faction Steal the Show. American Anthropologist 94:551-567.Google Scholar
  26. Brumfiel, E. M., 1996, The Quality of Tribute Cloth: The Place of Evidence in Archaeological Argument. American Antiquity 61:453-462.Google Scholar
  27. Brumfiel, E. M., 1998, Huitzilophchtli’s Thirst: Ideology, Domination, and the Aztec State. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 8:3-13.Google Scholar
  28. Brumfiel, E. M. and Fox, J. W. (editors), 1994, Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  29. Cohn, B., 1996, Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  30. Costin, C. L., 1998, Concepts of Property and Access to Nonagricultural Resources in the Inka Empire. In Property in Economic Context, edited by R. C. Hunt and A. Gilman, pp. 119-138. University Press of America, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  31. Costin, C. L., Earle, T., Owen, B., and Russell, G., 1989, The Impact of Inca Conquest on Local Technology in the Upper Mantaro Valley, Peru. In What’s New? A Closer Look at the Process of Innovation, edited by S. E. van der Leeuw and R. Torrence, pp. 107-139. Unwin Hyman, London.Google Scholar
  32. D’Altroy, T. N., 1992, Provincial Power in the Inka Empire. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  33. D’Altroy, T. N., 1994, Factions and Political Development in the Central Andes. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and J. W. Fox, pp. 171-187. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  34. Deagan, K., 1983, Spanish St. Augustine: The Archaeology of a Colonial Creole Community. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Deagan, K., 1998, Transculturation and Spanish-American Ethnogenesis: The Archaeological Legacy of the Quincentenary. In Studies in Cultural Contact: interaction, Culture Change and Archaeology, edited by J. Cusick, pp. 23-43.Occasional Paper No. 25. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  36. Deagan, K., 2001, Dynamics of Imperial Adjustment in Spanish America: Ideology and Social Integration. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 179-194. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Deeds, S. M., 1998, First-Generation Rebellions in Seventeenth-Century Nueva Vizcaya. In Native Resistance and the Pax Colonial in New Spain, edited by S. Schroeder, pp. 1-29. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  38. DeMarrais, E., Castillo, L. J., and Earle, T., 1996, Ideology, Materialization, and Power Strategies. Current Anthropology 37:15-31.Google Scholar
  39. Dobres, M.-A. and Robb, J. E. (editors), 1999, Agency in Archaeology. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  40. Doyle, M. W., 1986, Empires. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  41. Dutton, P. E., 1994, The Politics of Dreaming in the Carolingian Empire. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  42. Edens, C., 1992, Dynamics of Trade in the Ancient Mesopotamia “World System.” American Anthropologist 94:118-139.Google Scholar
  43. Ekholm, K. and Friedman, J., 1979, “Capital” Imperialism and Exploitation in Ancient World Systems. In Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires, edited by M. T. Larsen, pp. 41-58. Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  44. Etienne, M. and Leacock, E. (editors), 1980, Women and Colonization. J. F. Bergin/Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Evans, S. T., 1993, Aztec Household Organization and Village Administration. In Prehispanic Domestic Units in Western Mesoamerica, edited by R. S. Santley and K. G. Hirth, pp. 173-189. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  46. Foss, C., 1990, History and Archaeology of Byzantine Asia Minor. Variorum, Aldershot, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  47. Foss, C., 1996, Cities, Fortresses and Villages of Byzantine Asia Minor. Variorum, Aldershot, Great Britain.Google Scholar
  48. Foucault, M., 1973, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. Vintage Books, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Fox, R. G., and Starn, O. (editors), 1997, Between Resistance and Revolution: Cultural Politics and Social Protest. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
  50. Geary, P., 1988, Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Gibson, M. and Biggs, R. D. (editors), 1987, The Organization of Power: Aspects of Bureacracy in the Ancient Near East. Oriental Institute, Chicago.Google Scholar
  52. Giddens, A., 1979, Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  53. Greene, K., 1986, The Archaeology of the Roman Economy. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  54. Halsall, G., 1995, Settlement and Social Organization: The Merovingian Region of Metz. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  55. Hassig, R., 1988, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  56. Hastorf, C. A., 1990, The Effect of the Inka State on Sausa Agricultural Production and Crop Consumption. American Antiquity 55:262-290.Google Scholar
  57. Hicks, F., 1994a, Alliance and Intervention in Aztec Imperial Expansion. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and J. W. Fox, pp. 111-116. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  58. Hicks, F., 1994b, Cloth in the Political Economy of the Aztec State. In Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm, edited by M. G. Hodge and M. E. Smith, pp. 89-111. Institute of Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York, Albany.Google Scholar
  59. Hodge, M. G. and Smith, M. E. (editors), 1994, Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm. Institute for Mesoamerica Studies, State University of New York, Albany.Google Scholar
  60. Hoskins, J., 1998, Biographical Objects: How Things Tell the Stories of People’s Lives. Routledge, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Hsu, C.-Y, 1988, The Roles of the Literati and of Regionalism in the Fall of the Han Dynasty. In The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations, edited by N. Yoffee and G. L. Cowgill, pp. 176-195. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  62. Hudson, M., 1998, Private Ownership, Debt, and Fiscal Crisis in the Ancient Near East. In Property in Economic Context, edited by R. C. Hunt and A. Gilman, pp. 139-169. Monographs in Economic Anthropology No. 14. University Press of America, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  63. Isbell, W. H. and McEwan, G. F., 1991, Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  64. Julien, C. J., 1988, How Inca Decimal Administration Worked. Ethnohistory 35:257-279.Google Scholar
  65. Kafadar, C., 1995, Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  66. Karashima, N., 1992, Towards a New Formation: South Indian Society Under Vijayanagara Rule. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  67. Kardulias, P. N. (editor), 1999, World-Systems Theory in Practice: Leadership, Production, and Exchange. Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD.Google Scholar
  68. Kazhdan, A. P. and Epstein, A. W., 1985, Change in Byzantine Culutre in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  69. Kemp, B. J., 1978, Imperialism and Empire in New Kingdom Egypt (c. 1575-1087 B.C.). In Imperialism In The Ancient World, edited by P. D. A. Garnsey and C. R. Whittaker, pp. 7-57. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  70. Kepecs, S. and Kolb, M. J. (editors), 1997, New Approaches to Combining the Archaeological and Historical Records. Special Issue, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4(3/4).Google Scholar
  71. Knapp, A. B. (editor), 1992, Archaeology, Annales and Ethnohistory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  72. Kolata, A. L., 1993, The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  73. Kolata, A. L. (editor), 1996, Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  74. Kornbluth, G., 1997, Carolingian Engraved Gems: “Golden Rome is Reborn?” In Engraved Gems: Survivals and Revivals, edited by Clifford Malcom Brown, pp. 45-61. Studies in the History of Art No. 54. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  75. Kuhrt, A., 1995, The Ancient Near East, c. 3000 to 330 B.C. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  76. Laurence, R. and Berry, J. (editors), 1998, Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  77. LeVine, T. Y., 1987, Inca Labor Service at the Regional Level: The Functional Reality. Ethnohistory 34:14-46.Google Scholar
  78. LeVine, T. Y. (editor), 1992, Inka Storage Systems. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  79. Liverani, M., 1988, The Growth of the Assyrian Empire in the Habur/Middle Euphrates Area: A New Paradigm. State Archives of Assyria Bulletin 2:81-98.Google Scholar
  80. Liverani, M. (editor), 1993, Akkad: The First World Empire. History of the Ancient Near East, V. Sargon, Padua.Google Scholar
  81. Liverani, M., 2001, The Fall of the Assyrian Empire: Ancient and Modern Interpretations. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 374-391. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  82. Lo Cascio, E., 1994, The Size of the Roman Population: Beloch and the Meaning of the Augustan Census Figures. The Journal of Roman Studies 84:23-40.Google Scholar
  83. Luttwak, E., 1976, The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire from the First Century A.D. to the Third. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  84. Luttwak, E., 1983, The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union. St. Martin’s Press, New York.Google Scholar
  85. MacCormack, S., 2001, Cuzco, Another Rome? In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 419-435. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  86. MacQueen, J. G., 1986, The Hittites and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  87. Mann, M., 1986, The Sources of Social Power, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  88. Manz, B., 1989, The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  89. Marcus, J. and Flannery, K. V., 1996, Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico’s Oaxaca Valley. Thames and Hudson, London.Google Scholar
  90. Margabandhu, C., 1985, Archaeology of the Satavahana-Kshtrapa Times. Sundeep Prakashan, Delhi.Google Scholar
  91. McKitterick, R., 1989, The Carolingians and the Written Word. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  92. McKitterick, R. (editor), 1994, Carolingian Culture: Emulation and Innovation Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  93. Meltzer, D., Fowler, D., and Sabloff, J. (editors), 1986, American Archaeology Past and Future: A Celebration of Society for American Archaeology 1935-1985. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  94. Mirashi, V. V., 1981, The History and Inscriptions of the Satavahanas and the Western Kshtrapas. Maharashtra State Board for Literature and Culture, Bombay.Google Scholar
  95. Moreland, J., 2001, Roma Renascens: Ideal and Reality. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 392-418. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  96. Moreland, J. and van de Noort, R., 1992, Integration and Social Reproduction in the Carolingian Empire. World Archaeology 23:320-334.Google Scholar
  97. Morkot, R., 2001, The Egyptian Empire in Nubia in the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1550-1070 B.C.E). In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 227-251. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  98. Morony, M. G., 1982, Continuity and Change in the Administrative Geography of Late Sasanian and Early Islamic al-Iraq. Iran 20:1-50.Google Scholar
  99. Morris, C., 1995, Symbols to Power: Styles and Media in the Inka State. In Style, Society, and Person: Archaeological and Ethnological Perspectives, edited by C. Carr and J. E. Neitzel, pp. 419-433. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Morrison, K., 1995, Fields of Victory: Vijayanagara and the Course of Intensification. Contributions to the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 53. University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  101. Morrison, K. D., 2001, Coercion, Resistance, and Hierarchy: Local Processes and Imperial Strategies in 14th16th Century South India. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 252-278. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  102. Moseley, M. E. and Cordy-Collins, A. (editors), 1990, The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  103. Murra, J. V., 1980, The Economic Organization of the Inka State. JAI Press, Greenwich, CT.Google Scholar
  104. Nash, J., 1978, The Aztecs and the Ideology of Male Dominance. Signs 4:349-362.Google Scholar
  105. Nelson, J. L., 1996, The Frankish World 750-900. Hambledon Press, London.Google Scholar
  106. Ortner, S. B., 1995, Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographic Refusal. Comparative Studies in Society and History 37:173-193.Google Scholar
  107. Otis Charlton, C., Charlton, T. H., and Nichols, D. L., 1993, Aztec Household-Based Craft Production: Archaeological Evidence from the City-State of Otumba, Mexico. In Prehispanic Domestic Units in Western Mesoamerica, edited by R. S. Santley and K. G. Hirth, pp. 147-172. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  108. Patterson, T. C., 1991, The Inca Empire: The Formation and Disintegration of a Pre-Capitalist State. Berg, New York.Google Scholar
  109. Pels, P., 1997, The Anthropology of Colonialism: Culture, History, and the Emergence of Western Governmentality. Annual Review of Anthropology 26:163-183.Google Scholar
  110. Petit, T., 1990, Satrapes et Satrapies dans L’Empire Achéménide de Cyrus le Grand à Xerxès Ier. L’Université de Liège, Paris.Google Scholar
  111. Postgate, J. N., 1992, The Land of Assur and the Yoke of Assur. World Archaeology 23:247-263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Price, S. R. F., 1984, Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  113. Ray, H., 1986, Monastery and Guild: Commerce under the Satavahanas. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  114. Redmond, E. M., 1983, A Fuego y Sangre: Early Zapotec Imperialism in the Cuicatlán Cañada, Oaxaca. Memoirs No. 16. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  115. Rice, D. (editor), 1993, Latin American Horizons. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  116. Richards, J. F., 1993, The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India 1.5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  117. Robb, J. E. (editor), 1999, Material Symbols: Culture and Economy in Prehistory. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.Google Scholar
  118. Rowe, J., 1980, Inca Policies and Institutions Relating to the Cultural Unification of the Empire. In The Inca and Aztec States 1400-1800, edited by G. A. Collier, R. I. Rosaldo, and J. D. Wirth, pp. 93-118. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  119. Sanderson, S. K., 1995, Civilizations and World Systems: Studying World-Historical Change. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Schreiber, K. J., 1992, Wari Imperialism in Middle Horizon Peru. Anthropological Papers No. 87. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  121. Schreiber, K. J., 2001, The Wari Empire of Middle Horizon Peru: The Epistemological Challenge of Documenting an Empire without Documentary Evidence. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 70-92. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  122. Sherwin-White, S. and Kuhrt, A., 1993, From Samarkhand to Sardis: A New Approach to the Seleucid Empire. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  123. Silverblatt, I., 1988, Imperial Dilemmas, the Politics of Kinship, and Inca Reconstructions of History. Comparative Studies in Society and History 30:83-102.Google Scholar
  124. Sinopoli, C. M., 1994a, The Archaeology of Empires. Annual Review of Anthropology 23:159-180.Google Scholar
  125. Sinopoli, C. M., 1994b, Monumentality and Mobility in Mughal Capitals. Asian Perspectives 33(2):293-308.Google Scholar
  126. Sinopoli, C. M., 1998, Identity and Social Action among Craft Producers of the Vijayanagara Period. In Craft and Social Identity, edited by C. L. Costin and R. P. Wright, pp. 161-172. Archeological Paper No. 8. American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  127. Sinopoli, C. M., 2001, On the Edge of Empire: Form and Substance in the Satavahana Dynasty. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 155-178. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  128. Sinopoli, C. M. and Morrison, K. D., 1995, Dimensions of Imperial Control: The Vijayanagara Capital. American Anthropologist 97:83-96.Google Scholar
  129. Smith, M. E., 1996, The Aztecs. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  130. Smith, M. E., 2001, The Aztec Empire and the Mesoamerican World System. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  131. Smith, M. E., and Berdan, F. F., 1992, Archaeology and the Aztec Empire. World Archaeology 23:353-367.Google Scholar
  132. Smith, M. L., 1997, Strong Economies, Weak Polities: The Archaeology of Central India in the Early Centuries A.D. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  133. Smith, S. T., 1995, Askut in Nubia: The Economics and Ideology of Egyptian Imperialism in the Second Millennium B.C. Kegan Paul International, London.Google Scholar
  134. Stein, B., 1989, Vijayanagara. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  135. Steinkeller, P., 1987, The Administrative and Economic Organization of the Ur III State: The Core and the Periphery. In The Organization of Power: Aspects of Bureaucracy in the Ancient Near East, edited by M. Gibson and R. D. Biggs, pp. 19-43. Oriental Institute, Chicago.Google Scholar
  136. Stone, E., 1997, City-States and Their Centers: The Meopotamian Example. In The Archaeology of City-States: Cross Cultural Approaches, edited by D. L. Nichols and T. H. Charlton, pp. 15-26. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  137. Subrahmanyam, S., 1993, The Portuguese Empire in Asia 1500-1700: A Political and Economic History. Longman, London and New York.Google Scholar
  138. Thapar, R., 1987, The Mauryas Revisted (S. G. Deuskar Lectures on Indian History). Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  139. Thapar, R., 1997, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas. Revised ed. Oxford University Press, Delhi.Google Scholar
  140. Tritle, L. A., 1997, The Greek World in the Fourth Century From the Fall of the Athenian State to the Successors of Alexander. Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  141. van Zantwijk, R., 1994, Factional Divisions Within the Aztec (Colhua) Royal Family. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by E. M. Brumfiel and J. W. Fox, pp. 103-110. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  142. Wachtel, N., 1982, The Mitimaes of the Cochabamba Valley: The Colonization Policy of Huayna Capac. In The Inca and Aztec States, 1400-1800: Anthropology and History, edited by G. A. Collier, R. I. Rosaldo, and J. D. Wirth, pp. 199-235. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  143. Wagoner, P., 1996, “Sultan Among Hindu Kings”: Dress, Titles, and the Islamicization of Hindu Culture at Vijayanagara. Journal of Asian Studies 55:851-880.Google Scholar
  144. Waldron, A., 1990, The Great Wall from History to Myth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  145. Wallerstein, I., 1974, The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  146. Wenke, R. J., 1987, Western Iran in the Partho-Sasanian Period: The Imperial Transformation. In The Archaeology of Western Iran: Settlement and Society from Prehistory to the Islamic Conquest, edited by F. Hole, pp. 251-281. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  147. Wolf, E., 1982, Europe and the People without History. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  148. Woolf, G., 1997, Beyond Romans and Natives. World Archaeology 28:339-351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wright, H. T., 1986, The Evolution of Civilizations. In American Archaeology Past and Future: A Celebration of Society for American Archaeology 1935-1985, edited by D. J. Meltzer, D. D. Fowler, and J. A. Sabloff, pp. 323-365. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  150. Yarshater, E. (editor), 1983, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3, Parts 1-2: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  151. Yates, R., 2001, Cosmos, Central Authority, and Communities in the Early Chinese Empire. In Empires, edited by S. E. Alcock, T. N. D’Altroy, K. D. Morrison, and C. M. Sinopoli, pp. 351-368. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  152. Yoffee, N. and Cowgill, G. L. (editors), 1988, The Collapse of Ancient States and Civilizations. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  153. Zanker, P., 1988, The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  154. Zimansky, P., 1985, Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization No. 41. Oriental Institute, Chicago.Google Scholar
  155. Zimansky, P., 1995, Urartian Material Culture as State Assemblage: An Anomaly in the Archaeology of Empire. Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research 299/300:103-116.Google Scholar
  156. Zuidema, T., 1990, At the King’s Table: Inca Concepts of Sacred Kingship in Cuzco. In Kingship and the Kings, edited by J.-C. Galey, pp. 253-78. Harwood Academic, Chur, Switzerland.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla M. Sinopoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Museum of AnthropologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations