Vicious Virtuous Circles: Barriers to Institution-Building after War

  • Tammy Smith

As the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina ignited in 1992, 40 Bošniak men living in the Serb-dominated town of Bijeljina were fired from their jobs at a state-owned enterprise because of their ethnicity. The decision for the discriminatory firings had been taken by local municipal officials and implemented by public employees of the state-owned enterprise (Human Rights Watch 2000). As the war raged on, Bijeljina’s remaining ethnic minorities endured other discriminatory practices such as forced labor, arbitrary arrests, and conscription into the Yugoslav Army. At the notorious State Exchange Commission, ethnic minorities who were evicted from their residences were compelled to pay fees up to US$1,250 for the paperwork required for their evictions and as much as US$1,600 in transportation costs related to their forced expulsion from the region (Barber 1994).


Social Capital Civic Engagement Generalize Trust Local Leader Interpersonal Trust 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tammy Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA

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