Advertisement

Losing Face in Philippine Labor Confrontations: How Shame May Inhibit Worker Activism

  • Rosanne Rutten

Shame is an emotion and a behavioral disposition. Developed within social relations of subordination and control, a sensitivity to being shamed is learned and internalized, then becomes an emotion that shapes capabilities to act, as it favors certain forms of behavior and precludes others. “Converting passivity into action,” says Tarrow, requires an emotional energy, an emotional force, which may be fuelled by anger, pride, loyalty, and other “vitalizing” emotions. Shame is, in contrast, decidedly “devitalizing” (Tarrow 1998, pp. 111–112).

Keywords

Collective Action Social Movement Emotion Work Quezon City Contentious Politics 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abinales, P. N. (Ed.) (1996). The revolution falters: The left in Philippine politics after 1986. Ithaca, NY: SEAP, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  2. Aguilar, J. L. (1982). Shame, acculturation and ethnic relations: A psychological ‘process of domination’ in Southern Mexico. Journal of Psychoanalytic Anthropology, 5, 155–171.Google Scholar
  3. Aminzade, R., & McAdam, D. (2001). Emotions and contentious politics. In R. R. Aminzade, J. A. Goldstone, D. McAdam, E. J. Perry, W. H. Sewell Jr., S. Tarrow, & C. Tilly (Eds.), Silence and voice in the study of contentious politics (pp. 14–50). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Aminzade, R., & McAdam, D. (Eds.) (2002). Emotions and contentious politics. Mobilization, 7, 107–110.Google Scholar
  5. Auyero, J. (2001). Poor people’s politics: Peronist survival networks and the legacy of Evita. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Britt, L., & Heise, D. (2000). From shame to pride in identity politics. In S. Stryker, T. J. Owens, & R. W. White (Eds.), Self, identity, and social movements (pp. 252–268). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, Yung-fa (1986). Making revolution: The Communist movement in Eastern and Central China, 1937–1945. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  8. Coronel, M. G. (1991). Pro-democracy people’s war. Quezon City: Vanmarc Ventures.Google Scholar
  9. Crossley, N. (2003). From reproduction to transformation: Social movement fields and the radical habitus. Theory, Culture and Society, 20, 43–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Alwis, M. (1998). Motherhood as a space of protest: Women’s political participation in contemporary Sri Lanka. In P. Jeffery & A. Basu (Eds.), Appropriating gender: Women’s activism and politicized religion in South Asia (pp. 185–202). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Dungo, N. G. (1993). Changing social relations in the Negros sugar hacienda: The eroding relation of patronage between the hacendero and worker in the context of developments in the wider political economic milieu. PhD Thesis, University of the Philippines, Quezon City.Google Scholar
  12. Gamson, W. A., Fireman, B., & Rytina, S. (1982). Encounters with unjust authority. Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  13. Geertz, C. (1973). Person, time, and conduct in Bali. In C. Geertz (Ed.), The interpretation of cultures (pp. 360–411). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Goffman, E. (1955). On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. Psychiatry, 18, 213–231.Google Scholar
  15. Goffman, E. (1956). The nature of deference and demeanor. American Anthropologist, 58, 473–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Doubleday & Co.Google Scholar
  17. Goodwin, J., Jasper, J. M., & Polletta, F. (2000). Return of the repressed: The fall and rise of emotions in social movement theory. Mobilization, 5, 65–84.Google Scholar
  18. Goodwin, J., Jasper, J. M., & Polletta, F. (2001). Introduction: Why emotions matter. In idem (Ed.), Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements (pp. 1–24). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hochschild, A. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 551–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jasper, J. M. (1998). The emotions of protest: Affective and reactive emotions in and around social movements. Sociological Forum, 13, 394–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones, G. R. (1989). Red revolution: Inside the Philippine guerrilla movement. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kerkvliet, B. J. (1990). Everyday politics in the Philippines: Class and status relations in a Central Luzon village. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Larkin, J. A. (1993). Sugar and the origins of modern Philippine society. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lynch, F., S. J. (1973). Social acceptance reconsidered. In F. Lynch & A. De Guzman II (Eds.), Four readings on Philippine values (pp. 1–68). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  25. McAdam, D., Tarrow, S., & Tilly, C. (2001). Dynamics of contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. McCoy, A. W. (1991). The restoration of planter power in La Carlota City. In B. J. Kerkvliet & R. B. Mojares (Eds.), From Marcos to Aquino: Local perspectives on political transition in the Philippines (pp. 105–142). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  27. O’Brien, N. (1987). Revolution from the heart. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. O’Brien, N. (1993). Island of tears, island of hope: Living the gospel in a revolutionary situation. Maryknol, NY: Orbis.Google Scholar
  29. Perry, E. J. (2002). Moving the masses: Emotion work in the Chinese Revolution. Mobilization, 7, 111–128.Google Scholar
  30. Pinches, M. (1991). The working class experience of shame, inequality, and people power in Tatalon, Manila. In B. J. Kerkvliet & R. B. Mojares (Eds.), From Marcos to Aquino: Local perspectives on political transition in the Philippines (pp. 166–186). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Reger, J. (2004). Organizational “emotion work” through consciousness-raising: An analysis of a feminist organization. Qualitative Sociology, 27, 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rutten, R. (1996). Popular support for the revolutionary movement CPP–NPA: Experiences in a hacienda in Negros Occidental, 1978–1995. In P. N. Abinales (Ed.), The revolution falters: The left in Philippine politics after 1986 (pp. 110–153). Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  33. Rutten, R. (2000). High-cost activism and the worker household: Interests, commitment, and the costs of revolutionary activism in a Philippine plantation region. Theory and Society, 29, 215–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance: Hidden transcripts. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Scott, J. C., & Kerkvliet, B. J. (1977). How traditional rural patrons lose legitimacy: A theory with special reference to Southeast Asia. In S. Schmidt, L. Guasti, C. H. Lande, & J. C. Scott (Eds.), Friends, followers, and factions (pp. 439–458). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Scheff, T., & Retzinger, S. (2000). Shame as the master emotion of everyday life. Journal of Mundane Behavior, 1, 303–324.Google Scholar
  37. Scheper-Hughes, N. (1992). Death without weeping: The violence of everyday life in Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Shweder, R. A. (2003). Toward a deep cultural psychology of shame. Social Research, 70, 1109–1130.Google Scholar
  39. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review, 51, 273–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tarrow, S. (1998). Power in movement: Social movements and contentious politics, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Taylor, V. (2000). Emotions and identity in women’s self-help movements. In S. Stryker, T. J. Owens, & R. W. White (Eds.), Self, identity, and social movements (pp. 271–299). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  42. Tilly, C. (1995). Contentious repertoires in Great Britain, 1758–1834. In M. Traugott (Ed.), Repertoires and cycles of collective action (pp. 15–42). Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Tilly, C. (2004). Social movements, 1768–2004. Boulder and London: Paradigm Press.Google Scholar
  44. Weekley, K. (2001). The Communist Party of the Philippines 1968–1993: A story of its theory and practice. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.Google Scholar
  45. Wertheim, W. F. (1964). Society as a composite of conflicting value systems. In W. F. Wertheim, East-west parallels: Sociological approaches to modern Asia (pp. 23–38). The Hague: W. van Hoeve.Google Scholar
  46. Wiersma, J. (1982). Loonacties van hacienda-arbeiders: Strijd voor betere arbeidsvoorwaarden in een ‘upland’ suikerdistrict in Negros Occidental, Filippijnen, 1972–1980. [Labor actions of hacienda workers in an upland milling district, Negros Occidental, the Philippines, 1972–1980] Working Paper No. 15. Center of Anthropology and Sociology, Department of South- and Southeast Asian Studies. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  47. Wood, E. J. (2001). The emotional benefits of insurgency in El Salvador. In J. Goodwin, J. M. Jasper, & F. Polletta (Eds.), Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements (pp. 267–281). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosanne Rutten
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyUniversity of AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations