Science of Training and Injury in Athletics

Over the past 45 years or so, we have achieved significant scientific understanding of many physical factors involved in the development of various aspects of training, including specific strength and conditioning training. This has allowed more effective programs to be used for athletes’ safety and preparation for competitions. Specifically, several components of training, such as skills, speed, strength, stamina and psychological skill training have been a focus of numerous text and research. The current conceptualization of science of training, basic principles of training theories as well as specific safe methods of strength and conditioning for athletes, have been summarized in Science and Practice of Strength Training (Zatsiorsky, 1995). The major theme of this book aims to provide scientific basis for the concept of adaptation as a law of training. Indeed, proper exercise, sport-specific drills and/or regular physical and psychological load is a very powerful stimulus for adaptation (i.e., organisms’ adjustment in its environment). Accordingly, the major objective of athletes’ preparation should be inducing specific adaptations in order to improve sport performance via: (a) carefully planned; (b) skillfully executed; and (c) goaloriented training programs. From practical perspectives, at least four important features of the adaptation process should be considered by a coach in order to make training programs effective and most importantly safe for the athletes. Otherwise, athletes may experience and express various forms of maladaptive responses to training and associated performance saturation/deterioration with high risk for sport-related traumatic injuries.


Strength Training Training Effect Elite Athlete Training Load Training Cycle 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Zatsiorsky, V. M. ( 1995). Science and practice of strength training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  2. Thorndike, E. L. (1914). Educational Psychology: Brief course. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Balui, I. (1995). Planning, periodization, integration and implementation of annual training programs. Presentation to and in proceedings of the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association National Conference, (pp. 40-66). Gold Coast, Australia.Google Scholar
  4. Dawson, B. (1996). Periodization of speed and endurance training. In P. Reaburn & D. Jenkins (Eds.), Training for speed and endurance, (pp.76-96). St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  5. Issurin, V. (2003). Aspekten der kurzfristigen Planung im Konzept der Blockstruktur des Training. Leistungsport, 33, 41-44.Google Scholar
  6. Nadori, L., & Granek, I. (1989). Theoretical and methodological basis of training with special considerations within a microcycle. Lincoln: National Strength and Conditioning Association.Google Scholar
  7. Matveyev, L. (1977). Fundamentals of sport training. Moscow: Progress Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Ozolin, N. G. (1970). The modern system of sport training. Moscow: FIS Publishers. (Russian).Google Scholar
  9. Bompa, T. (1984). Theory and methodology of training. The key to athletic performance. Boca Raton, FL: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  10. Bompa, T. (1999) Periodization: Theory and methodology of training (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  11. Dick, F. (1980). Sport training principles. London: Lepus Books.Google Scholar
  12. Letzelter, M. (1978). Trainingsgrundlagen. Training. Technik. Taktik. Rowolt Verlag GmbH, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  13. Harre, D. (Ed.). (1982). Principles of sport training. Berlin: Sportverlag.Google Scholar
  14. Platonov V.N. (1997). General theory of athletes’ preparation in the Olympic sports. Kiev: “Olympic Literature”. (Russian).Google Scholar
  15. Issurin, V., & Kaverin, V. (1985). Planning and design of annual preparation cycle in canoeing. In “Grebnoj Sport ” (Rowing, Canoeing, Kayaking), Ph.S.; Moscow, p. 25-29.Google Scholar
  16. Issurin, V., & Lustig G. (2004). Klassification, Dauer und praktische Komponenten der Resteffekte von Training. Leistungsport. 34, 55-59.Google Scholar
  17. Issurin, V., & Shkliar, V. (2002). Zur Konzeption der Blockstuktur im Training von hochklassifizierten Sportlern. Leistungsport, 6, 42-45.Google Scholar
  18. Counsilman, B. E., & Counsilman, J. (1991). The residual effects of training. Journal of Swimming Research , 7, 5-12 .Google Scholar
  19. Steinacker, J. M., Lormes, W., Lehman, M., & Altenburg, D. (1998). Training of rowers before world championships. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercice, 30, 1158-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wilmore, J. H., & Costill, D. L. (1993). Training for sport and activity. The physiological basis of the conditioning process. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  21. Mujika, I. (1999) The influence of training characteristics and tapering on the adaptation in highly trained individuals: a review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19, 439-446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bondarchuk, A. P. (1981). The physical preparation designing in power disciplines of track and field. Kiev: Health Publisher (Zdorovie, Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Personalised recommendations