Cell Death and Cochlear Protection

  • Steven H. Green
  • Richard A. Altschuler
  • Josef M. Miller
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 31)


Hearing Loss Hair Cell Noise Exposure Outer Hair Cell Spiral Ganglion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adamec E, Beermann ML, Nixon RA (1998) Calpain I activation in rat hippocampal neurons in culture is NMDA receptor selective and not essential for excitotoxic cell death. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 54:35–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamson CL, Reid MA, Davis RL (2002) Opposite actions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 on firing features and ion channel composition of murine spiral ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 22:1385–1396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Affaitati A,Cardone L, de Cristofaro T, Carlucci A, Ginsberg MD, Varrone S, Gottesman ME, Avvedimento EV, Feliciello A (2003) Essential role of A-kinase anchor protein 121 for cAMP signaling to mitochondria. J Biol Chem 278:4286–4294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alam S, Robinson BK, Huang J, Green SH (2007) Prosurvival and proapoptotic intracellular signaling in rat spiral ganglion neurons in vivo after the loss of hair cells. J Comp Neurol 503:832–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Altschuler RA, Lim HH, Ditto J, Dolan D, Raphael Y (1996) Protective mechanisms in the cochlea: heat shock proteins. In:Salvi RJ, Henderson D, Fiorino F, Colletti V (eds) Auditory Plasticity and Regeneration. New York: Tieman Med Publishers, pp. 202–212.Google Scholar
  6. Altschuler RA, Cho Y, Ylikoski J, Pirvola U, Magal E, Miller JM (1999) Rescue and regrowth of sensory nerves following deafferentation by neurotrophic factors. Ann NY Acad Sci 884:305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Araki S, Kawano A, Seldon L, Shepherd RK, Funasaka S, Clark GM (1998) Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on spiral ganglion neuron survival and size in deafened kittens. Laryngoscope 108:687–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Araki S, Kawano A, Seldon HL, Shepherd RK, Funasaka S, Clark GM (2000) Effects of intracochlear factors on spiral ganglion cells and auditory brain stem response after long-term electrical stimulation in deafened kittens. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122:425–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Araujo IM, Carvalho CM (2005) Role of nitric oxide and calpain activation in neuronal death and survival. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 4:319–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Attias J, Sapir S, Bresloff I, Reshef-Haran I, Ising H (2004) Reduction in noise-induced temporary threshold shift in humans following oral magnesium intake. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 29:635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baloh RH, Enomoto H, Johnson EM, Jr., Milbrandt J (2000) The GDNF family ligands and receptors—implications for neural development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barthwal MK, Sathyanarayana P, Kundu CN, Rana B, Pradeep A, Sharma C, Woodgett JR, Rana A (2003) Negative regulation of mixed lineage kinase 3 by protein kinase B/AKT leads to cell survival. J Biol Chem 278:3897–3902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berridge MJ (1998) Neuronal calcium signaling. Neuron 21:13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhakar AL, Tannis LL, Zeindler C, Russo MP, Jobin C, Park DS, MacPherson S, Barker PA (2002) Constitutive NF-UP kappa B activity is required for central neuron survival. J Neurosci 22:8466–8475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bianchi LM, Raz Y (2004) Methods for providing therapeutic agents to treat damaged spiral ganglion neurons. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 3:195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bichler E, Spoendlin H, Rauchegger H (1983) Degeneration of cochlear neurons after amikacin intoxication in the rat. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 237:201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Biswas SC, Liu DX, Greene LA (2005) Bim is a direct target of a neuronal E2F-dependent apoptotic pathway. J Neurosci 25:8349–8358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Blondeau N, Widmann C, Lazdunski M, Heurteaux C (2001) Activation of the nuclear factor-UP kappa B is a key event in brain tolerance. J Neurosci 21:4668–4677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bobbin RP (2001) PPADS, an ATP antagonist, attenuates the effects of a moderately intense sound on cochlear mechanics. Hear Res 156:10–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bobbin RP (2002) Caffeine and ryanodine demonstrate a role for the ryanodine receptor in the organ of Corti. Hear Res 174:172–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bobbin RP, Blesoe SJ (2005) Asphyxia and depolarization increase adenosine levels in perilymph. Hear Res 205:110–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bodmer D, Gloddek B, Ryan AF, Huverstuhl J, Brors D (2002) Inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway influences neurite outgrowth of spiral ganglion neurons in vitro. Laryngoscope 112:2057–2061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bogoyevitch MA, Boehm I, Oakley A, Ketterman AJ, Barr RK (2004) Targeting the JNK MAPK cascade for inhibition: basic science and therapeutic potential. Biochim Biophys Acta 1697:89–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bohne BA (1976) Safe level for noise exposure? Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 85:711–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bok J, Huang J, Wang Q, Green SH (2007) CaMKII and CaMKIV mediate divergent prosurvival signaling pathways in response to depolarization in neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci 36:13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bok J, Zha XM, Cho YS, Green SH (2003) An extranuclear locus of cAMP-dependent protein kinase action is necessary and sufficient for promotion of spiral ganglion neuronal survival by cAMP. J Neurosci 23:777–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brosenitsch TA, Katz DM (2001) Physiological patterns of electrical stimulation can induce neuronal gene expression by activating N-type calcium channels. J Neurosci 21:2571–2579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown MC, deV Venecia RK, Guinan JJ (2003) Responses of medial olivocochlear neurons. Specifying the central pathways of the medial olivocochlear reflex. Exp Brain Res 153:491–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brunet A, Bonni A, Zigmond MJ, Lin MZ, Juo P, Hu LS, Anderson MJ, Arden KC, Blenis J, Greenberg ME (1999) Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a forkhead transcription factor. Cell 96:857–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen C, Nenov A, Bobbin RP (1995) Noise exposure induced change in outer hair cell response to ATP. Hear Res 88:215–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cheng AG, Cunningham LL, Rubel EW (2005) Mechanisms of hair cell death and protection. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 13:343–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Culmsee C, Siewe J, Junker V, Retiounskaia M, Schwarz S, Camandola S, El-Metainy S, Behnke H, Mattson MP, Krieglstein J (2003) Reciprocal inhibition of p53 and nuclear factor-kB transcriptional activities determines cell survival or death in neurons. J Neurosci 23:8586–8595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. d’Aldin C, Puel JL, Leducq R, Crambes O, Eybalin M, Pujol R (1995) Effects of a dopaminergic agonist in the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 90:202–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dallos P, He DZ, Lin X, Sziklai I, Mehta S, Evans BN (1997) Acetylcholine, outer hair cell electromotility, and the cochlear amplifier. J Neurosci 17:2212–2226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Datta SR, Brunet A, Greenberg ME (1999) Cellular survival: a play in three Akts. Genes Dev 13:2905–2927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davis RJ (2000) Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases. Cell 103:239–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dawson TM, Ginty DD (2002) CREB family transcription factors inhibit neuronal suicide. Nat Med 8:450–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De Cesare D, Sassone-Corsi P (2000) Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP-responsive factors. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 64:343–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Deshmukh M, Johnson EM Jr (1998) Evidence of a novel event during neuronal death: development of competence-to-die in response to cytoplasmic cytochrome C. Neuron 21:695–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ding L, McFadden SL, Salvi RJ (2002) Calpain immunoreactivity and morphological damage in chinchilla inner ears after carboplatin. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 3:68–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Donovan N, Becker EB, Konishi Y, Bonni A (2002) JNK phosphorylation and activation of BAD couples the stress-activated signaling pathway to the cell death machinery. J Biol Chem 277:40944–40949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Downward J (1999) How BAD phosphorylation is good for survival. Nat Cell Biol 1:E33–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eilers A, Whitfield J, Shah B, Spadoni C, Desmond H, Ham J (2001) Direct inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in sympathetic neurons prevents c-jun promoter activation and NGF withdrawal-induced death. J Neurochem 76:1439–1454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Encinas M, Tansey MG, Tsui-Pierchala BA, Comella JX, Milbrandt J, Johnson EM (2001) c-Src is required for glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligand-mediated neuronal survival via a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)-dependent pathway. J Neurosci 21:1464–1472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Ernfors P, Duan ML, ElShamy WM, Canlon B (1996) Protection of auditory neurons from aminoglycoside toxicity by neurotrophin-3. Nature Med 2:463–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fairfield DA, Kanicki AC, Lomax MI, Altchuler RA (2002) Expression and localization of heat shock factor (HSF) 1 in the rodent cochlea. Hear Res 173:109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fairfield DA, Kanicki AC, Lomax MI, Altchuler RA (2004) Induction of heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32) in the rat cochlea following hyperthermia. Hear Res 188:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fairfield DA, Lomax MI, Dootz GA, Chen S, Galecki TA, Benjamin IJ, Dolan DF, Altchuler RA (2005) Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) deficient mice exhibit decreased recovery of hearing following noise overstimulation. J Neurosci Res 81:589–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fayad J, Linthicum FH, Jr., Otto SR, Galey FR, House WF (1991) Cochlear implants: histopathologic findings related to performance in 16 human temporal bones. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100:807–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ferrari G, Anderson BL, Stephens RM, Kaplan DR, Green LA (1995) Prevention of apoptotic neuronal death by GM1 ganglioside. Involvement of Trk neurotrophin receptors. J Biol Chem 270:3074–3080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fesik SW, Shi Y (2001) Controlling the caspases. Science 294:1477–1478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ford MS, Maggirwar SB, Rybak LP, Whitworth C, Ramkumar V (1997) Expression and function of adenosine receptors in the chinchilla cochlea. Hear Res 105:130–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Forge A, Schacht J (2000) Aminoglycoside antibiotics. Audiol Neurootol 5:3–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Franklin JL, Johnson EM Jr (1994) Block of neuronal apoptosis by a sustained increase of steady-state free Ca2+ concentration. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 345:251–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Franklin JL, Sanz-Rodriguez C, Juhasz A, Deckwerth TL, Johnson EM Jr (1995) Chronic depolarization prevents programmed death of sympathetic neurons in vitro but does not support growth: requirement for Ca2+ influx but not Trk activation. J Neurosci 15:643–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fridberger A, Flóck A, Ulfendahl M, Flóck B (1998) Acoustic overstimulation increases outer hair cell Ca2+ concentrations and causes dynamic contractions of the hearing organ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:7127–7132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fridmacher V, Kaltschmidt B, Goudeau B, Ndiaye D, Rossi FM, Pfeiffer J, Kaltschmidt C, Israel A, Memet S (2003) Forebrain-specific neuronal inhibition of nuclear factor- UPkappa B activity leads to loss of neuroprotection. J Neurosci 23:9403–9408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fritzsch B, Tessarollo L, Coppola E, Reichardt LF (2004) Neurotrophins in the ear: their roles in sensory neuron survival and fiber guidance. Prog Brain Res 146:265–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fritzsch B, Pauley S, Matei V, Katz DM, Xiang M, Tessarollo L (2005) Mutant mice reveal the molecular and cellular basis for specific sensory connections to inner ear epithelia and primary nuclei of the brain. Hear Res 206:52–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Galli C, Meucci O, Scorziello A, Werge TM, Calissano P, Schettini G (1995) Apoptosis in cerebellar granule cells is blocked by high KCl, forskolin, and IGF-1 through distinct mechanisms of action: the involvement of intracellular calcium and RNA synthesis. J Neurosci 15:1172–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Garnier P, Ying W, Swanson RA (2003) Ischemic preconditioning by caspase cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neurosci 23:7967–7973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gates GA (2006) The effect of noise on cochlear aging. Ear Hear 27:91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Gentry JJ, Barker PA, Carter BD (2004) The p75 neurotrophin receptor: multiple interactors and numerous functions. Prog Brain Res 146:25–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gestwa G, Wiechers B, Zimmermann U, Praetorius M, Rohbock K, Kopschall I, Zenner HP, Knipper M (1999) Differential expression of trkB.T1 and trkB.T2, truncated trkC, and p75^NGFR in the cochlea prior to hearing function. J Comp Neurol 414:33–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Ghahremani MH, Keramaris E, Shree T, Xia Z, Davis RJ, Flavell R, Slack RS, Park DS (2002) Interaction of the c-Jun/JNK pathway and cyclin-dependent kinases in death of embryonic cortical neurons evoked by DNA damage. J Biol Chem 277:35586–35596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ghoumari AM, Wehrle R, De Zeeuw CI, Sotelo C, Dusart I (2002) Inhibition of protein kinase C prevents Purkinje cell death but does not affect axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 22:3531–3542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gidday JM (2006) Cerebral preconditioning and ischaemic tolerance. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:437–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gillespie LN, Clark GM, Bartlett PF, Marzella PL (2003) BDNF-induced survival of auditory neurons in vivo: cessation of treatment leads to accelerated loss of survival effects. J Neurosci Res 71:785–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Goldberg JL, Espinosa JS, Xu Y, Davidson N, Kovacs GT, Barres BA (2002) Retinal ganglion cells do not extend axons by default. Promotion by neurotrophic signaling and electrical activity. Neuron 33:689–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Green SH (2000) Neurotrophic signaling by membrane electrical activity in spiral ganglion neurons. In: Lim DJ (ed) Cell and Molecular Biology of the Ear. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum, pp. 165–182.Google Scholar
  71. Greenlund LJS, Deckwerth TL, Johnson EM Jr (1995) Superoxide dismutase delays neuronal apoptosis: a role for reactive oxygen species in programmed neuronal death. Neuron 14:303–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Groff JA, Liberman MC (2003) Modulation of cochlear afferent response by the lateral olivocochlear system: activation via electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus. J Neurophysiol 90:3178–3200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ham J, Eilers A, Whitfield J, Neame SJ, Shah B (2000) c-Jun and the transcriptional control of neuronal apoptosis. Biochem Pharmacol 60:1015–1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hamernik RP, Henderson D (1974) Impulse noise trauma. A study of histological susceptibility. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 99:118–121.Google Scholar
  75. Hansen MR, Vijapurkar U, Koland JG, Green SH (2001) Reciprocal %%signaling between spiral ganglion neurons and Schwann cells involves %%neuregulin and neurotrophins. Hear Res 161:87–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hansen MR, Zha X-M, Bok J, Green SH (2001b) Multiple distinct signal pathways, including an autocrine neurotrophic mechanism, contribute to the survival-promoting effect of depolarization on spiral ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 21:2256–2267.Google Scholar
  77. Hansen MR, Devaiah AK, Bok J, Zha X, Green SH (2003) Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II and IV function similarly in neurotrophic signaling but differ in their effects on neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. J, Neurosci Res 72:169–184.Google Scholar
  78. Harada H, Becknell B, Wilm M, Mann M, Huang LJ, Taylor SS, Scott JD, Korsmeyer SJ (1999) Phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored protein kinase A. Mol Cell 3:413–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Harden TK, Boyer JL, Nicholas RA (1995) P2-purinergic receptors: subtype-associated signaling responses and structure. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 35:541–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Harris KC, Bielefeld E, Hu BH, Henderson D (2006) Increased resistance to free radical damage induced by low-level sound conditioning. Hear Res 213:118–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Harris MH, Thompson CB (2000) The role of the Bcl-2 family in the regulation of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability. Cell Death Differ 7:1182–1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hartnick C, Staecker H, Malgrange B, Lefebvre P, Liu W, Moonen G, van de Water TR (1996) Neurotrophic effects of BDNF and CNTF, alone and in combination, on postnatal day 5 rat acoustic ganglion neurons. J Neurobiol 30:246–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hegarty JL, Kay AR, Green SH (1997) Trophic support of cultured spiral ganglion neurons by depolarization exceeds and is additive with that by neurotrophins or cyclic AMP, and requires elevation of [Ca2+]_i within a set range. J Neurosci 17:1959–1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Heinrich UR, Maurer J, Mann W (1999) Ultrastructural evidence for protection of the outer hair cells of the inner ear during intense noise exposure by application of the organic calcium channel blocker diltiazem. ORL J Otolaryngolg Relat Spec 61:321–327.Google Scholar
  85. Henderson D, Bielefeld EC, Harris KC, Hu BH (2006) The role of oxidative stress in noise-induced hearing loss. Ear Hear 27:1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hengartner MO (2000) The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature 407:770–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hiebert SW, Packham G, Strom DK, Haffner R, Oren M, Zambetti G, Cleveland JL (1995) E2F-1:DP-1 induces p53 and overrides survival factors to trigger apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 15:6864–6874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Higuchi M, Tomioka M, Takano J, Shirotani K, Iwata N, Masumoto H, Maki M, Itohara S, Saido TC (2005) Distinct mechanistic roles of calpain and caspase activation in neurodegeneration as revealed in mice overexpressing their specific inhibitors. J Biol Chem 280:15229–15237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hirose K, Liberman MC (2003) Lateral wall histopathology and endocochlear potential in the noise-damaged mouse cochlea. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 4:339–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Housley GD, Thorne PR (2000) Purinergic signalling: an experimental perspective. J Auton Nerv Syst 81:139–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hu BH, Zheng XY, McFadden SL, Kopke RD, Henderson D (1997) R-phenylisopro-pyladenosine attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in the chinchilla. Hear Res 113:198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Huang DC, Strasser A (2000) BH3-only proteins—essential initiators of apoptotic cell death. Cell 103:839–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF (2001) Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function. Annu Rev Neurosci 24:677–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF (2003) Trk receptors: roles in neuronal signal transduction. Annu Rev Biochem 72:609–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hunter-Duvar IM, Bredberg G (1974) Effects of intense auditory stimulation: hearing losses and inner ear changes in the chinchilla. J Acoust Soc Am 55:795–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Imamura S, Adams JC (2003) Changes in cytochemistry of sensory and nonsensory cells in gentamicin-treated cochleas. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 4:196–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Ishii N, Wanaka A, Ohno K, Matsumoto K, Eguchi Y, Mori T, Tsujimoto Y, Tohyama M (1996) Localization of bcl-2, bax, and bcl-x mRNAs in the developing inner ear of the mouse. Brain Res 726:123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Jacono AA, Hu B, Kopke RD, Henderson D, Van de Water TR, Steinman HM (1998) Changes in cochlear antioxidant enzyme activity after sound conditioning and noise exposure in the chinchilla. Hear Res 117:31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Jiang H, Schacht J (2005) NF-kappaB pathway protects cochlear hair cells from aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. J Neurosci Res 79:644–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Jiang H, Sha S-H, Forge A, Schacht J (2006) Caspase-independent pathways of hair cell death induced by kanamycin in vivo. Cell Death Differ 13:20–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kanzaki S, Stover T, Kawamoto K, Prieskorn DM, Altschuler RA, Miller JM, Raphael Y (2002) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and chronic electrical stimulation prevent VIII cranial nerve degeneration following denervation. J Comp Neurol 454:350–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kanzaki S, Beyer L, Karolyi IJD, D.F., Fang Q, Probst FJ, Camper SA, Raphael Y (2006) Transgene correction maintains normal cochlear structure and function in 6–month-old Myo15a mutant mice. Hear Res 214:37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Keithley EM, Ma CL, Ryan AF, Louis JC, Magal E (1998) GDNF protects the cochlea against noise damage. NeuroReport 9:2183–2187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Keithley EM, Canto C, Zheng QY, Wang X, Fischel-Ghodsian N, Johnson KR (2005) Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and age-related hearing loss. Hear Res 209:76–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kelly TC, Whitworth CA, Husain K, Rybak LP (2003) Aminoguanidine reduces cisplatin ototoxicity. Hear Res 186:10–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Koike T, Tanaka S (1991) Evidence that nerve growth factor dependence of sympathetic neurons for survival in vitro may be determined by levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:3892–3896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Koitchev K, Guilhaume A, Cazals Y, Aran J-M (1982) Spiral ganglion changes after massive aminoglycoside treatment in the guinea pig. Counts and ultrastructure. Acta Otolaryngol 94:431–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Konishi Y, Bonni A (2003) The E2F-Cdc2 cell-cycle pathway specifically mediates activity deprivation-induced apoptosis of postmitotic neurons. J Neurosci 23:1649–1658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Konishi Y, Lehtinen M, Donovan N, Bonni A (2002) Cdc2 phosphorylation of BAD links the cell cycle to the cell death machinery. Mol Cell 9:1005–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kroemer G, Reed JC (2000) Mitochondrial control of cell death. Nat Med 6:513–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kuan CY, Yang DD, Samanta Roy DR, Davis RJ, Rakic P, Flavell RA (1999) The Jnk1 and Jnk2 protein kinases are required for regional specific apoptosis during early brain development. Neuron 22:667–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kujawa SG, Liberman MC (1997) Conditioning-related protection from acoustic injury: effects of chronic de-efferentation and sham surgery. J Neurophysio 78:3095–3106.Google Scholar
  113. Kujawa SG, Liebermann MC (2006) Acceleration of age-related hearing loss by early noise exposure: evidence of a misspent youth. J Neurosci 26:2115–2123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lallemend F, Lefebvre PP, Hans G, Rigo JM, Van de Water TR, Moonen G, Malgrange B (2003) Substance P protects spiral ganglion neurons from apoptosis via PKC-Ca2+-MAPK/ERK pathways. J Neurochem 87:508–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lallemend F, Hadjab S, Hans G, Moonen G, Lefebvre PP, Malgrange B (2005) Activation of protein kinase CbI constitutes a new neurotrophic pathway for deafferented spiral ganglion neurons. J Cell Sci 118:4511–4525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lalwani AK, Han JJ, Castelein CM, Carvalho GJ, Mhatre AN (2002) In vitro and in vivo assessment of the ability of adeno-associated virus-brain-derived neurotrophic factor to enhance spiral ganglion cell survival following ototoxic insult. Laryngoscope 112:1325–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lang H, Schulte BA, Schmiedt RA (2005) Ouabain induces apoptotic cell death in type I spiral ganglion neurons, but not type II neurons. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 6:63–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lang H, Schulte BA, Zhou D, Smythe N, Spicer SS, Schmiedt RA (2006) Nuclear factor kB deficiency is associated with auditory nerve degeneration and increased noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci 26:3541–3550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Lankiewicz S, Marc Luetjens C, Truc Bui N, Krohn AJ, Poppe M, Cole GM, Saido TC, Prehn JH (2000) Activation of calpain I converts excitotoxic neuron death into a caspase-independent cell death. J Biol Chem 275:17064–17071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lautermann J, McLaren J, Schacht J (1995) Glutathione protection against gentamicin ototoxicity depends on nutritional status. Hear Res 86:15–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Leake PA, Hradek GT (1988) Cochlear pathology of long term neomycin induced deafness in cats. Hear Res 33:11–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Rebscher SJ, Snyder RL (1991) Chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation induces selective survival of spiral ganglion neurons in neonatally deafened cats. Hear Res 54:251–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Leake PA, Snyder RL, Hradek GT, Rebscher SJ (1995) Consequences of chronic extracochlear electrical stimulation in neonatally deafened cats. Hear Res 82:65–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Snyder RL (1999) Chronic electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant promotes survival of spiral ganglion neurons after neonatal deafness. J Comp Neurol 412:543–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Vollmer M, Rebscher SJ (2007) Neurotrophic effects of GM1 ganglioside and electrical stimulation on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in cats deafened as neonates. J Comp Neurol 501:837–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lefebvre PP, Malgrange B, Staecker H, Moghadass M, Van De Water TR, Moonen G (1994) Neurotrophins affect survival and neuritogenesis by adult injured auditory neurons in vitro. NeuroReports 5:865–868.Google Scholar
  127. Leonova EV, Fairfield DA, Lomax MI, Altchuler RA (2002) Constitutive expression of HSP 27 in the rat cochlea. Hear Res 163:61–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Le Prell CG, Hughes LF, Miller JM (2007) Free radical scavengers vitamins A, C, and E plus magnesium reduce noise trauma. Free Radic Biol Med 42:1454–1463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lezoualch F, Sagara Y, Holsboer F, Behl C (1998) High constitutive NF-UPkappa B activity mediates resistance to oxidative stress in neuronal cells. J Neurosci 18:3224–3232.Google Scholar
  130. Li L, Parkins CW, Webster DB (1999) Does electrical stimulation of deaf cochleae prevent spiral ganglion degeneration? Hear Res 133:27–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Lim DJ, Melnick W (1971) A scanning and transmission electron microscopic observation. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 94:294–305.Google Scholar
  132. Lin A (2003) Activation of the JNK signaling pathway: breaking the brake on apoptosis. Bioessays 25:17–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Linseman DA, Phelps RA, Bouchard RJ, Le SS, Laessig TA, McClure ML, Heidenreich KA (2002) Insulin-like growth factor-I blocks bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (bim) induction and intrinsic death signaling in cerebellar granule neurons. J Neurosci 22:9287–9297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Liu DX, Greene LA (2001) Regulation of neuronal survival and death by E2F-dependent gene repression and derepression. Neuron 32:425–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Liu W, Staecker H, Stupak H, Malgrange B, Lefebvre P, Van De Water TR (1998) Caspase inhibitors prevent cisplatin-induced apoptosis of auditory sensory cells. NeuroReport 9:2609–2614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Liu ZG, Hsu H, Goeddel DV, Karin M (1996) Dissection of TNF receptor 1 effector functions: JNK activation is not linked to apoptosis while NF-UP kappa B activation prevents cell death. Cell 87:565–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Mabuchi T, Kitagawa K, Kuwabara K, Takasawa K, Ohtsuki T, Xia Z, Storm D, Yanagihara T, Hori M, Matsumoto M (2001) Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein in hippocampal neurons as a protective response after exposure to glutamate in vitro and ischemia in vivo. J Neurosci 21:9204–9213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Maggirwar SB, Sarmiere PD, Dewhurst S, Freeman RS (1998) Nerve growth factor-dependent activation of NF-kB contributes to survival of sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci 18:10356–10365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Maison SF, Liberman MC (2000) Predicting vulnerability to acoustic injury with a noninvasive assay of olivocochlear reflex strength. J Neurosci 20:4701–4707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Maison SF, Luebke AE, Liberman MC, Zuo J (2002) Efferent protection from acoustic injury is mediated via alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on outer hair cells. J Neurosci 22:10838–10846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Martin DP, Schmidt RE, DiStefano PS, Lowry OH, Carter JG, Johnson EM, Jr. (1988) Inhibitors of protein synthesis and RNA synthesis prevent neuronal death caused by nerve growth factor deprivation. J Cell Biol 106:829–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Marzella PL, Clark GM, Shepherd RK, Bartlett PF, Kilpatrick TJ (1997) LIF potentiates the NT-3–mediated survival of spiral ganglia neurones in vitro. NeuroReport 8:1641–1644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Marzella PL, Clark GM, Shepherd RK, Bartlett PF, Kilpatrick TJ (1998) Synergy between TGF-b3 and NT-3 to promote the survival of spiral ganglia neurones in vitro. Neurosci Lett 240:77–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Mattson MP (2003) Excitotoxic and excitoprotective mechanisms: abundant targets for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Neuromol Med 3:65–94.Google Scholar
  145. McFadden SL, Ding D, Jiang H, Salvi RJ (2004) Time course of efferent fiber and spiral ganglion cell degeneration following complete hair cell loss in the chinchilla. Brain Res 997:40–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. McLaughlin B, Hartnett KA, Erhardt JA, Legos JJ, White RF, Barone FC, Aizenman E (2003) Caspase 3 activation is essential for neuroprotection in preconditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:715–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Meffert MK, Chang JM, Wiltgen BJ, Fanselow MS, Baltimore D (2003) NF-UP kappa B functions in synaptic signaling and behavior. Nat Neurosci 6:1072–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Meller R, Cameron JA, Torrey DJ, Clayton CE, Ordonez AN, Henshall DC, Minami M, Schindler CK, Saugstad JA, Simon RP (20006) Rapid degradation of Bim by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway mediates short-term ischemic tolerance in cultured neurons. J Biol Chem 281:7429–7436.Google Scholar
  149. Meyer-Franke A, Wilkinson GA, Kruttgen A, Hu M, Munro E, Hanson MG Jr, Reichardt LF, Barres BA (1998) Depolarization and cAMP elevation rapidly recruit TrkB to the plasma membrane of CNS neurons. Neuron 21:681–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Miao B, Yin XM, Pei DS, Zhang QG, Zhang GY (2005) Neuroprotective effects of preconditioning ischemia on ishemic brain injury through down-regulating activation of JNK1/2 via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated Akt1 activation. J Biol Chem 280:21693–21699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Midorikawa R, Takei Y, Hirokawa N (2006) KIF4 motor regulates activity-dependent neuronal survival by suppressing PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Cell 125:371–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mikuriya T, Sugahara K, Takemoto T, Tanaka K, Takeno K, Shimogori H, Nakai A, Yamashita H (2005) Geranylgeranylacetone, a heat shock protein inducer, prevents acoustic injury in the guinea pig. Brain Res 1065:107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Miller AL (2001) Effects of chronic stimulation on auditory nerve survival in ototoxically deafened animals. Hear Res 151:1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Miller AL, Prieskorn D, Altschuler RA, Miller JM (2003) Mechanism of electrical stimulation-induced neuroprotection: effects of verapamil on protection of primary auditory afferents. Brain Res 966:218–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Miller FD, Pozniak CD, Walsh GS (2000) Neuronal life and death: an essential role for the p53 family. Cell Death Differ 7:880–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Miller JM, Altschuler RA (1995) Effectiveness of different electrical stimulation conditions in preservation of spiral ganglion neurons following deafness. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 166 104:57–60.Google Scholar
  157. Miller JM, Ren TY, Dengerink HA, Nuttall AL (1996) Cochlear blood flow changes with short sound stimulation. In: Axelsson A, Borchgrevink H, Hamernik RP, Hellstrom P, Henderson D, Salvi RJ (eds) Scientific Basis of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, pp. 95–109.Google Scholar
  158. Miller JM, Chi DH, O’Keeffe LJ, Kruszka P, Raphael Y, Altschuler RA (1997) Neurotrophins can enhance spiral ganglion cell survival after inner hair cell loss. Int J Dev Neurosci 15:631–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Miller JM, Miller AL, Yamagata T, Bredberg G, Altschuler RA (2002) Protection and regrowth of the auditory nerve after deafness: neurotrophins, antioxidants and depolarization are effective in vivo. Audiol Neurootol 7:175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Miller JM, Brown JN, Schacht J (2003) 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2a, a product of noise exposure, reduces inner ear flow. Audiol Neurootol 8:207–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Minami SB, Yamashita D, Schacht J, Miller JM (2004) Calcineuron activation contributes to noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci Res 78:383–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mitchell A, Miller JM, Finger PA, Heller JW, Raphael Y, Altschuler RA (1997) Effects of chronic high-rate electrical stimulation on the cochlea and eighth nerve in the deafened guinea pig. Hear Res 105:30–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Miyashita T, Reed JC (1995) Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene. Cell 80:293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Morimoto RI, Kline MP, Bimston DN, Cotto JJ (1997) The heat-shock response: regulation and function of heat-shock proteins and molecular chaperones. Essays Biochem 32:17–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Nadol JB Jr (1997) Patterns of neural degeneration in the human cochlea and auditory nerve: implications for cochlear implantation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117:220–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Nadol JB Jr, Eddington DK (2006) Histopathology of the inner ear relevant to cochlear implantation. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 64:31–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Nakagomi S, Suzuki Y, Namikawa K, Kiryu-Seo S, Kiyama H (2003) Expression of the activating transcription factor 3 prevents c-Jun N-terminal kinase-induced neuronal death by promoting heat shock protein 27 expression and Akt activation. J Neurosci 23:5187–5196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Niu X, Canlon B (2002) Protective mechanisms of sound conditioning. Adv Otorhinolaryngol 59:96–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Ogawara Y, Kishishita S, Obata T, Isazawa Y, Suzuki T, Tanaka K, Masuyama N, Gotoh Y (2002) Akt enhances Mdm2–mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53. J Biol Chem 277:21843–21850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Oh SH, Yu WS, Song BH, Lim D, Koo JW, Chang SO, Kim CS (2000) Expression of heat shock protein 72 in rat cochlea with cisplatin-induced acute ototoxicity. Acta Otolaryngol 120:146–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Ohinata Y, Miller JM, Altschuler RA, Schacht J (2000a) Intense noise induces formation of vasoactive lipid peroxidation products in the cochlea. Brain Res 878:163–173.Google Scholar
  172. Ohinata Y, Yamasoba T, Schacht J, Miller JM (2000b) Glutathione limits noise-induced hearing loss. Hear Res 146:28–34.Google Scholar
  173. Ohinata Y, Miller JM, Schacht J (2003) Protection from noise-induced lipid peroxidation and hair cell loss in the cochlea. Brain Res 966:265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Ohlemiller KK, Wright JS, Dugan LL (1999) Early elevation of cochlear reactive oxygen species following noise exposure. Audiol Neurootol 4:229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Ohlemiller KK, McFadden SL, Ding D, Lear PM, Ho YS (2000) Targeted mutation of the gene for cellular glutathione peroxidaase (Gpx1) increases noise-induced hearing loss in mice. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 1:243–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Paratcha G, Ledda F, Ibáñez CF (2003) The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM is an alternative signaling receptor for GDNF family ligands. Cell 113:867–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Perrelet D, Ferri A, Liston P, Muzzin P, Korneluk RG, Kato AC (2002) IAPs are essential for GDNF-mediated neuroprotective effects in injured motor neurons in vivo. Nat Cell Biol 4:175–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Piazza V, Ciubotaru CD, Gale JE, Mammano F (2007) Purinergic signalling and intercellular Ca2+ wave propagation in the organ of Corti. Cell Calcium 41:77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Pickles JO (2004) Mutation in mitochondrial DNA as a cause of presbyacusis. Audiol Neurootol 9:23–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Pierchala BA, Ahrens RC, Paden AJ, Johnson EM Jr (2004) Nerve growth factor promotes the survival of sympathetic neurons through the cooperative function of the protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways. J Biol Chem 279:27986–27993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Pirvola U, Liang XQ, Virkkala J, Saarma M, Murakata C, Marie Camoratto AM, Walton KM, Ylikoski J (2000) Rescue of hearing, auditory hair cells, and neurons by CEP-1347/KT7515, an inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation. J Neurosci 20:43–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Priuska E, Schacht J (1995) Formation of free radicals by gentamicin and iron and evidence for an iron/gentamicin complex. Biochm Pharmacol 50:1749–1752.Google Scholar
  183. Probst FJ, Fridell RA, Raphael Y, Saunders TL, Wang A, Liang Y, Morell RJ, Touchman JW, Lyons RH (1998) Corrrection of deafness in shaker-2 mice by an unconventional myosin in a BAC transgene. Science 280:1444–1447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Puel JL, Ruel J, Gervais d’Aldin C, Pujol R (1998) Excitotoxicity and repair of cochlear synapses after noise-trauma induced hearing loss. NeuroReport 9:2109–2114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Ramkumar V, Ravi R, Wilson MC, Gettys TW, Whitworth C, Rybak LP (1994) Identification of A1 adenosine receptors in rat cochlea coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Am J Physiol 267:C731–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Ramkumar V, Whitworth CA, Pingle SC, Hughes LF, Rybak LP (2004) Noise induces A1 adenosine receptor expression in the chinchilla cochlea. Hear Res 188:47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Reed JC (1998) Bcl-2 family proteins. Oncogene 17:3225–3236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Robertson D, Paki B (2002) Role of L-type Ca2+ channels in transmitter release from mammalian inner hair cells. II. Single-neuron activity. J Neurophys 87:2734–2740.Google Scholar
  189. Robertson GS, Crocker SJ, Nicholson DW, Schulz JB (2000) Neuroprotection by the inhibition of apoptosis. Brain Pathol 10:283–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Roehm PC, Hansen MR (2005) Strategies to preserve or regenerate spiral ganglion neurons. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 13:294–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Rybak LP, Husain K, Morris C, Whitworth C, Somani S (2000) Effect of protective agents against cisplatin ototoxicity. Am J Otol 186:513–520.Google Scholar
  192. Rybak LP, Whitworth CA, Mukherjea D, Ramkumar V (2007) Mechanisms of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and prevention. Hearing research 226:157–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Rydel RE, Greene LA (1988) cAMP analogs promote survival and neurite outgrowth in cultures of rat sympathetic and sensory neurons independently of nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:1257–1261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Sato T, Doi K, Taniguchi M, Yamashita T, Kubo T, Tohyama M (2006) Progressive hearing loss in mice carrying a mutation in the p75 gene. Brain Res 1091:224–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Scarpidis U, Madnani D, Shoemaker C, Fletcher CH, Kojima K, Eshraghi AA, Staecker H, Lefebvre P, Malgrange B, Balkany TJ, Van De Water TR (2003) Arrest of apoptosis in auditory neurons: implications for sensorineural preservation in cochlear implantation. Otol Neurotol 24:409–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Scheibe F, Haupt H, Ludwig C (1992) Intensity-dependent changes in oxygenation of cochlear perilymph during acoustic exposure. Hear Res 63:19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Scheibe F, Haupt H, Ising HC L (2002) Therapeutic effect of parenteral magnesium on noise-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig. Magnes Res 15:27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Schuknecht HF (1993) Pathology of the Ear. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  199. See V, Boutillier AL, Bito H, Loeffler JP (2001) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) inhibits apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. FASEB J 15:134–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Seidman MD (2000) Effects of dietary restriction and antioxidants on presbyacusis. Laryngoscope 110:727–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sha S-H, Schacht J (1999) Salicylate attenuates gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. Lab Invest 79:807–813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sha S-H, Qiu J-H, Schacht J (2006) Aspirin to prevent gentamicin-induced hearing loss. N Engl J Med 354:1856–1857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Shepherd RK, Coco A, Epp SB, Crook JM (2005) Chronic depolarization enhances the trophic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rescuing auditory neurons following a sensorineural hearing loss. J Comp Neurol 486:145–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Shi X, Nuttall AL (2003) Upregulated iNOS and oxidative damage to the cochlear stria vascularis due to noise stress. Brain Res 967:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Shieh PB, Hu SC, Bobb K, Timmusk T, Ghosh A (1998) Identification of a signaling pathway involved in calcium regulation of BDNF expression. Neuron 20:727–740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Shinohara T, Bredberg G, Ulfendahl M, Pyykko I, Olivius NP, Kaksonen R, Lindstrom B, Altschuler R, Miller JM (2002) Neurotrophic factor intervention restores auditory function in deafened animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:1657–1660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Shoji F, Miller AL, Mitchell A, Yamasoba T, Altschuler RA, Miller JM (2000a) Differential protective effects of neurotrophins in the attenuation of noise-induced hair cell loss. Hear Res 146:134–142.Google Scholar
  208. Shoji F, Yamasoba T, Magal E, Dolan DF, Altschuler RA, Miller JM (2000b) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor has a dose dependent influence on noise-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig cochlea. Hearing Res 142:41–55.Google Scholar
  209. Song B-B, Schacht J (1996) Variable efficacy of radical scavengers and iron chelators to attenuate gentamicin ototoxicity in guinea pig in vivo. Hear Res 94:87–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Spoendlin H (1971) Degeneration behavior of the cochlear nerve. Arch Klin Exp Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheilk 200:275–291.Google Scholar
  211. Spoendlin H (1975) Retrograde degeneration of the cochlear nerve. Acta Otolaryngol 79:266–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Staecker H, Kopke R, Malgrange B, Lefebvre P, Van de Water TR (1996) NT-3 and/or BDNF therapy prevents loss of auditory neurons following loss of hair cells. NeuroReport 7:889–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Staecker H, Gabaizadeh R, Federoff H, Van De Water TR (1998) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene therapy prevents spiral ganglion degeneration after hair cell loss. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 119:7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Stankovic K, Rio C, Xia A, Sugawara M, Adams JC, Liberman MC, Corfas G (2004) Survival of adult spiral ganglion neurons requires erbB receptor signaling in the inner ear. J Neurosci 24:8651–8661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Stefanis L (2005) Caspase-dependent and -independent neuronal death: two distinct pathways to neuronal injury. Neuroscientist 11:50–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Strack S, Cribbs JT, Gomez L (2004) Critical role for protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimers in mammalian cell survival. J Biol Chem 279:47732–47739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Sugawara M, Corfas G, Liberman MC (2005) Influence of supporting cells on neuronal degeneration after hair cell loss. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 6:136–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Sugawara M, Murtie JC, Stankovic KM, Liberman MC, Corfas G (2007) Dynamic patterns of neurotrophin 3 expression in the postnatal mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol 501:30–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Tadros SF, S.T. F, Mapes F, Frisina DR, Frisina RD (2005) Higher serum aldosterone correlates with lower hearing thresholds: a possible protective hormone against presbycusis. Hear Res 209:10–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Tahera Y, Meltser I, Johansson P, Salman H, Canlon B (2007) Sound conditioning protects hearing by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neurobiol Dis 25:189–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Tan J, Shepherd RK (2006) Aminoglycoside-induced degeneration of adult spiral ganglion neurons involves differential modulation of tyrosine kinase B and p75 neurotrophin receptor signaling. Am J Pathol 169:528–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Tao X, Finkbeiner S, Arnold DB, Shaywitz AJ, Greenberg ME (1998) Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. Neuron 20:709–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Thorne PR, Nuttall AL (1987) Laser Doppler measurements of cochlear blood flow during loud sound exposure in the guinea pig. Hear Res 27:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Thorne PR, Munoz DJ, Housley GD (2004) Purinergic modulation of cochlear partition resistance and its effect on the endocochlear potential in the Guinea pig. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 5:58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Tong JX, Eichler ME, Rich KM (1996) Intracellular calcium levels influence apoptosis in mature sensory neurons after trophic factor deprivation. Exp Neurol 138:45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. van Campen LE, Murphy WJ, Franks JR, Mathias PI, Torraason MA (2002) Oxidative DNA damage is associated with intense noise exposure in the rat. Hear Res 164:29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Van de Water TR, Lallemand F, Eshraghi AA, Ahsan S, He J, Guzman J, Polak M, Malgrange B, Lefebvre PP, Staecker H, Balkany TJ (2004) Caspases, the enemy within, and their role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of inner ear sensory cells. Otol Neurotol 25:627–632.Google Scholar
  228. Vicente-Torres MA, Schacht J (2006) A BAD link to mitochondrial cell death in the cochlea of mice with noise-induced hearing loss. J Neurosci Res 83:1564–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Vlajkovic SM, Thorne PR, Munoz DJB, Housley GD (2004) Ectonucleotidase activity in the perilymphatic compartment of the guinea pig cochlea. Hear Res 99:31–37.Google Scholar
  230. Vogelbaum MA, Tong JX, Rich KM (1998) Developmental regulation of apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 18:8928–8935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. von Bartheld CS, Patterson SL, Heuer JG, Wheeler EF, Bothwell M, Rubel EW (1991) Expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors in the developing inner ear of chick and rat. Development 113:455–470.Google Scholar
  232. Waetzig V, Herdegen T (2003) A single c-Jun N-terminal kinase isoform (JNK3–p54) is an effector in both neuronal differentiation and cell death. J Biol Chem 278:567–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Wang HG, Pathan N, Ethell IM, Krajewski S, Yamaguchi Y, Shibasaki F, McKeon F, Bobo T, Franke TF, Reed JC (1999) Ca2+-induced apoptosis through calcineurin dephosphorylation of BAD. Science 284:339–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Wang J, Van De Water TR, Bonny C, de Ribaupierre F, Puel JL, Zine A (2003) A peptide inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase protects against both aminoglycoside and acoustic trauma-induced auditory hair cell death and hearing loss. J Neurosci 23:8596–8607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Wang LH, Besirli CG, Johnson EM Jr (2004) Mixed-lineage kinases: a target for the prevention of neurodegeneration. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 44:451–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Warr WB (1992) Organization of olivocochlear efferent systems in mammals. In: Webster DB, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 410–448.Google Scholar
  237. Webster M, Webster DB (1981) Spiral ganglion neuron loss following organ of Corti loss: a quantitative study. Brain Res 212:17–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Whitfield J, Neame SJ, Paquet L, Bernard O, Ham J (2001) Dominant-negative c-Jun promotes neuronal survival by reducing BIM expression and inhibiting mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Neuron 29:629–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Whitworth CS, Ramkumar V, Jones B, Tsukasaki N, Rybak LP (2004) Protection against cisplatin ototoxicity by adenosine agoinists. Biochem Pharmacol 67:1801–1807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Wiechers B, Gestwa G, Mack A, Carroll P, Zenner HP, Knipper M (1999) A changing pattern of brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression correlates with the rearrangement of fibers during cochlear development of rats and mice. J Neurosci 19:3033–3042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Wilson BE, Mochon E, Boxer LM (1996) Induction of bcl-2 expression by phosphorylated CREB proteins during B-cell activation and rescue from apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 16:5546–5556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Wise AK, Richardson R, Hardman J, Clark G, O’Leary S (2005) Resprouting and survival of guinea pig cochlear neurons in response to the administration of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3. J Comp Neurol 487:147–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Xu Z, Maroney AC, Dobrzanski P, Kukekov NV, Greene LA (2001) The MLK family mediates c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in neuronal apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 21:4713–4724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Yagi M, Kanzaki S, Kawamoto K, Shin B, Shah PP, Magal E, Sheng J, Raphael Y (2001) Spiral ganglion neurons are protected from degeneration by GDNF gene therapy. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 4:315–325.Google Scholar
  245. Yamagata T, Miller JM, Ulfendahl M, Olivius NP, Altchuler RA, Pyykko I, Bredberg G (2004) Delayed neurotrophic treatment preserves nerve survival and electrophysiological responsiveness in neomycin-deafened guina pigs. J Neurosci Res 78:75–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Yamane H, Nakai Y, Takayama M, Iguchi H, Nakawawa T, Kojima A (1995) Appearance of free radicals in the guinea pig inner ear after noise-induced acoustic trauma. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 252:504–508.Google Scholar
  247. Yamashita D, Miller JM, Jiang H-Y, Minami SB, Schacht J (2004) AIF and EndoG in noise-induced hearing loss. Neuro Report 15:2719–2722.Google Scholar
  248. Yamasoba T, Harris CA, Shoji F, Lee RJ, Nuttall AL, Miller JM (1998) Influence of intense sound exposure on glutathione synthesis in the cochlea. Brain Res 804:72–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Yamasoba T, Schacht J, Shoji F, Miller JM (1999) Attenuation of cochlear damage from noise trauma by an iron chelator, a free radical scavenger and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in vivo. Brain Res 815:317–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Yamasoba T, Altchuler RA, Raphael Y, Miller AL, Shoji F, Miller JM (2001) Absence of hair cell protection by exogenous FGF-1 and FGF-2 delivered to guinea pig cochlea in vivo. Noise Health 3:65–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Yang DD, Kuan CY, Whitmarsh AJ, Rincon M, Zheng TS, Davis RJ, Rakic P, Flavell RA (1997) Absence of excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus of mice lacking the JNK3 gene. Nature 389:865–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Ylikoski J, Pirvola U, Virkkala J, Suvanto P, Liang XQ, Magal E, Altschuler R, Miller JM, Saarma M (1998) Guinea pig auditory neurons are protected by GDNF from degeneration after noise trauma. Hear Res 124:17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Yoshida N, Liberman MC (2000) Sound conditioning reduces noise-induced permanent threshold shift in mice. Hear Res 148:213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Yoshida N, Kristiansen A, Liberman MC (1999) Heat stress and protection from permanent acoustic injury in mice. J Neurosci 19:10116–10124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Zang X, Zhang M, Laties AM, Mitchell CH (2006) Balance of purines may determine life or death of retinal ganglion cells as A3 adenosine receptors prevent loss following P2X7 receptor stimulation. J Neurochem 98:566–575.Google Scholar
  256. Zenner HP (1986) K+-induced motility and depolarization of cochlear hair cells. Direct evidence for a new pathphysiological mechanism in Ménière’s disease. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 243:108–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Zha X-M, Bishop JF, Hansen MR, Victoria L, Abbas PJ, Mouradian MM, Green SH (2001) BDNF synthesis in spiral gangion neurons is constitutive and CREB-dependent. Hear Res 156:53–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Zhang M, Liu W, Ding D, Salvi R (2003) Pifithrin-UPalpha suppresses p53 and protects cochlear and vestibular hair cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Neuroscience 120:191–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Zheng XY, Henderson D, McFadden SL, Ding DL, Salvi RJ (1999) Auditory nerve fiber responses following chronic cochlear de-efferentation. J Comp Neurol 406:72–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Zhou Z, Liu Q, Davis RL (2005) Complex regulation of spiral ganglion neuron firing patterns by neurotrophin-3. J Neurosci 25:7558–7566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Zimmermann CE, Burgess BJ, Nadol JB Jr (1995) Patterns of degeneration in the human cochlear nerve. Hear Res 90:192–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven H. Green
  • Richard A. Altschuler
  • Josef M. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations