Alterations in Metabolic Functions and Electrolytes

  • Michael C. Lewis


Aging has been characterized as a comprehensive, progressive, and irreversible biologic process resulting in the maintenance of life but with a diminishing capability for adaptation.1,2 In fact, it has been estimated that after the age of 30 years, organ systems lose approximately 1% of their function per annum.3 Implied in this description are the concepts of increased biologic entropy, functional deterioration, loss of viability, and an augmented likelihood of death.4


Anesthetic Agent Basal Metabolic Rate Total Body Water Functional Reserve Aging Liver 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Lewis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

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