Prognostic Markers

  • Anna Sienko
  • Timothy Craig Allen
  • Philip T. Cagle
Part of the Molecular Pathology Library book series (MPLB, volume 1)


DNA damage in lung cancers results in molecular genetic abnormalities that contribute to their pathogenesis and progression.1 Many studies have examined the predictive value of specific molecular genetic abnormalities involving cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and so forth, in individual tumors on the clinical outcomes of lung cancer patients.2, 3, 4 Both loss of specific tumor-suppressor gene function and the activation of specific oncogenes have been studied as potential prognostic indicators, as have other molecular abnormalities, for example, epigenetic phenomena such as hypermethylation.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 Ultimately, no one molecular marker is expected to predict prognosis by itself because development and progression of cancer involves the accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities with complex pathways, feedback loops, and redundancies such that abnormalities of any of several proteins in a pathway can produce similar effects on the cells. Therefore, molecular profiles of multiple markers are likely to be more useful than examination of one or two markers alone in predicting prognosis.19 The markers presented here are those that have undergone the most investigation to date.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen Small Cell Lung Cancer Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Sienko
    • 1
  • Timothy Craig Allen
    • 2
  • Philip T. Cagle
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PathologyMethodist HospitalHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyUniversity of Texas Health Center at TylerTylerUSA
  3. 3.Pathology and Laboratory MedicineWeill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew York
  4. 4.The Methodist HospitalHoustonUSA

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