Antimicrobial Resistance to Sexually Transmitted Infections

  • Hillard Weinstock
  • David Trees
  • John Papp
Part of the Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century book series (EIDC)


Antimicrob Agent Chlamydia Trachomatis Genital Herpes Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Metronidazole Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akasaka, S., Muratani, T., Yamada, Y., Inatomi, H., Takahashi, K. and Matsumoto, T., (2001), Emergence of cephem- and aztreonam-high-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae that does not produce beta-lactamase. J Infect Chemother, 7, 49–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ameyama, S., Onodera, S, Takahata, M, Minami, S, Maki, N., Endo, K, Goto, H., Suzuki, H. and Oishi, Y., (2002), Mosaic-like structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 Gene (penA) in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with reduced susceptibility to cefixime. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 3744–3749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (2005) Annual report of the Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme, 2004. Commun Dis Intell, 29, 137–142.Google Scholar
  4. Bacon, T.H., Boon, R.J., Schultz, M. and Hodges-Savola, C., (2002), Surveillance for antiviral-agent-resistant herpes simplex virus in the general population with recurrent herpes labialis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 3042–3044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballard, R. and Morse, S., (2003), Chancroid. In S. Morse, R. Ballard, K.K. Holmes and A. Moreland, editors, Atlas of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 3rd Edition, Edinburgh, Mosby, pp. 53–71.Google Scholar
  6. Ballard, R.C., Duncan, M.O., Fehler, H.G., Dangor, Y., Exposto, F.L. and Latif, A.S., (1989), Treating chancroid: summary of studies in southern Africa. Genitourin Med, 65, 54–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beatty, W.L., Morrison, R.P. and Byrne, G.I., (1995), Reactivation of persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cell culture. Infect Immun, 63, 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Belland, R.J., Morrison, S.G., Ison, C. and Huang, W.M., (1994), Neisseria gonorrhoeae acquires mutations in analogous regions of gyrA and parC in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Mol Microbiol, 14, 371–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bilgeri, Y.R., Ballard, R.C., Duncan, M.O., Mauff, A.C. and Koornhof, H.J., (1982), Antimicrobial susceptibility of 103 strains of Haemophilus ducreyi isolated in Johannesburg. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 22, 686–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackmore, C.A., Limpakarnjanarat, K., Rigau-Perez, J.G., Albritton, W.L. and Greenwood, J.R., (1985), An outbreak of chancroid in Orange County, California: descriptive epidemiology and disease-control measures. J Infect Dis, 151, 840–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bodhidatta, L., Taylor, D.N., Chitwarakorn, A., Kuvanont, K. and Echeverria, P., (1988), Evaluation of 500- and 1,000-mg doses of ciprofloxacin for the treatment of chancroid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 32, 723–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boslego, J.W., Tramont, E.C., Takafuji, E.T., Diniega, B.M., Mitchell, B.S., Small, J.W., Khan, W.N. and Stein, D.C., (1987), Effect of spectinomycin use on the prevalence of spectinomycin-resistant and of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. N Engl J Med, 317, 272–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brunton, J., Meier, M., Ehrman, N., MacLean, I., Slaney, L. and Albritton, W.L., (1982), Molecular epidemiology of beta-lactamase-specifying plasmids of Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 21, 857–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1985) Tetracycline-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae—Georgia, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 34, 563.Google Scholar
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002) Notice to readers: discontinuation of cefixime tablets—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 51, 1056.Google Scholar
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004a) Azithromycin treatment failures in syphilis infections—San Francisco, California, 2002–2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 53,197–198.Google Scholar
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2004b) Increases in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men who have sex with men—United States, 2003, and revised recommendations for gonorrhea treatment, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 53, 335–338.Google Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2004 Supplement: Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) Annual Report. Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006a) Notice to readers: discontinuation of spectinomycin. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 55, 370.Google Scholar
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006b) Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2005. Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006c) Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006. Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006d) Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 53.Google Scholar
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2005 Supplement, Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) Annual Report. Atlanta, GA, US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  24. Corey, L., (2000), Herpes simplex virus. In G. Mandell, J. Bennett and R. Dolin, editors, Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th Edition. New York, Churchill Livingstone, pp. 1564–1580.Google Scholar
  25. Correia, F.F., Inouye, S. and Inouye, M., (1988), A family of small repeated elements with some transposon-like properties in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Biol Chem, 263, 12194–12198.Google Scholar
  26. Crowell, A.L., Sanders-Lewis, K.A. and Secor, W.E., (2003), In vitro metronidazole and tinidazole activities against metronidazole-resistant strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 1407–1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dangor, Y., Ballard, R.C., da L Exposto, F., Fehler, H.G., Miller, S.D. and Koornhof, H.J., (1990a), Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease. Sex Transm Dis, 17, 184–189.Google Scholar
  28. Dangor, Y., Ballard, R.C., Miller, S.D. and Koornhof, H.J., (1990b), Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 34, 1303–1307.Google Scholar
  29. Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M., Asano, M., Tada, K, Iwata, H., Komeda, H., Ezaki, T, Saito, I. and Kawada, Y., (1995), DNA gyrase mutations in quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39,561–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M., Nakano, M., Ozeki, S., Ezaki, T., Saito, I. and Kawada, Y., (1996a), Quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae: correlation of alterations in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 1020–1023.Google Scholar
  31. Deguchi, T., Yasuda, M., Nakano, M., Ozeki, S., Kanematsu, E, Kawada, Y., Ezaki, T. and Saito, I., (1996b), Uncommon occurrence of mutations in the gyrB gene associated with quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 2437–2438.Google Scholar
  32. Dunne, R.L., Dunn, L.A., Upcroft, P., O’Donoghue, P.J. and Upcroft, J.A., (2003), Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Cell Res, 13, 239–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ehret, J.M., Nims, L.J. and Judson, F.N., (1996), A clinical isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with in vitro resistance to erythromycin and decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. Sex Transm Dis, 23, 270–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Englund, J.A., Zimmerman, M.E., Swierkosz, E.M., Goodman, J.L., Scholl, D.R. and Balfour, Jr, H.H., (1990), Herpes simplex virus resistant to acyclovir. A study in a tertiary care center. Ann Intern Med, 112, 416–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Erlich, K.S., Mills, J., Chatis, P. Mertz, G.J., Busch, D.F., Follansbee, S.E., Grant, R.M. and Crumpacker, C.S., (1989), Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med, 320, 293–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferrero, L., Cameron, B., Manse, B., Lagneaux, D., Crouzet, J., Famechon, A. and Blanche, F., (1994), Cloning and primary structure of Staphylococcus aureus DNA topoisomerase IV: a primary target of fluoroquinolones. Mol Microbiol, 13, 641–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fleming, D.T., McQuillan, G.M., Johnson, R.E., Nahmias, A.J., Aral, S.O., Lee, F.K. and St Louis, M.E., (1997), Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. N Engl J Med, 337, 1105–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Flood, J.M., Sarafian, S.K., Bolan, G.A., Lammel, C, Engelman, J., Greenblatt, R.M., Brooks, G.F., Back, A. and Morse, S.A., (1993), Multistrain outbreak of chancroid in San Francisco, 1989–1991. J Infect Dis, 167, 1106–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gascoyne, D.M., Heritage, J., Hawkey, P.M., Turner, A. and van Klingeren, B., (1991), Molecular evolution of tetracycline-resistance plasmids carrying TetM found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from different countries. J Antimicrob Chemother, 28, 173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gascoyne-Binzi, D.M., Heritage, J. and Hawkey, P.M (1993) Nucleotide sequences of the tet(M) genes from the American and Dutch type tetracycline resistance plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Antimicrob Chemother, 32, 667–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. GRASP Steering Group (2006) The Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) Year 2005 Report. London, Health Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  42. Hagman, K.E., Pan, W., Spratt, B.G., Balthazar, J.T., Judd, R.C. and Shafer, W.M., (1995), Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents is modulated by the mtrRCDE efflux system. Microbiology, 141, 611–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hagman, K.E. and Shafer, W.M., (1995), Transcriptional control of the mtr efflux system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol, 177, 4162–4165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammond, G.W., Slutchuk, M., Scatliff, J., Sherman, E., Wilt, J.C. and Ronald, A.R., (1980), Epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic features of an urban outbreak of chancroid in North America. Rev Infect Dis, 2, 867–879.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Handsfield, H.H., (1997), Azithromycin in gonorrhoea. Int J STD AIDS, 8, 472–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holmes, K.K., (2005), Azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for early syphilis. N Engl J Med, 353, 1291–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hook, E.W., III and Handsfield, H.H., (1999), Gonococcal infections in the adult. In K.K. Holmes, P.F. Sparling, P.A. Mardh, S. Lemon, W.E. Stamm, P. Piot and J.N. Wasserheit, editors, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 451–466.Google Scholar
  48. Hook, E.W., III, Martin, D.H., Stephens, J., Smith, B.S. and Smith, K., (2002), A randomized, comparative pilot study of azithromycin versus benzathine penicillin G for treatment of early syphilis. Sex Transm Dis, 29, 486–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Institute of Medicine (1997) The Hidden Epidemic, Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Eng, TR and Butler, WT. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, pp. 196–197.Google Scholar
  50. Ison, C.A., Littleton, K., Shannon, K.P., Easmon, C.S. and Phillips, I., (1983), Spectinomycin resistant gonococci. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed), 287, 1827–1829.Google Scholar
  51. Ison, C.A., Tekki, N. and Gill, M.J., (1993), Detection of the tetM determinant in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Dis, 20, 329–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Ito, M., Yasuda, M., Yokoi, S., Ito, S, Takahashi, Y., Ishihara, S., Maeda, S. and Deguchi, T., (2004), Remarkable increase in central Japan in 2001–2002 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to penicillin, tetracycline, oral cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 3185–3187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Jessamine, P.G., Plummer, F.A., Ndinya Achola, J.O., Wainberg, M.A., Wamola, I., D’Costa, L.J., Cameron, D.W., Simonsen, J.N., Plourde, P. and Ronald, AR., (1990), Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl, 69, 181–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jones, R.B., Van der, P.B., Martin, D.H. and Shepard, M.K., (1990), Partial characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. J Infect Dis, 162, 1309–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Knapp, J.S., Johnson, S.R., Zenilman, J.M., Roberts, M.C. and Morse, S.A., (1988), High-level tetracycline resistance resulting from TetM in strains of Neisseria spp., Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 32, 765–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knapp, J.S., Zenilman, J.M., Biddle, J.W., Perkins, G.H., DeWitt, W.E., Thomas, M.L., Johnson, S.R. and Morse, S.A., (1987), Frequency and distribution in the United States of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with plasmid-mediated, high-level resistance to tetracycline. J Infect Dis, 155, 819–822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Krieger, J.N. and Alderete, J., (1999), Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomoniasis. In K.K. Holmes, P. Sparling, P.A. Mardh, S. Lemon, W.E. Stamm, P. Piot and J. Wasserheit, editors, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 3rd Edition. New York, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  58. Lossick, J.G., (1990), Epidemiology of urogenital trichomonas. In B.M. Honigberg, editor, Trichomonads Parasitic in Humans. New York, Springer-Verlag, pp. 311–323.Google Scholar
  59. Lossick, J.G., Muller, M. and Gorrell, T.E., (1986), In vitro drug susceptibility and doses of metronidazole required for cure in cases of refractory vaginal trichomoniasis. J Infect Dis, 153, 948–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lucas, C.E., Balthazar, J.T., Hagman, K.E. and Shafer, W.M., (1997), The MtrR repressor binds the DNA sequence between the mtrR and mtrC genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Bacteriol, 179, 4123–4128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lukehart, S.A., Godornes, C., Molini, B.J., Sonnett, P., Hopkins, S., Mulcahy, F., Engelman, J., Mitchell, S.J., Rompalo, A.M., Marra, C.M. and Klausner, J.D., (2004), Macrolide resistance in Treponema pallidum in the United States and Ireland. N Engl J Med, 351, 154–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Maclean, I.W., Bowden, G.H. and Albritton, W.L., (1980), TEM-type beta-lactamase production in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 17, 897–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Maclean, I.W., Slaney, L., Juteau, J.M., Levesque, R.C., Albritton, W.L. and Ronald, A.R., (1992), Identification of a ROB-1 beta-lactamase in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 36, 467–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Marshall, B., Roberts, M., Smith, A. and Levy, S.B., (1984), Homogeneity of transferable tetracycline-resistance determinants in Haemophilus species. J Infect Dis, 149, 1028–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Martin, D.H., Sargent, S.J., Wendel, Jr, G.D., McCormack, W.M., Spier, N.A. and Johnson, R.B., (1995), Comparison of azithromycin and ceftriaxone for the treatment of chancroid. Clin Infect Dis, 21, 409–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Martin, I.M., Hoffmann, S. and Ison, C.A., (2006), European Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ESSTI): the first combined antimicrobial susceptibility data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Western Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother, 58, 587–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McLean, C.A., Wang, S.A., Hoff, G.L., Dennis, L.Y., Trees, D.L., Knapp, J.S., Markowitz, L.E. and Levine, W.C., (2004), The emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in Kansas City, Missouri, 1999 to 2000. Sex Transm Dis, 31, 73–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mertz, K.J., Weiss, J.B., Webb, R.M., Levine, W.C., Lewis, J.S., Orle, K.A., Totten, P.A., Overbaugh, J., Morse, S.A., Currier, M.M., Fishbein, M. and St Louis, M.E., (1998), An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis, 178, 1060–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morse, S.A., (1989), Chancroid and Haemophilus ducreyi. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2, 137–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Motley, M., Sarafian, S.K., Knapp, J.S., Zaidi, A.A. and Schmid, G., (1992), Correlation between in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities and beta-lactamase plasmid contents of isolates of Haemophilus ducreyi from the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 36, 1639–1643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Muratani, T., Akasaka, S., Kobayashi, T., Yamada, Y., Inatomi, H., Takahashi, K. and Matsumoto, T., (2001), Outbreak of cefozopran (penicillin, oral cephems, and aztreonam)-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Japan. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 3603–3606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Naamara, W., Plummer, F.A., Greenblatt, R.M., D’Costa, L.J., Ndinya-Achola, J.O. and Ronald, A.R., (1987), Treatment of chancroid with ciprofloxacin. A prospective, randomized clinical trial. Am J Med, 82, 317–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nanda, N., Michel, R.G., Kurdgelashvili, G. and Wendel, K.A., (2006), Trichomoniasis and its treatment. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 4, 125–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (1993) Approved standard M7-A3. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically. Villanova, PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.Google Scholar
  75. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (1998) Approved Standard M100-38. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Wayne, PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.Google Scholar
  76. Newman, L., Moran, J.S. and Workowski, K.A., (2007), Update on the management of gonorrhea in adults in the United States. Clin Infect Dis, 44, S84–S101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oggioni, M.R., Dowson, C.G., Smith, J.M., Provvedi, R. and Pozzi, G., (1996), The tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) exhibits mosaic structure. Plasmid, 35, 156–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pan, W. and Spratt, B.G., (1994), Regulation of the permeability of the gonococcal cell envelope by the mtr system. Mol Microbiol, 11, 769–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Perez, S., Fernandez-Verdugo, A., Perez, F. and Vazquez, F., (2001), Prevalence of 5-nitroimidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in Oviedo, Spain. Sex Transm Dis, 28, 115–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Perine, P., Morton, R., Piot, P., Siegel, M.S. and Antal, G.M., (1979), Epidemiology and treatment of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex Transm Dis, 6(Suppl), S152–S158.Google Scholar
  81. Rekart, M., Patrick, D., Jolly, A., Wong, T., Morshed, M., Jones, H., Montgomery, C., Knowles, L., Chakraborty, N. and Maginley, J., (2000), Mass treatment/prophylaxis during an outbreak of infectious syphilis in Vancouver, British Columbia. Can Commun Dis Rep, 26, 101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Reyes, M., Shaik, N.S., Graber, J.M., Nisenbaum, R., Wetherall, N.T., Fukuda, K. and Reeves, W.C., (2003), Acyclovir-resistant genital herpes among persons attending sexually transmitted disease and human immunodeficiency virus clinics. Arch Intern Med, 163, 76–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Riedner, G., Rusizoka, M., Todd, J., Maboko, L., Hoelscher, M., Mmbando, D., Samky, E., Lyamuya, E., Mabey, D., Grosskurth, H. and Hayes, R., (2005), Single-dose azithromycin versus penicillin G benzathine for the treatment of early syphilis. N Engl J Med, 353, 1236–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Roberts, M.C., (1989), Plasmid-mediated Tet M in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 33, 1611–1613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts, M.C., (1990), Characterization of the Tet M determinants in urogenital and respiratory bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 34, 476–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Roberts, M.C., Actis, L.A. and Crosa, J.H., (1985), Molecular characterization of chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 28, 176–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Roberts, M.C. and Knapp, J.S., (1988), Transfer of beta-lactamase plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria species by the 25.2-megadalton conjugative plasmid. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 32, 1430–1432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Robinson, S.C., (1962), Trichomonas vaginitis resistant to metronidazole. Can Med Assoc J, 86, 665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ronald, A.R. and Plummer, F.A., (1985), Chancroid and Haemophilus ducreyi. Ann Intern Med, 102, 705–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rutanarugsa, A., Vorachit, M., Polnikorn, N. and Jayanetra, P., (1990), Drug resistance of Haemophilus ducreyi. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health, 21, 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sanson-Le Pors, M.J., Casin, I.M. and Collatz, E., (1985), Plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside phosphotransferases in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 28, 315–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Sarafian, S.K., Johnson, S.R., Thomas, M.L. and Knapp, J.S., (1991), Novel plasmid combinations in Haemophilus ducreyi isolates from Thailand. J Clin Microbiol, 29, 2333–2334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sarafian, S.K. and Knapp, J.S., (1992), Molecular epidemiology, based on plasmid profiles, of Haemophilus ducreyi infections in the United States. Results of surveillance, 1981–1990. Sex Transm Dis, 19, 35–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmid, G., Narcisi, E., Mosure, D., Secor, W.E., Higgins, J. and Moreno, H., (2001), Prevalence of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in a gynecology clinic. J Reprod Med, 46, 545–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schmid, G.P., (1999), Treatment of chancroid, 1997. Clin Infect Dis, 28(Suppl 1), S14–S20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmid, G.P., Sanders, Jr, L.L., Blount, J.H. and Alexander, E.R., (1987), Chancroid in the United States. Reestablishment of an old disease. JAMA, 258, 3265–3268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schulte, J.M., Martich, F.A. and Schmid, G.P., (1992), Chancroid in the United States, 1981–1990: evidence for underreporting of cases. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ, 41, 57–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schulte, J.M. and Schmid, G.P., (1995), Recommendations for treatment of chancroid, 1993. Clin Infect Dis, 20(Suppl 1), S39–S46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Schwarcz, S.K., Zenilman, J.M., Schnell, D., Knapp, J.S., Hook, III, E.W., Thompson, S., Judson, F.N. and Holmes, K.K., (1990), National surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. JAMA, 264, 1413–1417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwebke, J.R. and Barrientes, F., (2006), Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates with resistance to metronidazole and tinidazole. Antivir Chem Chemother, 50, 4209–4210.Google Scholar
  101. Shafer, W.M., Balthazar, J.T., Hagman, K.E. and Morse, S.A., (1995), Missense mutations that alter the DNA-binding domain of the MtrR protein occur frequently in rectal isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are resistant to faecal lipids. Microbiology, 141, 907–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Short, H.B., Ploscowe, V.B., Weiss, J.A. and Young, F.E., (1977), Rapid method for auxotyping multiple strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol, 6, 244–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Solomon, A.W., Mohammed, Z., Massae, P.A., Shao, J.F., Foster, A., Mabey, D.C. and Peeling, R.W., (2005), Impact of mass distribution of azithromycin on the antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 4804–4806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Somani, J., Bhullar, V.B., Workowski, K.A., Farshy, C.E. and Black, C.M., (2000), Multiple drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis associated with clinical treatment failure. J Infect Dis, 181, 1421–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sparling, P., (1977), Antibiotic resistance in the gonococcus. In R. Roberts, editor, The gonococcus. New York, Wiley, pp. 111–136.Google Scholar
  106. Sparling, P.F. and Handsfield, H.H., (2000), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In G. Mandell and J. Bennett and R. Dalin, editors, Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 5th Edition, New York, Churchill Livingstone, pp. 2242–2258.Google Scholar
  107. Stamm, L.V., Stapleton, J.T. and Bassford, Jr, P.J., (1988), In vitro assay to demonstrate high-level erythromycin resistance of a clinical isolate of Treponema pallidum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 32, 164–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sutton, M.Y., Sternberg, M.R., Kouman, E., McQuillan, G., Berman, S. and Markowitz, L.E., (2006), Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in the United States, 2001–2002. Program and Abstracts, 2006 National STD Prevention Conference, Jacksonville, FL.Google Scholar
  109. Tapsall, J.W., (2002), Current concepts in the management of gonorrhoea. Expert Opin Pharmacother, 3, 147–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tapsall, J.W., Shultz, T.R., Limnios, E.A., Donovan, B., Lum, G. and Mulhall, B.P., (1998), Failure of azithromycin therapy in gonorrhea and discorrelation with laboratory test parameters. Sex Transm Dis, 25, 505–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Taylor, D.N., Pitarangsi, C., Echeverria, P., Panikabutra, K. and Suvongse, C., (1985), Comparative study of ceftriaxone and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of chancroid in Thailand. J Infect Dis, 152, 1002–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Totten, P.A., Handsfield, H.H., Peters, D., Holmes, K.K. and Falkow, S., (1982), Characterization of ampicillin resistance plasmids from Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 21, 622–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Trees, D.L. and Morse, S.A., (1995), Chancroid and Haemophilus ducreyi: an update. Clin Microbiol Rev, 8, 357–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tyndall, M., Malisa, M., Plummer, F.A., Ombetti, J., Ndinya-Achola, J.O. and Ronald, A.R., (1993), Ceftriaxone no longer predictably cures chancroid in Kenya. J Infect Dis, 167, 469–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Tyring, S.K., Baker, D. and Snowden, W., (2002), Valacyclovir for herpes simplex virus infection: long-term safety and sustained efficacy after 20 years’ experience with acyclovir. J Infect Dis, 186(Suppl 1), S40–S46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Upcroft, P. and Upcroft, J.A., (2001), Drug targets and mechanisms of resistance in the anaerobic protozoa. Clin Microbiol Rev, 14, 150–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wang, S.A., Lee, M.V., O’Connor, N., Iverson, C.J., Ohye, R.G., Whiticar, P.M., Hale, J.A., Trees, D.L., Knapp, J.S., Effler, P.V. and Weinstock, H.S., (2003), Multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to cefixime—Hawaii, 2001. Clin Infect Dis, 37, 849–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wang, S.A., Papp, J.R., Stamm, W.E., Peeling, R.W., Martin, D.H. and Holmes, K.K., (2005), Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failures for Chlamydia trachomatis: a meeting report. J Infect Dis, 191, 917–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wasserheit, J.N., (1992), Epidemiological synergy. Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sex Transm Dis, 19, 61–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Waters, L.J., Boag, F.C. and Betournay, R., (2005), Efficacy of azithromycin 1 g single dose in the management of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Int J STD AIDS, 16, 84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Weinstock, H., Berman, S. and Cates, Jr, W., (2004), Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 36(1), 6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Willson, P.J., Albritton, W.L., Slaney, L. and Setlow, J.K., (1989), Characterization of a multiple antibiotic resistance plasmid from Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 33, 1627–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. World Health Organization (1995) An Overview of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  124. World Health Organization (2001) Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: Overview and Estimates. Geneva, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  125. World Health Organization (2006) Gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme. Surveillance of anitbiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2004. Commun Dis Intell, 30, 129–132.Google Scholar
  126. Xia, M., Whittington, W.L., Shafer, W.M. and Holmes, K.K., (2000), Gonorrhea among men who have sex with men: outbreak caused by a single genotype of erythromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae with a single-base pair deletion in the mtrR promoter region. J Infect Dis, 181, 2080–2082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Yoshida, H., Bogaki, M., Nakamura, M. and Nakamura, S., (1990), Quinolone resistance-determining region in the DNA gyrase gyrA gene of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 34, 1271–1272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Young, H., Moyes, A. and McMillan, A., (1997), Azithromycin and erythromycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae following treatment with azithromycin. Int J STD AIDS, 8, 299–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Zarantonelli, L., Borthagaray, G., Lee, E.H. and Shafer, W.M., (1999), Decreased azithromycin susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to mtrR mutations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 2468–2472.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hillard Weinstock
  • David Trees
  • John Papp

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations