Advertisement

Resistance to Antifungal Agents

  • Beth A. Arthington-Skaggs
  • John H. Rex
Part of the Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century book series (EIDC)

Keywords

Minimum Inhibition Concentration Candida Albicans Antifungal Agent Candida Species Invasive Aspergillosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albertson, G.D., Niimi, M., Cannon, R.D. and Jenkinson, H.F., (1996), Multiple efflux mechanisms are involved in Candida albicans fluconazole resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 2835–2841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Antunes, A.G., Pasqualotto, A.C., Diaz, M.C., d’Azevedo, P.A. and Severo, L.C., (2004), Candidemia in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo, 46, 239–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arathoon, E.G., Gotuzzo, E., Noriega, L.M., Berman, R.S., DiNubile, M.J. and Sable, C.A., (2002), Randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus amphotericin B for treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 451–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Archer, D.B. and Gale, E.F., (1975), Antagonism by sterols of the action of amphotericin and filipin on the release of potassium ions from Candida albicans and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri. J Gen Microbiol, 90, 187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Arikan, S., Lozano-Chiu, M., Paetznick, V. and Rex, J.H., (2001), In vitro susceptibility testing methods for caspofungin against Aspergillus and Fusarium isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., Lee-Yang, W., Ciblak, M.A., Frade, J.P., Brandt, M.E., Hajjeh, R.A., Harrison, L.H., Sofair, A.N. and Warnock, D.W., (2002), Comparison of visual and spectrophotometric methods of broth microdilution MIC end point determination and evaluation of a sterol quantitation method for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole and itraconazole against trailing and nontrailing Candida isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 2477–2481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., Warnock, D.W. and Morrison, C.J., (2000), Quantitation of Candida albicans ergosterol content improves the correlation between in vitro antifungal susceptibility test results and in vivo outcome after fluconazole treatment in a murine model of invasive candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 2081–2085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Austin, N.C. and Darlow, B., (2004), Prophylactic oral antifungal agents to prevent systemic candida infection in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD003478.Google Scholar
  9. Baillie, G.S. and Douglas, L.J., (1998), Effect of growth rate on resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 1900–1905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Baillie, G.S. and Douglas, L.J., (2000), Matrix polymers of Candida biofilms and their possible role in biofilm resistance to antifungal agents. J Antimicrob Chemother, 46, 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baran, J., Jr, Muckatira, B. and Khatib, R., (2001), Candidemia before and during the fluconazole era: prevalence, type of species and approach to treatment in a tertiary care community hospital. Scand J Infect Dis, 33, 137–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barchiesi, F., Arzeni, D., Caselli, F. and Scalise, G., (2000a), Primary resistance to flucytosine among clinical isolates of Candida spp. J Antimicrob Chemother, 45, 408–409.Google Scholar
  13. Barchiesi, F., Calabrese, D., Sanglard, D., Falconi Di Francesco, L., Caselli, F., Giannini, D., Giacometti, A., Gavaudan, S. and Scalise, G., (2000b), Experimental induction of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis ATCC 750. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 1578–1584.Google Scholar
  14. Barry, A.L., Pfaller, M.A., Brown, S.D., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Ghannoum, M.A., Knapp, C., Rennie, R.P., Rex, J.H. and Rinaldi, M.G., (2000), Quality control limits for broth microdilution susceptibility tests of ten antifungal agents. J Clin Microbiol, 38, 3457–3459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bart-Delabesse, E., Boiron, P., Carlotti, A. and Dupont, B., (1993), Candida albicans genotyping in studies with patients with AIDS developing resistance to fluconazole. J Clin Microbiol, 31, 2933–2937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bartizal, K., Gill, C.J., Abruzzo, G.K., Flattery, A.M., Kong, L., Scott, P.M., Smith, J.G., Leighton, C.E., Bouffard, A., Dropinski, J.F. and Balkovec, J., (1997), In vitro preclinical evaluation studies with the echinocandin antifungal MK-0991 (L-743,872). Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 2326–2332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennett, J.E., Izumikawa, K. and Marr, K.A., (2004), Mechanism of increased fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata during prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 1773–1777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Berenguer, J., Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., Richard, C., Alvarez, M., Sanz, M.A., Gaztelurrutia, L., Ayats, J. and Martinez-Suarez, J.V., (1997), Deep infections caused by Scedosporium prolificans. A report on 16 cases in Spain and a review of the literature. Scedosporium Prolificans Spanish Study Group. Medicine (Baltimore), 76, 256–265.Google Scholar
  19. Blumberg, E.A. and Reboli, A.C., (1996), Failure of systemic empirical treatment with amphotericin B to prevent candidemia in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis, 22, 462–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodey, G.P., (1992), Azole antifungal agents. Clin Infect Dis, 14 (Suppl 1), S161–S169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bohme, A., Karthaus, M. and Hoelzer, D., (1999), Antifungal prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: is there a real benefit? Chemotherapy, 45, 224–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Borst, A., Raimer, M.T., Warnock, D.W., Morrison, C.J. and Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., (2005), Rapid acquisition of stable azole resistance by Candida glabrata isolates obtained before the clinical introduction of fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 783–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Boutati, E.I. and Anaissie, E.J., (1997), Fusarium, a significant emerging pathogen in patients with hematologic malignancy: ten years’ experience at a cancer center and implications for management. Blood, 90, 999–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brammer, K.W. and Coates, P.E., (1994), Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in pediatric patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 13, 325–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brezis, M., Rosen, S., Silva, P., Spokes, K. and Epstein, F.H., (1984), Polyene toxicity in renal medulla: injury mediated by transport activity. Science, 224, 66–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brown, J.M., (2004), Fungal infections in bone marrow transplant patients. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 17, 347–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Capek, A., Simek, A., Leiner, J. and Weichet, J., (1970), Antimicrobial agents. VI. Antimycotic activity and problems of resistance. Folia Microbiol (Praha), 15, 314–317.Google Scholar
  28. Castagnola, E., Machetti, M., Bucci, B. and Viscoli, C., (2004), Antifungal prophylaxis with azole derivatives. Clin Microbiol Infect, 10 (Suppl 1), 86–95.Google Scholar
  29. Castro, C., Serrano, M.C., Flores, B., Espinel-Ingroff, A. and Martin-Mazuelos, E., (2004), Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel with a modified NCCLS M38-A method to determine the activity of voriconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. J Clin Microbiol, 42, 4358–4360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chryssanthou, E., (2001), Trends in antifungal susceptibility among Swedish Candida species bloodstream isolates from 1994 to 1998: comparison of the E-test and the Sensititre YeastOne Colorimetric Antifungal Panel with the NCCLS M27-A reference method. J Clin Microbiol, 39, 4181–4183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chryssanthou, E., Cherif, H., Petrini, B., Kalin, M. and Bjorkholm, M., (2004), Surveillance of triazole susceptibility of colonizing yeasts in patients with haematological malignancies. Scand J Infect Dis, 36, 855–859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Clancy, C.J. and Nguyen, M.H., (1999), Correlation between in vitro susceptibility determined by E test and response to therapy with amphotericin B: results from a multicenter prospective study of candidemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 1289–1290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Clark, F.S., Parkinson, T., Hitchcock, C.A. and Gow, N.A., (1996), Correlation between rhodamine 123 accumulation and azole sensitivity in Candida species: possible role for drug efflux in drug resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Collin, B., Clancy, C.J. and Nguyen, M.H., (1999), Antifungal resistance in non-albicans Candida species. Drug Resist Updat, 2, 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cosgrove, R.F., Beezer, A.E. and Miles, R.J., (1978), In vitro studies of amphotericin B in combination with the imidazole antifungal compounds clotrimazole and miconazole. J Infect Dis, 138, 681–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Cuenca-Estrella, M., (2004), Combinations of antifungal agents in therapy—what value are they? J Antimicrob Chemother, 54, 854–869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cuenca-Estrella, M., Diaz-Guerra, T.M., Mellado, E. and Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., (2001), Flucytosine primary resistance in Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 20, 276–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cuenca-Estrella, M., Rodriguez, D., Almirante, B., Morgan, J., Planes, A.M., Almela, M., Mensa, J., Sanchez, F., Ayats, J., Gimenez, M., Salvado, M., Warnock, D.W., Pahissa, A. and Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., (2005), In vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species to six antifungal agents: results from a population-based active surveillance programme, Barcelona, Spain, 2002–2003. J Antimicrob Chemother, 55, 194–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. da Silva Ferreira, M.E., Capellaro, J.L., dos Reis Marques, E., Malavazi, I., Perlin, D., Park, S., Anderson, J.B., Colombo, A.L., Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., Goldman, M.H. and Goldman, G.H., (2004), In vitro evolution of itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus involves multiple mechanisms of resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 4405–4413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Damaj, G., Ivanov, V., Le Brigand, B., D’Incan, E., Doglio, M.F., Bilger, K., Faucher, C., Vey, N. and Gastaut, J.A., (2004), Rapid improvement of disseminated aspergillosis with caspofungin/voriconazole combination in an adult leukemic patient. Ann Hematol, 83, 390–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. de Micheli, M., Bille, J., Schueller, C. and Sanglard, D., (2002), A common drug-responsive element mediates the upregulation of the Candida albicans ABC transporters CDR1 and CDR2, two genes involved in antifungal drug resistance. Mol Microbiol, 43, 1197–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Del Poeta, M., Schell, W.A. and Perfect, J.R., (1997), In vitro antifungal activity of pneumocandin L-743,872 against a variety of clinically important molds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1835–1836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Denning, D.W., (1997), Echinocandins and pneumocandins—a new antifungal class with a novel mode of action. J Antimicrob Chemother, 40, 611–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Denning, D.W., (2003), Echinocandin antifungal drugs. Lancet, 362, 1142–1151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Denning, D.W., Hanson, L.H., Perlman, A.M. and Stevens, D.A., (1992), In vitro susceptibility and synergy studies of Aspergillus species to conventional and new agents. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 15, 21–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Denning, D.W., Venkateswarlu, K., Oakley, K.L., Anderson, M.J., Manning, N.J., Stevens, D.A., Warnock, D.W. and Kelly, S.L., (1997), Itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1364–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Denning, D.W. and Warn, P., (1999), Dose range evaluation of liposomal nystatin and comparisons with amphotericin B and amphotericin B lipid complex in temporarily neutropenic mice infected with an isolate of Aspergillus fumigatus with reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 2592–2599.Google Scholar
  48. Diamond, D.M., Bauer, M., Daniel, B.E., Leal, M.A., Johnson, D., Williams, B.K., Thomas, A.M., Ding, J.C., Najvar, L., Graybill, J.R. and Larsen, R.A., (1998), Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion combined with flucytosine with or without fluconazole for treatment of murine cryptococcal meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 528–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Diaz-Guerra, T.M., Martinez-Suarez, J.V., Laguna, F., Valencia, E. and Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., (1998), Change in fluconazole susceptibility patterns and genetic relationship among oral Candida albicans isolates. AIDS, 12, 1601–1610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dick, J.D., Merz, W.G. and Saral, R., (1980), Incidence of polyene-resistant yeasts recovered from clinical specimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 18, 158–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dick, J.D., Rosengard, B.R., Merz, W.G., Stuart, R.K., Hutchins, G.M. and Saral, R., (1985), Fatal disseminated candidiasis due to amphotericin-B-resistant Candida guilliermondii. Ann Intern Med, 102, 67–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Diekema, D.J., Messer, S.A., Brueggemann, A.B., Coffman, S.L., Doern, G.V., Herwaldt, L.A. and Pfaller, M.A., (2002), Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the emerging infections and the epidemiology of Iowa organisms study. J Clin Microbiol, 40, 1298–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dinubile, M.J., Lupinacci, R.J., Berman, R.S. and Sable, C.A., (2002), Response and relapse rates of candidal esophagitis in HIV-infected patients treated with caspofungin. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 18, 903–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dismukes, W.E., Cloud, G., Gallis, H.A., Kerkering, T.M., Medoff, G., Craven, P.C., Kaplowitz, L.G., Fisher, J.F., Gregg, C.R., Bowles, C.A., Shadomy, S., Stamm, A.M., Diasio, R.B., Kaufman, L., Soong, S.-J., Blackwelder, W. and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group, (1987), Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with combination amphotericin B and flucytosine for four as compared with six weeks. N Engl J Med, 317, 334–341.Google Scholar
  55. Dominguez, J.M., Kelly, V.A., Kinsman, O.S., Marriott, M.S., Gomez de las Heras, F. and Martin, J.J., (1998), Sordarins: a new class of antifungals with selective inhibition of the protein synthesis elongation cycle in yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2274–2278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dominguez, J.M. and Martin, J.J., (1998), Identification of elongation factor 2 as the essential protein targeted by sordarins in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2279–2283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Douglas, C.M., (2001), Fungal beta(1,3)-d-glucan synthesis. Med Mycol, 39 (Suppl 1), 55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Douglas, C.M., Foor, F., Marrinan, J.A., Morin, N., Nielsen, J.B., Dahl, A.M., Mazur, P., Baginsky, W., Li, W., el-Sherbeini, M., Clemas, J.A., Mandala, S.M., Frommer, B.R. and Kurtz, M.B., (1994), The Saccharomyces cerevisiae FKS1 (ETG1) gene encodes an integral membrane protein which is a subunit of 1,3-beta-d-glucan synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 91, 12907–12911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Dummer, J.S., Lazariashvilli, N., Barnes, J., Ninan, M. and Milstone, A.P., (2004), A survey of anti-fungal management in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant, 23, 1376–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Dupont, B., (2002), Overview of the lipid formulations of amphotericin B. J Antimicrob Chemother, 49 (Suppl 1), 31–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Edmond, M.B., Wallace, S.E., McClish, D.K., Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N. and Wenzel, R.P., (1999), Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis, 29, 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ehrmann, S., Bastides, F., Gissot, V., Mercier, E., Magro, P., Bailly, E. and Legras, A., (2005), Cerebral aspergillosis in the critically ill: two cases of successful medical treatment. Intensive Care Med, 31, 738–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ellis, D., (2002), Amphotericin B: spectrum and resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother, 49 (Suppl 1), 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Espinel-Ingroff, A., (1998), Comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole SCH56592 and the echinocandins MK-0991 (L-743,872) and LY303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts. J Clin Microbiol, 36, 2950–2956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Espinel-Ingroff, A., (2001), Germinated and nongerminated conidial suspensions for testing of susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp. to amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 605–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fan-Havard, P., Capano, D., Smith, S.M., Mangia, A. and Eng, R.H., (1991), Development of resistance in Candida isolates from patients receiving prolonged antifungal therapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 35, 2302–2305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Favre, B., Ghannoum, M.A. and Ryder, N.S., (2004), Biochemical characterization of terbinafine-resistant Trichophyton rubrum isolates. Med Mycol, 42, 525–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fichtenbaum, C.J., Koletar, S., Yiannoutsos, C., Holland, F., Pottage, J., Cohn, S.E., Walawander, A., Frame, P., Feinberg, J., Saag, M., Van der Horst, C. and Powderly, W.G., (2000), Refractory mucosal candidiasis in advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis, 30, 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Fidel, P.L., Jr. and Sobel, J.D., (1996), Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev, 9, 335–348.Google Scholar
  70. Fling, M.E., Kopf, J., Tamarkin, A., Gorman, J.A., Smith, H.A. and Koltin, Y., (1991), Analysis of a Candida albicans gene that encodes a novel mechanism for resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. Mol Gen Genet, 227, 318–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Franzot, S.P. and Casadevall, A., (1997), Pneumocandin L-743,872 enhances the activities of amphotericin B and fluconazole against Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fukuoka, T., Johnston, D.A., Winslow, C.A., de Groot, M.J., Burt, C., Hitchcock, C.A. and Filler, S.G., (2003), Genetic basis for differential activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida krusei. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 1213–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Geber, A., Hitchcock, C.A., Swartz, J.E., Pullen, F.S., Marsden, K.E., Kwon-Chung, K.J. and Bennett, J.E., (1995), Deletion of the Candida glabrata ERG3 and ERG11 genes: effect on cell viability, cell growth, sterol composition, and antifungal susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 2708–2717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Georgopapadakou, N.H. and Walsh, T.J., (1996), Antifungal agents: chemotherapeutic targets and immunologic strategies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 279–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Ghannoum, M.A. and Elewski, B., (1999), Successful treatment of fluconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis by a combination of fluconazole and terbinafine. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, 6, 921–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ghannoum, M.A. and Rice, L.B., (1999), Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev, 12, 501–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Godoy, P., Tiraboschi, I.N., Severo, L.C., Bustamante, B., Calvo, B., Almeida, L.P., da Matta, D.A. and Colombo, A.L., (2003), Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 98, 401–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Golan, Y., (2005), Overview of transplant mycology. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 62, S17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Goodman, J.L., Winston, D.J., Greenfield, R.A., Chandrasekar, P.H., Fox, B., Kaizer, H., Shadduck, R.K., Shea, T.C., Stiff, P., Friedman, D.J., Powderly, W.G., Silber, J.L., Horowitz, H., Lichtin, A., Wolff, S.N., Mangan, K.F., Silver, S.M., Weisdorf, D., Ho, W.G., Gilbert, G. and Buell, D., (1992), A controlled trial of fluconazole to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. N Engl J Med, 326, 845–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Gotzsche, P.C. and Johansen, H.K., (1997), Meta-analysis of prophylactic or empirical antifungal treatment versus placebo or no treatment in patients with cancer complicated by neutropenia. BMJ, 314, 1238–1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Graybill, J.R., (2000), The role of murine models in the development of antifungal therapy for systemic mycoses. Drug Resist Updat, 3, 364–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Graybill, J.R., Najvar, L., Fothergill, A., Bocanegra, R. and de las Heras, F.G., (1999), Activities of sordarins in murine histoplasmosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 1716–1718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Groll, A.H., Petraitis, V., Petraitiene, R., Field-Ridley, A., Calendario, M., Bacher, J., Piscitelli, S.C. and Walsh, T.J., (1999), Safety and efficacy of multilamellar liposomal nystatin against disseminated candidiasis in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 2463–2467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hajjeh, R.A., Sofair, A.N., Harrison, L.H., Lyon, G.M., Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., Mirza, S.A., Phelan, M., Morgan, J., Lee-Yang, W., Ciblak, M.A., Benjamin, L.E., Sanza, L.T., Huie, S., Yeo, S.F., Brandt, M.E. and Warnock, D.W., (2004), Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J Clin Microbiol, 42, 1519–1527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hamilton-Miller, J.M., (1973), Chemistry and biology of the polyene macrolide antibiotics. Bacteriol Rev, 37, 166–196.Google Scholar
  86. Hawser, S.P. and Douglas, L.J., (1994), Biofilm formation by Candida species on the surface of catheter materials in vitro. Infect Immun, 62, 915–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Henry, K.W., Nickels, J.T. and Edlind, T.D., (2000), Upregulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 2693–2700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Herbrecht, R., Denning, D.W., Patterson, T.F., Bennett, J.E., Greene, R.E., Oestmann, J.W., Kern, W.V., Marr, K.A., Ribaud, P., Lortholary, O., Sylvester, R., Rubin, R.H., Wingard, J.R., Stark, P., Durand, C., Caillot, D., Thiel, E., Chandrasekar, P.H., Hodges, M.R., Schlamm, H.T., Troke, P.F. and de Pauw, B., (2002), Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N Engl J Med, 347, 408–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hernaez, M.L., Gil, C., Pla, J. and Nombela, C., (1998), Induced expression of the Candida albicans multidrug resistance gene CDR1 in response to fluconazole and other antifungals. Yeast, 14, 517–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Herreros, E., Martinez, C.M., Almela, M.J., Marriott, M.S., De Las Heras, F.G. and Gargallo-Viola, D., (1998), Sordarins: in vitro activities of new antifungal derivatives against pathogenic yeasts, Pneumocystis carinii, and filamentous fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2863–2869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Herrling, S., Sous, H., Kruepe, W., Osterloh, G. and Mueckter, H., (1959), Experimental studies on a new combination effective against fungi. Arzneimittelforschung, 9, 489–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hitchcock, C.A., (1993), Resistance of Candida albicans to azole antifungal agents. Biochem Soc Trans, 21, 1039–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hitchcock, C.A., Pye, G.W., Troke, P.F., Johnson, E.M. and Warnock, D.W., (1993), Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 37, 1962–1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Hoban, D.J., Zhanel, G.G. and Karlowsky, J.A., (1999), In vitro susceptibilities of Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from blood cultures of neutropenic patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 1463–1464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ifran, A., Kaptan, K. and Beyan, C., (2005), Efficacy of caspofungin in prophylaxis and treatment of an adult leukemic patient with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Mycoses, 48, 146–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Imhof, A., Balajee, S.A., Fredricks, D.N., Englund, J.A. and Marr, K.A., (2004), Breakthrough fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis, 39, 743–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jessup, C.J., Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A., Zhang, J., Tumberland, M., Mbidde, E.K. and Ghannoum, M.A., (1998), Fluconazole susceptibility testing of Cryptococcus neoformans: comparison of two broth microdilution methods and clinical correlates among isolates from Ugandan AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol, 36, 2874–2876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Johnson, E.M., Oakley, K.L., Radford, S.A., Moore, C.B., Warn, P., Warnock, D.W. and Denning, D.W., (2000), Lack of correlation of in vitro amphotericin B susceptibility testing with outcome in a murine model of Aspergillus infection. J Antimicrob Chemother, 45, 85–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Johnson, E.M., Warnock, D.W., Luker, J., Porter, S.R. and Scully, C., (1995), Emergence of azole drug resistance in Candida species from HIV-infected patients receiving prolonged fluconazole therapy for oral candidosis. J Antimicrob Chemother, 35, 103–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Joseph-Horne, T., Hollomon, D., Loeffler, R.S. and Kelly, S.L., (1995a), Cross-resistance to polyene and azole drugs in Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 1526–1529.Google Scholar
  101. Joseph-Horne, T., Manning, N.J., Hollomon, D. and Kelly, S.L., (1995b), Defective sterol delta 5(6) desaturase as a cause of azole resistance in Ustilago maydis. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 127, 29–34.Google Scholar
  102. Kakeya, H., Miyazaki, Y., Miyazaki, H., Nyswaner, K., Grimberg, B. and Bennett, J.E., (2000), Genetic analysis of azole resistance in the Darlington strain of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 2985–2990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kao, A.S., Brandt, M.E., Pruitt, W.R., Conn, L.A., Perkins, B.A., Stephens, D.S., Baughman, W.S., Reingold, A.L., Rothrock, G.A., Pfaller, M.A., Pinner, R.W. and Hajjeh, R.A., (1999), The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis, 29, 1164–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kartsonis, N.A., Nielsen, J. and Douglas, C.M., (2003), Caspofungin: the first in a new class of antifungal agents. Drug Resist Updat, 6, 197–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Katiyar, S.K. and Edlind, T.D., (2001), Identification and expression of multidrug resistance-related ABC transporter genes in Candida krusei. Med Mycol, 39, 109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kaufman, D., Boyle, R., Hazen, K.C., Patrie, J.T., Robinson, M. and Donowitz, L.G., (2001), Fluconazole prophylaxis against fungal colonization and infection in preterm infants. N Engl J Med, 345, 1660–1666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kelly, R., Register, E., Hsu, M.J., Kurtz, M. and Nielsen, J., (1996a), Isolation of a gene involved in 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus nidulans and purification of the corresponding protein. J Bacteriol, 178, 4381–4391.Google Scholar
  108. Kelly, S.L., (1993), Molecular studies on azole sensitivity in fungi, pp. 199–213. In B.K. Maresca, G.S.; Yamaguchi, H. (Ed.): Molecular Biology and its Application to Medical Mycology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  109. Kelly, S.L., Lamb, D.C., Corran, A.J., Baldwin, B.C. and Kelly, D.E., (1995), Mode of action and resistance to azole antifungals associated with the formation of 14 alpha-methylergosta-8,24(28)-dien-3 beta,6 alpha-diol. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 207, 910–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kelly, S.L., Lamb, D.C., Kelly, D.E., Loeffler, J. and Einsele, H., (1996b), Resistance to fluconazole and amphotericin in Candida albicans from AIDS patients. Lancet, 348, 1523–1524.Google Scholar
  111. Kelly, S.L., Lamb, D.C., Kelly, D.E., Manning, N.J., Loeffler, J., Hebart, H., Schumacher, U. and Einsele, H., (1997), Resistance to fluconazole and cross-resistance to amphotericin B in Candida albicans from AIDS patients caused by defective sterol delta5,6-desaturation. FEBS Lett, 400, 80–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kelly, S.L., Lamb, D.C., Taylor, M., Corran, A.J., Baldwin, B.C. and Powderly, W.G., (1994), Resistance to amphotericin B associated with defective sterol delta 8–>7 isomerase in a Cryptococcus neoformans strain from an AIDS patient. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 122, 39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kerridge, D., (1986), Mode of action of clinically important antifungal drugs. Adv Microb Physiol, 27, 1–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kicklighter, S.D., Springer, S.C., Cox, T., Hulsey, T.C. and Turner, R.B., (2001), Fluconazole for prophylaxis against candidal rectal colonization in the very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics, 107, 293–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kim, S.J., Kwon-Chung, K.J., Milne, G.W. and Prescott, B., (1974), Polyene-resistant mutants of Aspergillus fennelliae: identification of sterols. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 6, 405–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Klepser, M.E., Wolfe, E.J. and Pfaller, M.A., (1998), Antifungal pharmacodynamic characteristics of fluconazole and amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Antimicrob Chemother, 41, 397–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Klepser, M.E., Wolfe, E.J., Jones, R.N., Nightingale, C.H. and Pfaller, M.A., (1997), Antifungal pharmacodynamic characteristics of fluconazole and amphotericin B tested against Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1392–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kohli, A., Smriti, Mukhopadhyay, K., Rattan, A. and Prasad, R., (2002), In vitro low-level resistance to azoles in Candida albicans is associated with changes in membrane lipid fluidity and asymmetry. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 1046–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kojic, E.M. and Darouiche, R.O., (2003), Comparison of adherence of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis to silicone catheters in vitro and in vivo. Clin Microbiol Infect, 9, 684–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Konishi, M., Nishio, M., Saitoh, K., Miyaki, T., Oki, T. and Kawaguchi, H., (1989), Cispentacin, a new antifungal antibiotic. I. Production, isolation, physico-chemical properties and structure. J Antibiot (Tokyo), 42, 1749–1755.Google Scholar
  121. Kontoyiannis, D.P., Lionakis, M.S., Lewis, R.E., Chamilos, G., Healy, M., Perego, C., Safdar, A., Kantarjian, H., Champlin, R., Walsh, T.J. and Raad, I.I., (2005), Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case–control observational study of 27 recent cases. J Infect Dis, 191, 1350–1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kovacicova, G., Hanzen, J., Pisarcikova, M., Sejnova, D., Horn, J., Babela, R., Svetlansky, I., Lovaszova, M., Gogova, M. and Krcmery, V., (2001), Nosocomial fungemia due to amphotericin B-resistant Candida spp. in three pediatric patients after previous neurosurgery for brain tumors. J Infect Chemother, 7, 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kunova, A., Trupl, J., Demitrovicova, A., Jesenska, Z., Grausova, S., Grey, E., Pichna, P., Kralovicova, K., Sorkovska, D., Krupova, I., Spanik, S., Studena, M., Koren, P. and Krcmery, V., Jr., (1997), Eight-year surveillance of non-albicans Candida spp. in an oncology department prior to and after fluconazole had been introduced into antifungal prophylaxis. Microb Drug Resist, 3, 283–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kurtz, M.B. and Douglas, C.M., (1997), Lipopeptide inhibitors of fungal glucan synthase. J Med Vet Mycol, 35, 79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kurtz, M.B., Abruzzo, G., Flattery, A., Bartizal, K., Marrinan, J.A., Li, W., Milligan, J., Nollstadt, K. and Douglas, C.M., (1996), Characterization of echinocandin-resistant mutants of Candida albicans: genetic, biochemical, and virulence studies. Infect Immun, 64, 3244–3251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Laguna, F., Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., Martinez-Suarez, J.V., Polo, R., Valencia, E., Diaz-Guerra, T.M., Dronda, F. and Pulido, F., (1997), Patterns of fluconazole susceptibility in isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis due to Candida albicans. Clin Infect Dis, 24, 124–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Lamb, D.C., Corran, A., Baldwin, B.C., Kwon-Chung, J. and Kelly, S.L., (1995), Resistant P45051A1 activity in azole antifungal tolerant Cryptococcus neoformans from AIDS patients. FEBS Lett, 368, 326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lasker, B.A., Elie, C.M., Lott, T.J., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Gallagher, L., Kuykendall, R.J., Kellum, M.E., Pruitt, W.R., Warnock, D.W., Rimland, D., McNeil, M.M. and Reiss, E., (2001), Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans strains isolated from the oropharynx of HIV-positive patients at successive clinic visits. Med Mycol, 39, 341–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lass-Florl, C., Nagl, M., Gunsilius, E., Speth, C., Ulmer, H. and Wurzner, R., (2002), In vitro studies on the activity of amphotericin B and lipid-based amphotericin B formulations against Aspergillus conidia and hyphae. Mycoses, 45, 166–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Laverdiere, M., Rotstein, C., Bow, E.J., Roberts, R.S., Ioannou, S., Carr, D. and Moghaddam, N., (2000), Impact of fluconazole prophylaxis on fungal colonization and infection rates in neutropenic patients. The Canadian Fluconazole Study. J Antimicrob Chemother, 46, 1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Le Guennec, R., Reynes, J., Mallie, M., Pujol, C., Janbon, F. and Bastide, J.M., (1995), Fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains from AIDS patients: multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis and antifungal susceptibilities. J Clin Microbiol, 33, 2732–2737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Le Monte, A.M., Goldman, M., Smedema, M.L., Connolly, P.A., McKinsey, D.S., Cloud, G.A., Kauffman, C.A. and Wheat, L.J., (2001), DNA fingerprinting of serial Candida albicans isolates obtained during itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with AIDS. Med Mycol, 39, 207–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Lee, M.K., Williams, L.E., Warnock, D.W. and Arthington-Skaggs, B.A., (2004), Drug resistance genes and trailing growth in Candida albicans isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 217–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Lee, S.C., Fung, C.P., Huang, J.S., Tsai, C.J., Chen, K.S., Chen, H.Y., Lee, N., See, L.C. and Shieh, W.B., (2000), Clinical correlates of antifungal macrodilution susceptibility test results for non-AIDS patients with severe Candida infections treated with fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 2715–2718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Leigh, J.E., Shetty, K. and Fidel, P.L., Jr., (2004), Oral opportunistic infections in HIV-positive individuals: review and role of mucosal immunity. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 18, 443–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Lewis, R.E., Lund, B.C., Klepser, M.E., Ernst, E.J. and Pfaller, M.A., (1998), Assessment of antifungal activities of fluconazole and amphotericin B administered alone and in combination against Candida albicans by using a dynamic in vitro mycotic infection model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 1382–1386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lin, D., Wu, L.C., Rinaldi, M.G. and Lehmann, P.F., (1995), Three distinct genotypes within Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources. J Clin Microbiol, 33, 1815–1821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Lionakis, M.S., Lewis, R.E., Torres, H.A., Albert, N.D., Raad, II and Kontoyiannis, D.P., (2005), Increased frequency of non-fumigatus Aspergillus species in amphotericin B- or triazole-pre-exposed cancer patients with positive cultures for aspergilli. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 52, 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lipsett, P.A., (2004), Clinical trials of antifungal prophylaxis among patients in surgical intensive care units: concepts and considerations. Clin Infect Dis, 39 (Suppl 4), S193–S199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lischewski, A., Ruhnke, M., Tennagen, I., Schonian, G., Morschhauser, J. and Hacker, J., (1995), Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles. J Clin Microbiol, 33, 769–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Loeffler, J., Einsele, H., Hebart, H., Schumacher, U., Hrastnik, C. and Daum, G., (2000), Phospholipid and sterol analysis of plasma membranes of azole-resistant Candida albicans strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 185, 59–63.Google Scholar
  142. Loeffler, J. and Stevens, D.A., (2003), Antifungal drug resistance. Clin Infect Dis, 36, S31–S41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Lopez-Ribot, J.L., McAtee, R.K., Lee, L.N., Kirkpatrick, W.R., White, T.C., Sanglard, D. and Patterson, T.F., (1998), Distinct patterns of gene expression associated with development of fluconazole resistance in serial Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2932–2937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Lopez-Ribot, J.L., McAtee, R.K., Perea, S., Kirkpatrick, W.R., Rinaldi, M.G. and Patterson, T.F., (1999), Multiple resistant phenotypes of Candida albicans coexist during episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 1621–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lortholary, O. and Dupont, B., (1997), Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency. Clin Microbiol Rev, 10, 477–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Lozano-Chiu, M., Nelson, P.W., Lancaster, M., Pfaller, M.A. and Rex, J.H., (1997), Lot-to-lot variability of antibiotic medium 3 used for testing susceptibility of Candida isolates to amphotericin B. J Clin Microbiol, 35, 270–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Lupetti, A., Danesi, R., Campa, M., Del Tacca, M. and Kelly, S., (2002), Molecular basis of resistance to azole antifungals. Trends Mol Med, 8, 76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Maertens, J., Raad, I., Sable, C.A., Ngai, A., Berman, R., Patterson, T.F., Denning, D. and Walsh, T., (2000), Multicenter, noncomparative study to evaluate safety and efficacy of caspofungin in adults with aspergillis refractory or intolerant to amphotericin B, amphotericin B lipid formulation, or azoles. 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  149. Mago, N. and Khuller, G.K., (1989), Influence of lipid composition on the sensitivity of Candida albicans to antifungal agents. Indian J Biochem Biophys, 26, 30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Manavathu, E.K., Cutright, J. and Chandrasekar, P.H., (1999), Comparative study of susceptibilities of germinated and ungerminated conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus to various antifungal agents. J Clin Microbiol, 37, 858–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Marco, F., Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A. and Jones, R.N., (1998), Activity of MK-0991 (L-743,872), a new echinocandin, compared with those of LY303366 and four other antifungal agents tested against blood stream isolates of Candida spp. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 32, 33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Marichal, P., Gorrens, J. and Vanden Bossche, H., (1985), The action of itraconazole and ketoconazole on growth and sterol synthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Sabouraudia, 23, 13–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Marichal, P. and Vanden Bossche, H., (1995), Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungals. Acta Biochim Pol, 42, 509–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Marr, K.A., (2004), Invasive Candida infections: the changing epidemiology. Oncology (Huntingt), 18, 9-14.Google Scholar
  155. Marr, K.A., Lyons, C.N., Rustad, T.R., Bowden, R.A. and White, T.C., (1998), Rapid, transient fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans is associated with increased mRNA levels of CDR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2584–2589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Marr, K.A., Seidel, K., Slavin, M.A., Bowden, R.A., Schoch, H.G., Flowers, M.E., Corey, L. and Boeckh, M., (2000a), Prolonged fluconazole prophylaxis is associated with persistent protection against candidiasis-related death in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Blood, 96, 2055–2061.Google Scholar
  157. Marr, K.A., Seidel, K., White, T.C. and Bowden, R.A., (2000b), Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J Infect Dis, 181, 309–316.Google Scholar
  158. Marr, K.A., White, T.C., van Burik, J.A. and Bowden, R.A., (1997), Development of fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans causing disseminated infection in a patient undergoing marrow transplantation. Clin Infect Dis, 25, 908–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Martin, E., Maier, F. and Bhakdi, S., (1994a), Antagonistic effects of fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine on candidacidal action of amphotericin B in human serum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 1331–1338.Google Scholar
  160. Martin, E., Stuben, A., Gorz, A., Weller, U. and Bhakdi, S., (1994b), Novel aspect of amphotericin B action: accumulation in human monocytes potentiates killing of phagocytosed Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38, 13–22.Google Scholar
  161. Marty, F.M., Cosimi, L.A. and Baden, L.R., (2004), Breakthrough zygomycosis after voriconazole treatment in recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. N Engl J Med, 350, 950–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Mattner, F., Weissbrodt, H. and Strueber, M., (2004), Two case reports: fatal Absidia corymbifera pulmonary tract infection in the first postoperative phase of a lung transplant patient receiving voriconazole prophylaxis and transient bronchial Absidia corymbifera colonization in a lung transplant patient. Scand J Infect Dis, 36, 312–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. McCullough, M. and Hume, S., (1995), A longitudinal study of the change in resistance patterns and genetic relationship of oral Candida albicans from HIV-infected patients. J Med Vet Mycol, 33, 33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. McGinnis, M.R., Pasarell, L., Sutton, D.A., Fothergill, A.W., Cooper, C.R., Jr. and Rinaldi, M.G., (1997), In vitro evaluation of voriconazole against some clinically important fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1832–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. McNeil, M.M., Nash, S.L., Hajjeh, R.A., Phelan, M.A., Conn, L.A., Plikaytis, B.D. and Warnock, D.W., (2001), Trends in Mortality Due to Invasive Mycotic Diseases in the United States, 1980–1997. Clin Infect Dis, 33, 641–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Meade, R.H., 3rd, (1979), Drug therapy reviews: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use of antimycotic drugs. Am J Hosp Pharm, 36, 1326–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Medoff, G., Brajtburg, J., Kobayashi, G.S. and Bolard, J., (1983), Antifungal agents useful in therapy of systemic fungal infections. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol, 23, 303–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Mehta, R.T., Hopfer, R.L., Gunner, L.A., Juliano, R.L. and Lopez-Berestein, G., (1987), Formulation, toxicity, and antifungal activity in vitro of liposome-encapsulated nystatin as therapeutic agent for systemic candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 31, 1897–1900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Meletiadis, J., Mouton, J.W., Meis, J.F., Bouman, B.A. and Verweij, P.E., (2002), Comparison of the Etest and the sensititre colorimetric methods with the NCCLS proposed standard for antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species. J Clin Microbiol, 40, 2876–2885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Menichetti, F., (2004), How to improve the design of trials of antifungal prophylaxis among neutropenic adults with acute leukemia. Clin Infect Dis, 39 (Suppl 4), S181–S184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Meunier, F., Aoun, M. and Bitar, N., (1992), Candidemia in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis, 14 (Suppl 1), S120–S125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Michaelis, S. and Berkower, C., (1995), Sequence comparison of yeast ATP-binding cassette proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 60, 291–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Minari, A., Husni, R., Avery, R.K., Longworth, D.L., DeCamp, M., Bertin, M., Schilz, R., Smedira, N., Haug, M.T., Mehta, A. and Gordon, S.M., (2002), The incidence of invasive aspergillosis among solid organ transplant recipients and implications for prophylaxis in lung transplants. Transpl Infect Dis, 4, 195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Mio, T., Adachi-Shimizu, M., Tachibana, Y., Tabuchi, H., Inoue, S.B., Yabe, T., Yamada-Okabe, T., Arisawa, M., Watanabe, T. and Yamada-Okabe, H., (1997), Cloning of the Candida albicans homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSC1/FKS1 and its involvement in beta-1,3-glucan synthesis. J Bacteriol, 179, 4096–4105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Moran, G.P., Sanglard, D., Donnelly, S.M., Shanley, D.B., Sullivan, D.J. and Coleman, D.C., (1998), Identification and expression of multidrug transporters responsible for fluconazole resistance in Candida dubliniensis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 1819–1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Mori, T., Matsumura, M., Kanamaru, Y., Miyano, S., Hishikawa, T., Irie, S., Oshimi, K., Saikawa, T. and Oguri, T., (1997), Myelofibrosis complicated by infection due to Candida albicans: emergence of resistance to antifungal agents during therapy. Clin Infect Dis, 25, 1470–1471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Moudgal, V., Little, T., Boikov, D. and Vazquez, J.A., (2005), Multiechinocandin- and multiazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis isolates serially obtained during therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 767–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Mukherjee, P.K. and Chandra, J., (2004), Candida biofilm resistance. Drug Resist Updat, 7, 301–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mukherjee, P.K., Leidich, S.D., Isham, N., Leitner, I., Ryder, N.S. and Ghannoum, M.A., (2003), Clinical Trichophyton rubrum strain exhibiting primary resistance to terbinafine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Muller, F.M., Weig, M., Peter, J. and Walsh, T.J., (2000), Azole cross-resistance to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole in clinical Candida albicans isolates from HIV-infected children with oropharyngeal candidosis. J Antimicrob Chemother, 46, 338–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Nascimento, A.M., Goldman, G.H., Park, S., Marras, S.A., Delmas, G., Oza, U., Lolans, K., Dudley, M.N., Mann, P.A. and Perlin, D.S., (2003), Multiple resistance mechanisms among Aspergillus fumigatus mutants with high-level resistance to itraconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 1719–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, (2002a), Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi. Approved standard M38-A. Wayne, PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.Google Scholar
  183. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, (2002b), Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeast. Approved standard M27-A2. Wayne, PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.Google Scholar
  184. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, (2004), Method for Antifungal Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts. Approved standard M44-A. Wayne, PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.Google Scholar
  185. Ng, T.T. and Denning, D.W., (1993), Fluconazole resistance in Candida in patients with AIDS—a therapeutic approach. J Infect, 26, 117–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Nolte, F.S., Parkinson, T., Falconer, D.J., Dix, S., Williams, J., Gilmore, C., Geller, R. and Wingard, J.R., (1997), Isolation and characterization of fluconazole- and amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans from blood of two patients with leukemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 196–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Oakley, K.L., Moore, C.B. and Denning, D.W., (1997), In vitro activity of SCH-56592 and comparison with activities of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Aspergillus spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1124–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Odds, F.C., Brown, A.J. and Gow, N.A., (2003), Antifungal agents: mechanisms of action. Trends Microbiol, 11, 272–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Odds, F.C., Van Gerven, F., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Bartlett, M.S., Ghannoum, M.A., Lancaster, M.V., Pfaller, M.A., Rex, J.H., Rinaldi, M.G. and Walsh, T.J., (1998), Evaluation of possible correlations between antifungal susceptibilities of filamentous fungi in vitro and antifungal treatment outcomes in animal infection models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 282–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Odds, F.C., Vranckx, L. and Woestenborghs, F., (1995), Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts: evaluation of technical variables for test automation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 2051–2060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Oki, T., Hirano, M., Tomatsu, K., Numata, K. and Kamei, H., (1989), Cispentacin, a new antifungal antibiotic. II. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities. J Antibiot (Tokyo), 42, 1756–1762.Google Scholar
  192. Orozco, A.S., Higginbotham, L.M., Hitchcock, C.A., Parkinson, T., Falconer, D., Ibrahim, A.S., Ghannoum, M.A. and Filler, S.G., (1998), Mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida krusei. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 2645–2649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Osherov, N., May, G.S., Albert, N.D. and Kontoyiannis, D.P., (2002), Overexpression of Sbe2p, a Golgi protein, results in resistance to caspofungin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 2462–2469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., (2004), Prophylaxis or preemptive therapy of invasive candidiasis in the intensive care unit? Crit Care Med, 32, 2552–2553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L., Rex, J.H., Pappas, P.G., Hamill, R.J., Larsen, R.A., Horowitz, H.W., Powderly, W.G., Hyslop, N., Kauffman, C.A., Cleary, J., Mangino, J.E. and Lee, J., (2003), Antifungal susceptibility survey of 2,000 bloodstream Candida isolates in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 3149–3154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Paderu, P., Park, S. and Perlin, D.S., (2004), Caspofungin uptake is mediated by a high-affinity transporter in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 3845–3849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Patel, R., (2000), Prophylactic fluconazole in liver transplant recipients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Liver Transpl, 6, 376–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Perea, S., Lopez-Ribot, J.L., Kirkpatrick, W.R., McAtee, R.K., Santillan, R.A., Martinez, M., Calabrese, D., Sanglard, D. and Patterson, T.F., (2001), Prevalence of molecular mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans strains displaying high-level fluconazole resistance isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 2676–2684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Perea, S., Lopez-Ribot, J.L., Wickes, B.L., Kirkpatrick, W.R., Dib, O.P., Bachmann, S.P., Keller, S.M., Martinez, M. and Patterson, T.F., (2002), Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida dubliniensis isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 1695–1703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Perea, S. and Patterson, T.F., (2002), Antifungal resistance in pathogenic fungi. Clin Infect Dis, 35, 1073–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Pereira, M., Felipe, M.S., Brigido, M.M., Soares, C.M. and Azevedo, M.O., (2000), Molecular cloning and characterization of a glucan synthase gene from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast, 16, 451–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Perfect, J.R., (2004a), Use of newer antifungal therapies in clinical practice: what do the data tell us? Oncology (Williston Park), 18, 15–23.Google Scholar
  203. Perfect, J.R., (2004b), Management of invasive mycoses in hematology patients: current approaches. Oncology (Huntingt), 18, 5–14.Google Scholar
  204. Perfect, J.R., Granger, D.L. and Durack, D.T., (1987), Effects of antifungal agents and gamma interferon on macrophage cytotoxicity for fungi and tumor cells. J Infect Dis, 156, 316–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Petraitiene, R., Petraitis, V., Kelaher, A.M., Sarafandi, A.A., Mickiene, D., Groll, A.H., Sein, T., Bacher, J. and Walsh, T.J., (2005), Efficacy, plasma pharmacokinetics, and safety of icofungipen, an inhibitor of Candida isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, in treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 2084–2092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Petraitis, V., Petraitiene, R., Kelaher, A.M., Sarafandi, A.A., Sein, T., Mickiene, D., Bacher, J., Groll, A.H. and Walsh, T.J., (2004), Efficacy of PLD-118, a novel inhibitor of Candida isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, against experimental oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 3959–3967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Peyron, F., Favel, A., Michel-Nguyen, A., Gilly, M., Regli, P. and Bolmstrom, A., (2001), Improved detection of amphotericin B-resistant isolates of Candida lusitaniae by Etest. J Clin Microbiol, 39, 339–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Pfaller, M.A., Bale, M., Buschelman, B., Lancaster, M., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Rex, J.H., Rinaldi, M.G., Cooper, C.R. and McGinnis, M.R., (1995a), Quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended broth macrodilution testing of amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine. J Clin Microbiol, 33, 1104–1107.Google Scholar
  209. Pfaller, M.A., Boyken, L., Hollis, R.J., Messer, S.A., Tendolkar, S. and Diekema, D.J., (2004), Clinical evaluation of a dried commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of five antifungal agents against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 50, 113–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Pfaller, M.A. and Diekema, D.J., (2004), Twelve years of fluconazole in clinical practice: global trends in species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida. Clin Microbiol Infect, 10 (Suppl 1), 11–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Pfaller, M.A., Diekema, D.J., Boyken, L., Messer, S.A., Tendolkar, S. and Hollis, R.J., (2003), Evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for determining susceptibilities of 235 bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole and voriconazole. J Clin Microbiol, 41, 1875–1880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Pfaller, M.A., Diekema, D.J., Jones, R.N., Messer, S.A. and Hollis, R.J., (2002), Trends in antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from pediatric and adult patients with bloodstream infections: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2000. J Clin Microbiol, 40, 852–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pfaller, M.A., Diekema, D.J., Jones, R.N., Sader, H.S., Fluit, A.C., Hollis, R.J. and Messer, S.A., (2001), International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and in vitro susceptibilities to fluconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole of isolates collected from 1997 through 1999 in the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. J Clin Microbiol, 39, 3254–3259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N., Doern, G.V., Fluit, A.C., Verhoef, J., Sader, H.S., Messer, S.A., Houston, A., Coffman, S. and Hollis, R.J., (1999), International surveillance of blood stream infections due to Candida species in the European SENTRY Program: species distribution and antifungal susceptibility including the investigational triazole and echinocandin agents. SENTRY Participant Group (Europe) Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 35, 19–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N., Doern, G.V., Sader, H.S., Messer, S.A., Houston, A., Coffman, S. and Hollis, R.J., (2000), Bloodstream infections due to Candida species: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program in North America and Latin America, 1997–1998. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 747–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Pfaller, M.A., Jones, R.N., Messer, S.A., Edmond, M.B. and Wenzel, R.P., (1998a), National surveillance of nosocomial blood stream infection due to Candida albicans: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibility in the SCOPE Program. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 31, 327–332.Google Scholar
  217. Pfaller, M.A., Marco, F., Messer, S.A. and Jones, R.N., (1998b), In vitro activity of two echinocandin derivatives, LY303366 and MK-0991 (L-743,792), against clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Rhizopus, and other filamentous fungi. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 30, 251–255.Google Scholar
  218. Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A., Boyken, L., Rice, C., Tendolkar, S., Hollis, R.J., Doern, G.V. and Diekema, D.J., (2005), Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004) J Clin Microbiol, 43, 2163–2167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A., Karlsson, A. and Bolmstrom, A., (1998c), Evaluation of the Etest method for determining fluconazole susceptibilities of 402 clinical yeast isolates by using three different agar media. J Clin Microbiol, 36, 2586–2589.Google Scholar
  220. Pfaller, M.A., Rhine-Chalberg, J., Barry, A.L. and Rex, J.H., (1995b), Strain variation and antifungal susceptibility among bloodstream isolates of Candida species from 21 different medical institutions. Clin Infect Dis, 21, 1507–1509.Google Scholar
  221. Playford, E.G., Webster, A.C., Sorell, T.C. and Craig, J.C., (2004), Antifungal agents for preventing fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD004291.Google Scholar
  222. Polak, A. and Scholer, H.J., (1975), Mode of action of 5-fluorocytosine and mechanisms of resistance. Chemotherapy, 21, 113–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Polak, A., Scholer, H.J. and Wall, M., (1982), Combination therapy of experimental candidiasis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis in mice. Chemotherapy, 28, 461–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Posteraro, B., Sanguinetti, M., Sanglard, D., La Sorda, M., Boccia, S., Romano, L., Morace, G. and Fadda, G., (2003), Identification and characterization of a Cryptococcus neoformans ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter-encoding gene, CnAFR1, involved in the resistance to fluconazole. Mol Microbiol, 47, 357–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Powderly, W.G., Kobayashi, G.S., Herzig, G.P. and Medoff, G., (1988), Amphotericin B-resistant yeast infection in severely immunocompromised patients. Am J Med, 84, 826–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Prasad, R., De Wergifosse, P., Goffeau, A. and Balzi, E., (1995), Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene of Candida albicans, CDR1, conferring multiple resistance to drugs and antifungals. Curr Genet, 27, 320–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Redding, S.W., Marr, K.A., Kirkpatrick, W.R., Coco, B.J. and Patterson, T.F., (2004), Candida glabrata sepsis secondary to oral colonization in bone marrow transplantation. Med Mycol, 42, 479–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Redding, S.W., Pfaller, M.A., Messer, S.A., Smith, J.A., Prows, J., Bradley, L.L., Fothergill, A.W. and Rinaldi, M.G., (1997), Variations in fluconazole susceptibility and DNA subtyping of multiple Candida albicans colonies from patients with AIDS and oral candidiasis suffering one or more episodes of infection. J Clin Microbiol, 35, 1761–1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Redding, S., Smith, J., Farinacci, G., Rinaldi, M., Fothergill, A., Rhine-Chalberg, J. and Pfaller, M., (1994), Resistance of Candida albicans to fluconazole during treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in a patient with AIDS: documentation by in vitro susceptibility testing and DNA subtype analysis. Clin Infect Dis, 18, 240–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Reef, S.E. and Mayer, K.H., (1995), Opportunistic candidal infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: prevention issues and priorities. Clin Infect Dis, 21 (Suppl 1), S99–S102.Google Scholar
  231. Revankar, S.G., Kirkpatrick, W.R., McAtee, R.K., Fothergill, A.W., Redding, S.W., Rinaldi, M.G. and Patterson, T.F., (1998), Interpretation of trailing endpoints in antifungal susceptibility testing by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards method. J Clin Microbiol, 36, 153–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Rex, J.H., Cooper, C.R., Jr, Merz, W.G., Galgiani, J.N. and Anaissie, E.J., (1995a), Detection of amphotericin B-resistant Candida isolates in a broth-based system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 906–909.Google Scholar
  233. Rex, J.H., Nelson, P.W., Paetznick, V.L., Lozano-Chiu, M., Espinel-Ingroff, A. and Anaissie, E.J., (1998), Optimizing the correlation between results of testing in vitro and therapeutic outcome in vivo for fluconazole by testing critical isolates in a murine model of invasive candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Rex, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Barry, A.L., Nelson, P.W. and Webb, C.D., (1995b), Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates from a randomized, multicenter trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B as treatment of nonneutropenic patients with candidemia. NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 40–44.Google Scholar
  235. Rex, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Galgiani, J.N., Bartlett, M.S., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Ghannoum, M.A., Lancaster, M., Odds, F.C., Rinaldi, M.G., Walsh, T.J. and Barry, A.L., (1997), Development of interpretive breakpoints for antifungal susceptibility testing: conceptual framework and analysis of in vitro-in vivo correlation data for fluconazole, itraconazole, and candida infections. Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Clin Infect Dis, 24, 235–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Rex, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Rinaldi, M.G., Polak, A. and Galgiani, J.N., (1993), Antifungal susceptibility testing. Clin Microbiol Rev, 6, 367–381.Google Scholar
  237. Rex, J.H., Pfaller, M.A., Walsh, T.J., Chaturvedi, V., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Ghannoum, M.A., Gosey, L.L., Odds, F.C., Rinaldi, M.G., Sheehan, D.J. and Warnock, D.W., (2001), Antifungal susceptibility testing: practical aspects and current challenges. Clin Microbiol Rev, 14, 643–658, table of contents.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Rex, J.H., Rinaldi, M.G. and Pfaller, M.A., (1995c), Resistance of Candida species to fluconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 1–8.Google Scholar
  239. Rex, J.H., Walsh, T.J., Sobel, J.D., Filler, S.G., Pappas, P.G., Dismukes, W.E. and Edwards, J.E., (2000), Practice guidelines for the treatment of candidiasis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis, 30, 662–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Richter, S.S., Galask, R.P., Messer, S.A., Hollis, R.J., Diekema, D.J. and Pfaller, M.A., (2005), Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. J Clin Microbiol, 43, 2155–2162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L., Martin-Diez, F., Cuenca-Estrella, M., Rodero, L., Carpintero, Y. and Gorgojo, B., (2000), Influence of shaking on antifungal susceptibility testing of Cryptococcus neoformans: a comparison of the NCCLS standard M27A medium, buffered yeast nitrogen base, and RPMI-2% glucose. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 44, 400–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L. and Martinez-Suarez, J.V., (1995), Defining conditions for microbroth antifungal susceptibility tests: influence of RPMI and RPMI-2% glucose on the selection of endpoint criteria. J Antimicrob Chemother, 35, 739–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Ryley, J.F., Wilson, R.G., Gravestock, M.B. and Poyser, J.P., (1981), Experimental approaches to antifungal chemotherapy. Adv Pharmacol Chemother, 18, 49–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Saag, M.S., Graybill, R.J., Larsen, R.A., Pappas, P.G., Perfect, J.R., Powderly, W.G., Sobel, J.D. and Dismukes, W.E., (2000), Practice guidelines for the management of cryptococcal disease. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis, 30, 710–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Safdar, A., van Rhee, F., Henslee-Downey, J.P., Singhal, S. and Mehta, J., (2001), Candida glabrata and Candida krusei fungemia after high-risk allogeneic marrow transplantation: no adverse effect of low-dose fluconazole prophylaxis on incidence and outcome. Bone Marrow Transplant, 28, 873–878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Safe, L.M., Safe, S.H., Subden, R.E. and Morris, D.C., (1977), Sterol content and polyene antibiotic resistance in isolates of Candida krusei , Candida parakrusei, and Candida tropicalis. Can J Microbiol, 23, 398–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Sanglard, D., Ischer, F., Calabrese, D., Majcherczyk, P.A. and Bille, J., (1999), The ATP binding cassette transporter gene CgCDR1 from Candida glabrata is involved in the resistance of clinical isolates to azole antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 43, 2753–2765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Sanglard, D., Ischer, F., Koymans, L. and Bille, J., (1998), Amino acid substitutions in the cytochrome P-450 lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51A1) from azole-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates contribute to resistance to azole antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 42, 241–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Sanglard, D., Ischer, F., Monod, M. and Bille, J., (1997), Cloning of Candida albicans genes conferring resistance to azole antifungal agents: characterization of CDR2, a new multidrug ABC transporter gene. Microbiology, 143 (Pt 2), 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Sanglard, D., Ischer, F., Parkinson, T., Falconer, D. and Bille, J., (2003), Candida albicans mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to several antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 47, 2404–2412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Sanglard, D., Kuchler, K., Ischer, F., Pagani, J.L., Monod, M. and Bille, J., (1995), Mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents in Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients involve specific multidrug transporters. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 2378–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Sanglard, D. and Odds, F.C., (2002), Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents: molecular mechanisms and clinical consequences. Lancet Infect Dis, 2, 73–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Santos, B. and Snyder, M., (2000), Sbe2p and sbe22p, two homologous Golgi proteins involved in yeast cell wall formation. Mol Biol Cell, 11, 435–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Sar, B., Monchy, D., Vann, M., Keo, C., Sarthou, J.L. and Buisson, Y., (2004), Increasing in vitro resistance to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans Cambodian isolates: April 2000 to March 2002. J Antimicrob Chemother, 54, 563–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Saxen, H., Hoppu, K. and Pohjavuori, M., (1993), Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in very low birth weight infants during the first two weeks of life. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 54, 269–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Schaffner, A. and Bohler, A., (1993), Amphotericin B refractory aspergillosis after itraconazole: evidence for significant antagonism. Mycoses, 36, 421–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Schaffner, A. and Frick, P.G., (1985), The effect of ketoconazole on amphotericin B in a model of disseminated aspergillosis. J Infect Dis, 151, 902–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Schmitt, H.J., Bernard, E.M., Edwards, F.F. and Armstrong, D., (1991), Combination therapy in a model of pulmonary aspergillosis. Mycoses, 34, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Scholer, H.J., (1980), Flucytosine. In D.C.E. Speller, editor, Antifungal Chemotherapy. Chichester, UK, Wiley, pp. 35–106.Google Scholar
  260. Schuetzer-Muehlbauer, M., Willinger, B., Krapf, G., Enzinger, S., Presterl, E. and Kuchler, K., (2003), The Candida albicans Cdr2p ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter confers resistance to caspofungin. Mol Microbiol, 48, 225–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Seay, R.E., Larson, T.A., Toscano, J.P., Bostrom, B.C., O’Leary, M.C. and Uden, D.L., (1995), Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in immune-compromised children with leukemia or other hematologic diseases. Pharmacotherapy, 15, 52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Sheehan, D.J., Hitchcock, C.A. and Sibley, C.M., (1999), Current and emerging azole antifungal agents. Clin Microbiol Rev, 12, 40–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Singh, N., (2004), Antifungal prophylaxis in solid-organ transplant recipients: considerations for clinical trial design. Clin Infect Dis, 39 (Suppl 4), S200–S206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Singh, N. and Yu, V.L., (2000), Prophylactic fluconazole in liver transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med, 132, 843–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Siwek, G.T., Dodgson, K.J., de Magalhaes-Silverman, M., Bartelt, L.A., Kilborn, S.B., Hoth, P.L., Diekema, D.J. and Pfaller, M.A., (2004), Invasive zygomycosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis, 39, 584–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Slavin, M.A., Osborne, B., Adams, R., Levenstein, M.J., Schoch, H.G., Feldman, A.R., Meyers, J.D. and Bowden, R.A., (1995), Efficacy and safety of fluconazole prophylaxis for fungal infections after marrow transplantation–a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. J Infect Dis, 171, 1545–1552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Smith, W.L. and Edlind, T.D., (2002), Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance Candida albicans sensitivity to azoles and related antifungals: correlation with reduction in CDR and ERG upregulation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 3532–3539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Sobel, J.D., (1985), Epidemiology and pathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 152, 924–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Sobel, J.D., Wiesenfeld, H.C., Martens, M., Danna, P., Hooton, T.M., Rompalo, A., Sperling, M., Livengood, C., 3rd, Horowitz, B., Von Thron, J., Edwards, L., Panzer, H. and Chu, T.C., (2004), Maintenance fluconazole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. N Engl J Med, 351, 876–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. St-Germain, G., (2001), Impact of endpoint definition on the outcome of antifungal susceptibility tests with Candida species: 24- versus 48-h incubation and 50 versus 80% reduction in growth. Mycoses, 44, 37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. St-Germain, G., Laverdiere, M., Pelletier, R., Bourgault, A.M., Libman, M., Lemieux, C. and Noel, G., (2001), Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of 442 Candida isolates from blood and other normally sterile sites: results of a 2-year (1996 to 1998) multicenter surveillance study in Quebec, Canada. J Clin Microbiol, 39, 949–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Steinbach, W.J., Stevens, D.A. and Denning, D.W., (2003), Combination and sequential antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis: review of published in vitro and in vivo interactions and 6281 clinical cases from 1966 to 2001. Clin Infect Dis, 37 (Suppl 3), S188–S224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Stone, E.A., Fung, H.B. and Kirschenbaum, H.L., (2002), Caspofungin: an echinocandin antifungal agent. Clin Ther, 24, 351–377; discussion 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sugar, A.M., Hitchcock, C.A., Troke, P.F. and Picard, M., (1995), Combination therapy of murine invasive candidiasis with fluconazole and amphotericin B. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 39, 598–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Swoboda, S.M., Merz, W.G. and Lipsetta, P.A., (2003), Candidemia: the impact of antifungal prophylaxis in a surgical intensive care unit. Surg Infect (Larchmt), 4, 345–354.Google Scholar
  276. Takakura, S., Fujihara, N., Saito, T., Kudo, T., Iinuma, Y. and Ichiyama, S., (2004), National surveillance of species distribution in blood isolates of Candida species in Japan and their susceptibility to six antifungal agents including voriconazole and micafungin. J Antimicrob Chemother, 53, 283–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Thompson, J.R., Douglas, C.M., Li, W., Jue, C.K., Pramanik, B., Yuan, X., Rude, T.H., Toffaletti, D.L., Perfect, J.R. and Kurtz, M., (1999), A glucan synthase FKS1 homolog in Cryptococcus neoformans is single copy and encodes an essential function. J Bacteriol, 181, 444–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Tritz, D.M. and Woods, G.L., (1993), Fatal disseminated infection with Aspergillus terreus in immunocompromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis, 16, 118–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. van Burik, J.A., Ratanatharathorn, V., Stepan, D.E., Miller, C.B., Lipton, J.H., Vesole, D.H., Bunin, N., Wall, D.A., Hiemenz, J.W., Satoi, Y., Lee, J.M. and Walsh, T.J., (2004), Micafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections during neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis, 39, 1407–1416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Vanden Bossche, H., Koymans, L. and Moereels, H., (1995), P450 inhibitors of use in medical treatment: focus on mechanisms of action. Pharmacol Ther, 67, 79–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Vanden Bossche, H., Marichal, P. and Odds, F.C., (1994), Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in fungi. Trends Microbiol, 2, 393–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Vazquez, J.A., Lynch, M., Boikov, D. and Sobel, J.D., (1997), In vitro activity of a new pneumocandin antifungal, L-743,872, against azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1612–1614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Venkateswarlu, K., Denning, D.W., Manning, N.J. and Kelly, S.L., (1996), Reduced accumulation of drug in Candida krusei accounts for itraconazole resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 40, 2443–2446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Venkateswarlu, K., Taylor, M., Manning, N.J., Rinaldi, M.G. and Kelly, S.L., (1997), Fluconazole tolerance in clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 748–751.Google Scholar
  285. Vigouroux, S., Morin, O., Moreau, P., Mechinaud, F., Morineau, N., Mahe, B., Chevallier, P., Guillaume, T., Dubruille, V., Harousseau, J.L. and Milpied, N., (2005), Zygomycosis after prolonged use of voriconazole in immunocompromised patients with hematologic disease: attention required. Clin Infect Dis, 40, e35–e37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Viudes, A., Peman, J., Canton, E., Salavert, M., Ubeda, P., Lopez-Ribot, J.L. and Gobernado, M., (2002), Two cases of fungemia due to Candida lusitaniae and a literature review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 21, 294–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Vonk, A.G., Netea, M.G., Denecker, N.E., Verschueren, I.C., van der Meer, J.W. and Kullberg, B.J., (1998), Modulation of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance by amphotericin B. J Antimicrob Chemother, 42, 469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Walsh, T.J., Teppler, H., Donowitz, G.R., Maertens, J.A., Baden, L.R., Dmoszynska, A., Cornely, O.A., Bourque, M.R., Lupinacci, R.J., Sable, C.A. and dePauw, B.E., (2004), Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. N Engl J Med, 351, 1391–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Warnock, D.W., Burke, J., Cope, N.J., Johnson, E.M., von Fraunhofer, N.A. and Williams, E.W., (1988), Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata. Lancet, 2, 1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Warnock, D.W., Johnson, E.M. and Rogers, T.R., (1998), Multi-centre evaluation of the Etest method for antifungal drug susceptibility testing of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. BSAC Working Party on Antifungal Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother, 42, 321–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Wheat, J., Marichal, P., Vanden Bossche, H., Le Monte, A. and Connolly, P., (1997), Hypothesis on the mechanism of resistance to fluconazole in Histoplasma capsulatum . Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 410–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Whelan, W.L., (1987), The genetic basis of resistance to 5-fluorocytosine in Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Crit Rev Microbiol, 15, 45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Whelan, W.L. and Kerridge, D., (1984), Decreased activity of UMP pyrophosphorylase associated with resistance to 5-fluorocytosine in Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 26, 570–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. White, M.H., (1998), Fluconazole and the changing epidemiology of candidemia. Clin Infect Dis, 27, 233–234.Google Scholar
  295. White, T.C., (1997), Increased mRNA levels of ERG16, CDR, and MDR1 correlate with increases in azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 41, 1482–1487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. White, T.C., Holleman, S., Dy, F., Mirels, L.F. and Stevens, D.A., (2002), Resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 46, 1704–1713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. White, T.C., Marr, K.A. and Bowden, R.A., (1998), Clinical, cellular, and molecular factors that contribute to antifungal drug resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev, 11, 382–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. White, T.C., Pfaller, M.A., Rinaldi, M.G., Smith, J. and Redding, S.W., (1997), Stable azole drug resistance associated with a substrain of Candida albicans from an HIV-infected patient. Oral Dis, 3 (Suppl 1), S102–S109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Wingard, J.R., (2004), Design issues in a prospective randomized double-blinded trial of prophylaxis with fluconazole versus voriconazole after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis, 39 (Suppl 4), S176–S180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Wingard, J.R., Merz, W.G., Rinaldi, M.G., Johnson, T.R., Karp, J.E. and Saral, R., (1991), Increase in Candida krusei infection among patients with bone marrow transplantation and neutropenia treated prophylactically with fluconazole. N Engl J Med, 325, 1274–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Wingard, J.R., Merz, W.G., Rinaldi, M.G., Miller, C.B., Karp, J.E. and Saral, R., (1993), Association of Torulopsis glabrata infections with fluconazole prophylaxis in neutropenic bone marrow transplant patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 37, 1847–1849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Xiao, L., Madison, V., Chau, A.S., Loebenberg, D., Palermo, R.E. and McNicholas, P.M., (2004), Three-dimensional models of wild-type and mutated forms of cytochrome P450 14alpha-sterol demethylases from Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans provide insights into posaconazole binding. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 48, 568–574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Yoder, B.A., Sutton, D.A., Winter, V. and Coalson, J.J., (2004), Resistant Candida parapsilosis associated with long term fluconazole prophylaxis in an animal model. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 23, 687–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Zaoutis, T.E., Foraker, E., McGowan, K.L., Mortensen, J., Campos, J., Walsh, T.J. and Klein, J.D., (2005), Antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from pediatric patients: a survey of 4 children’s hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 52, 295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beth A. Arthington-Skaggs
  • John H. Rex

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations