Advertisement

Lipids, Oxidation, and Cardiovascular Disease

  • Myron D. Gross

Blood cholesterol and LDL levels are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and, in particular, coronary heart disease. In recent years, the role of LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary heart disease, has been studied extensively. These studies have highlighted the complexity of atherosclerotic processes and identified oxidative damage and inflammation as important components of the process. In addition, the formation and possible involvement of various oxidized lipids in atherosclerosis have been identified by the studies. The oxidized lipids include the products of oxidative enzymes, located in the vasculature, as well as nonspecific oxidation products. Many of these lipids have been found in atherosclerotic plaque and have potent bioactivities. Moreover, these oxidation products and, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, have been linked with cellular signaling pathways that can influence the development of atherosclerosis.

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Coronary Heart Disease National Cholesterol Education Program Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Association AH. 1999 Heart and Stroke: Statistical Update. American Heart Association, 1999.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Institute NHLaB. Morbidity and Mortality Chartbook on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases. Washington: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    National Heart LaBI. NHLBI Fact Book, Fiscal Year 1990. Washington: US Department of Health and Human Services, 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gordon T, Kannel WB. Premature Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease. The Framingham Study. JAMA 1971;215(10):1617–1625.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thom T, Kannel WB, Silbershatz H, et al. Cardiovascular diseases in the U.S. and preventive approaches. In: Fuster V, O’Rourke RA (Eds). Hurst’s the Heart. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001;pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Statistics NCfH. Vital Statistics of the United States. Vol. II, Mortality Part A, 1991. Hyattsville, MD: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1988.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease. Lancet, 1999;353(9147):89–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kannel WB, Prevalence, incidence, and mortality of coronary heart disease. In: Fuster EJTV, Nabel EG (Eds). Atherothrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease, Chapter 2, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Statistics, NCH. Deaths of Hispanic Origin, 15 Reporting States, 1979–1981. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 20 No. 18, DHHS Publication No. (PHS), 1990;pp. 91–1855.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Windaus A, Ober. den gehalt normaler und atheromatoser aorten an cholesterjn und cholesterinestern. Zeitschr Physiol Chem 1910;67:174–176.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vartiainen I, Kanerva K. Arteriosclerosis and wartime. Ann Med Inntern Fenn 1947;36: 748–758.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malmros H. The relation of nutrition to health: a statistical study of the effect of the wartime on arteriosclerosis, cardiosclerosis, tuberculosis. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1950;246:137–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cui Y, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(11):1413–1419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106(25):3143–3421.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carleton RA. et al. Report of the expert panel on population strategies for blood cholesterol reduction. A statement from the National Cholesterol Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. Circulation 1991;83(6): 2154–2232.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosenfeld L. Lipoprotein analysis. Early methods in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1989;113(10):1101–1110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    EVALUATION of serum lipoprotein and cholesterol measurements as predictors of clinical complications of atherosclerosis; report of a cooperative study of lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Circulation 1956;14(4 Part 2):691–742.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sharrett AR. et al. Coronary heart disease prediction from lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins A-I and B, and HDL density subfractions: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Circulation 2001;104(10):1108–1113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dahlen G, Berg K, Frick MH. Lp(a) lipoprotein/pre-beta1-lipoprotein, serum lipids and atherosclerotic disease. Clin Genet 1976;9(6):558–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McLean JW, et al. cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen. Nature 1987;330(6144):132–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Howard GC, Pizzo SV. Lipoprotein(a) and its role in atherothrombotic disease. Lab Invest 1993;69(4):373–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grundy SM, Small LDL. atherogenic dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. Circulation 1997;95(1):1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coresh J, Kwiterovich PO. Jr, Small dense low-density lipoprotein particles and coronary heart disease risk: A clear association with uncertain implications. JAMA 1996;276(11): 914–915.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3(2):213–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mensink RP. Effects of the individual saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(5 Suppl):711S–714S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Katan MB, Zock PL, Mensink RP. Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60(6 Suppl):1017S–1022S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mattson FH, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. J Lipid Res 1985;26(2):194–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spady DK, Dietschy JM. Dietary saturated triacylglycerols suppress hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor activity in the hamster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82(13): 4526–4530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Keys A, Parlin RW. Serum cholesterol response to changes in dietary lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1966;19(3):175–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Denke MA, Grundy SM. Comparison of effects of lauric acid and palmitic acid on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56(5):895–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cater NB, Heller HJ, Denke MA. Comparison of the effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols, palm oil, and high oleic acid sunflower oil on plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65(1):41–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bonanome A, Grundy SM. Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. N Engl J Med 1988;318(19):1244–1248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Denke MA, Grundy SM. Effects of fats high in stearic acid on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54(6):1036–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hegsted DM. et al. Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1965;17(5):281–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. N Engl J Med 1990;323(7):439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carroll KK, Khor HT. Effects of level and type of dietary fat on incidence of mammary tumors induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(m) anthracene. Lipids 1971;6(6):415–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weyman C, et al. Letter: linoleic acid as an immunosuppressive agent. Lancet 1975; 2(7923):33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jackson RL, et al. Influence of polyunsaturated and saturated fats on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39(4):589–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grundy SM. Effects of polyunsaturated fats on lipid metabolism in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Invest 1975;55(2):269–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parthasarathy S, et al. Low density lipoprotein rich in oleic acid is protected against oxidative modification: implications for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87(10):3894–3898.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sanders TA, et al. Triglyceride-lowering effect of marine polyunsaturates in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Arteriosclerosis 1985;5(5):459–465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams KJ, Tabas I. The response-to-retention hypothesis of early atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995;15(5):551–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gross M, et al. Plasma F2-isoprostanes and coronary artery calcification: the CARDIA Study. Clin Chem 2005;51(1):125–131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ridker PM, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH. C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 1998;97(20):2007–2011.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Steinberg D, et al. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med 1989;320(14):915–924.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ross R. Atherosclerosis–an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999;340(2):115–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldstein JL. Familial hypercholesterolemia. In: CS Scriver. (Ed). The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease, 7th edn. New York: McGraw-Hill Health Profession Division, 1995.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Steinberg D, Lewis A. Conner memorial lecture. oxidative modification of LDL and atherogenesis. Circulation 1997;95(4):1062–1071.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Parthasarathy S, et al. Macrophage oxidation of low density lipoprotein generates a modified form recognized by the scavenger receptor. Arteriosclerosis 1986;6(5):505–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Parthasarathy S, et al. Oxidative modification of beta-very low density lipoprotein. Potential role in monocyte recruitment and foam cell formation. Arteriosclerosis 1989;9(3):398–404.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berliner J. Introduction. Lipid oxidation products and atherosclerosis. Vascul Pharmacol 2002;38(4):187–191.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gaut JP, Heinecke JW. Mechanisms for oxidizing low-density lipoprotein. Insights from patterns of oxidation products in the artery wall and from mouse models of atherosclerosis. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2001;11(3–4):103–112.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bey EA, Cathcart MK. In vitro knockout of human p47phox blocks superoxide anion production and LDL oxidation by activated human monocytes. J Lipid Res 2000;41(3):489–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schultz D, Harrison DG. Quest for fire: seeking the source of pathogenic oxygen radicals in atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20(6):1412–1413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bjorkhem I, Diczfalusy U, Lutjohann D. Removal of cholesterol from extrahepatic sources by oxidative mechanisms. Curr Opin Lipidol 1999;10(2):161–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hulten LM, et al. Oxysterols present in atherosclerotic tissue decrease the expression of lipoprotein lipase messenger RNA in human monocyte-derived macrophages. J Clin Invest 1996;97(2):461–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pratico D, et al. Localization of distinct F2-isoprostanes in human atherosclerotic lesions. J Clin Invest 1997;100(8):2028–2034.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Huber J, et al. Oxidized membrane vesicles and blebs from apoptotic cells contain biologically active oxidized phospholipids that induce monocyte-endothelial interactions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002;22(1):101–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Subbanagounder G, et al. Epoxyisoprostane and epoxycyclopentenone phospholipids regulate monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-8 synthesis. Formation of these oxidized phospholipids in response to interleukin-1beta. J Biol Chem 2002;277(9): 7271–7281.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Berliner JA, et al. Evidence for a role of phospholipid oxidation products in atherogenesis. Trends Cardiovasc Med 2001;11(3–4):142–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Leitinger N. Oxidized phospholipids as modulators of inflammation in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 2003;14(5):421–430.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mackness MI, et al. Paraoxonase and coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 1998;9(4): 319–324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yamada Y, et al. Correlations between plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity and PAF-AH genotype, age, and atherosclerosis in a Japanese population. Atherosclerosis 2000;150(1):209–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Camitta MG, et al. Cyclooxygenase-1 and −2 knockout mice demonstrate increased cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury but are protected by acute preconditioning. Circulation 2001;104(20):2453–2458.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Berliner JA, Watson AD. A role for oxidized phospholipids in atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 2005;353(1):9–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pratico D, et al. Acceleration of atherogenesis by COX-1-dependent prostanoid formation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98(6):3358–3363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Miller SB. Prostaglandins in health and disease: an overview. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2006;36(1):37–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jala VR, Haribabu B. Leukotrienes and atherosclerosis: new roles for old mediators. Trends Immunol 2004;25(6):315–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Khan Z, Tripathi CD. Leukotrienes and atherosclerosis. Indian Heart J 2005;57(2):175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Reape TJ, Groot PH. Chemokines and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1999;147(2):213–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Suzuki H, et al. A role for macrophage scavenger receptors in atherosclerosis and susceptibility to infection. Nature 1997;386(6622):292–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Febbraio M, et al. Targeted disruption of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. J Clin Invest 2000;105(8):1049–1056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Podrez EA, et al. Identification of a novel family of oxidized phospholipids that serve as ligands for the macrophage scavenger receptor CD36. J Biol Chem 2002;277(41): 38503–38516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chai YC, et al. Smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by oxidized LDL-borne lysophosphatidylcholine. Evidence for FGF-2 release from cells not extracellular matrix. Vascul Pharmacol 2002;38(4):229–237.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kadl A, et al. Analysis of inflammatory gene induction by oxidized phospholipids in vivo by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in comparison with effects of LPS. Vascul Pharmacol 2002;38(4):219–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tselepis AD, John Chapman M. Inflammation, bioactive lipids and atherosclerosis: potential roles of a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase. Atheroscler Suppl 2002;3(4):57–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ares MP, et al. Oxidized LDL induces transcription factor activator protein-1 but inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995;15(10):1584–1590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nagy L, et al. Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPARgamma. Cell 1998;93(2):229–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Stafforini DM, et al. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolases. J Biol Chem 1997;272(29):17895–17898.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ahmed Z, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I promotes the formation of phosphatidylcholine core aldehydes that are hydrolyzed by paraoxonase (PON-1) during high density lipoprotein oxidation with a peroxynitrite donor. J Biol Chem 2001;276(27):24473–24481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tsimikas S, et al. Oxidized phospholipids, Lp(a) lipoprotein, and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2005;353(1):46–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tsimikas S, et al. Increased plasma oxidized phospholipid:apolipoprotein B-100 ratio with concomitant depletion of oxidized phospholipids from atherosclerotic lesions after dietary lipid-lowering: a potential biomarker of early atherosclerosis regression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007;27(1):175–181.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Beer SM, et al. Glutaredoxin 2 catalyzes the reversible oxidation and glutathionylation of mitochondrial membrane thiol proteins: implications for mitochondrial redox regulation and antioxidant DEFENSE. J Biol Chem 2004;279(46):47939–47951.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Teshima Y, et al. Uncoupling protein-2 overexpression inhibits mitochondrial death pathway in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res 2003;93(3):192–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Blanc J, et al. Protective role of uncoupling protein 2 in atherosclerosis. Circulation 2003;107(3):388–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Echtay KS, et al. Superoxide activates mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 from the matrix side. Studies using targeted antioxidants. J Biol Chem 2002;277(49):47129–47135.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Go YM, et al. Evidence for peroxynitrite as a signaling molecule in flow-dependent activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Am J Physiol 1999;277(4 Pt 2):H1647–H1653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nelson KK, Melendez JA. Mitochondrial redox control of matrix metalloproteinases. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;37(6):768–784.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fries DM, et al. Expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase and intracellular protein tyrosine nitration in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of reactive oxygen species. J Biol Chem 2003;278(25):22901–22907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Herrera B, et al. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor (beta) in fetal hepatocytes. FASEB J 2001;15(3):741–751.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Krieg T, et al. Mitochondrial ROS generation following acetylcholine-induced EGF receptor transactivation requires metalloproteinase cleavage of proHB-EGF. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2004;36(3):435–443.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kimura S, et al. Role of NAD(P) H oxidase- and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in cardioprotection of ischemic reperfusion injury by angiotensin II. Hypertension 2005;45(5):860–866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Goossens V, et al. Redox regulation of TNF signaling. Biofactors 1999;10(2–3):145–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gurgul E, et al. Mitochondrial catalase overexpression protects insulin-producing cells against toxicity of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines. Diabetes 2004;53(9):2271–2280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chen K, et al. Mitochondrial function is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced growth factor receptor transactivation and downstream signaling. J Biol Chem 2004;279(33):35079–35086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stocker R, Keaney JF, Jr. Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev 2004;84(4):1381–1478.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ishikawa K, Maruyama Y. Heme oxygenase as an intrinsic defense system in vascular wall: implication against atherogenesis. J Atheroscler Thromb 2001;8(3):63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Moellering DR, et al. Induction of glutathione synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl phosphatidylcholine: protection against quinone-mediated oxidative stress. Biochem J 2002;362(Pt 1):51–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Levonen AL, et al. Biphasic effects of 15-deoxy-delta(12, 14)-prostaglandin J(2) on glutathione induction and apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21(11):1846–1851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bea F, et al. Induction of glutathione synthesis in macrophages by oxidized low-density lipoproteins is mediated by consensus antioxidant response elements. Circ Res 2003;92(4):386–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Izzotti A, et al. Increased DNA alterations in atherosclerotic lesions of individuals lacking the GSTM1 genotype. FASEB J 2001;15(3):752–757.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Koide S, et al. Association of polymorphism in glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene with coronary vasomotor dysfunction and myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;41(4):539–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dedoussis GV, et al. Antiatherogenic effect of Pistacia lentiscus via GSH restoration and downregulation of CD36 mRNA expression. Atherosclerosis 2004;174(2):293–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lapenna D, et al. Aortic glutathione metabolic status: time-dependent alterations in fat-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis 2004;173(1):19–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Myron D. Gross
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology and EpidemiologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations