Cryopreservation of Dormant Buds
Dormant vegetative buds from diverse species can be preserved using cryopreservation. Sakai (1960) provided one of the first studies showing that winter twigs of poplar (Populus sieboldi) and willow (Salix koriyanagi) could survive low temperatures if slowly cooled prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen. A later study demonstrated that this simple methodology was also applicable to twigs of several fruit species (Sakai and Nishiyama 1978). With rising interest in the preservation of genetic resources, methodologies were further developed for fruit, nut, forest and ornamental species that can cold acclimate. Although dormant buds from cold hardy herbaceous perennial species might also be useful for cryopreservation, there are few studies, with the exception of garlic, that addressed the use of cryopreservation to preserve dormant buds from herbaceous species. It should also be emphasized that in this chapter, we use the term “dormant” in a broad sense to include buds that are dormant due to either endogenous (endodormancy) or to a variety of environmental conditions (ecodormancy).
The methods for cryopreservation of dormant buds utilize techniques described for other systems, including controlled rate cooling, vitrification, and encapsulation dehydration. The main difference is that a dormant bud is used for these techniques as contrasted to an actively growing shoot tip.
The method used for cryopreservation depends on the species as well as on the cold-hardiness level of the collected material. For example, many apple species are quite cold hardy and nodal sections are used directly for cryopreservation using controlled rate cooling (Forsline et al. 1998; Towill and Bonnart 2005). Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is not as cold hardy and shoot tips excised from dormant buds are cryopreserved by vitrification (Matsumoto et al. 2001). Dormant buds or shoot tips from very coldhardy species, but which are collected in a less cold-acclimated condition, may be processed by vitrification, encapsulation dehydration or encapsulation vitrification methods.
KeywordsCold Acclimation Silver Birch Nodal Section Recovery Medium Plant Vitrification Solution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ai P, Luo Z (2005) Cryopreservation of dormant vegetative buds and genetic stability of regenerated plantlets in persimmon. Acta Hortic 685: 85-92Google Scholar
- Chang Y, Reed BM (1999) Extended cold acclimation and recovery medium alteration improve regrowth of Rubus shoot tips following cryopreservation. CryoLetters 20: 371-376Google Scholar
- Chang Y, Reed BM (2001) Preculture conditions influence cold hardiness and regrowth of Pyrus cordata shoot tips after cryopreservation. HortScience 36: 1329-1333Google Scholar
- Forsline PL, Towill LE, Waddell JW, Stushnoff C, Lamboy WF, McFerson JR (1998) Recovery and longevity of cryopreserved dormant apple buds. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123: 365-370Google Scholar
- Hohtola A (1995) Cryopreservation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Cryopreservation of Plant Germplasm I. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Vol 32 Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 204-214Google Scholar
- Katano M, Ishihara A, Sakai A (1983) Survival of dormant apple shoot tips after immersion in liquid nitrogen. HortScience 18: 707-708Google Scholar
- Lloyd G, McCown B (1980) Commercially feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip culture. Comb Proc Int Plant Prop Soc 30: 421-427Google Scholar
- Matsumoto T, Niino T, Shirata K, Kurahashi T, Matsumoto S, Maki S, Itamura H (2004) Long-term conservation of Diospyros germplasm using dormant buds by a prefreezing method. Plant Biotechnol 21: 229-232Google Scholar
- Niino T. 2000. Cryopreservation of deciduous fruits and mulberry trees. In: Razdan MK; Cocking EC (eds) Conservation of Plant Resources In Vitro. Vol. 2 Application and Limitations. Science Publishers Inc., Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, pp 193-221Google Scholar
- Niino T, Sakai A, Yakuwa H (1992) Cryopreservation of dried shoot tips of mulberry winter buds and subsequent plant regeneration. CryoLetters 13: 51-58Google Scholar
- Oka S, Yakuwa H, Sato K, Niino T (1991) Survival and shoot formation in vitro of pear winter buds cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. HortScience 26: 65-66Google Scholar
- Sakai A (1960) Survival of the twig of woody plants at −196°C. Nature 185: 392-394Google Scholar
- Sakai A, Nishiyama Y (1978) Cryopreservation of winter vegetative buds of hardy fruit trees in liquid nitrogen. HortScience 13: 225-227Google Scholar
- Seufferheld MJ, Stushnoff C, Forsline PL, Terrazas Gonzalez GH (1999) Cryopreservation of cold-tender apple germplasm. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 124: 612-618Google Scholar
- Tyler NJ, Stushnoff C (1988a) The effects of prefreezing and controlled dehydration on cryopreservation of dormant vegetative apple buds. Can J Plant Sci 68: 1163-1166Google Scholar
- Tyler NJ, Stushnoff C (1988b) Dehydration of dormant apple buds at different stages of cold acclimation to induce cryopreservability in different cultivars. Can J Plant Sci 68: 1169-1176Google Scholar