Cryopreservation of Dormant Buds

  • L. E. Towill
  • D. D. Ellis

Dormant vegetative buds from diverse species can be preserved using cryopreservation. Sakai (1960) provided one of the first studies showing that winter twigs of poplar (Populus sieboldi) and willow (Salix koriyanagi) could survive low temperatures if slowly cooled prior to immersion in liquid nitrogen. A later study demonstrated that this simple methodology was also applicable to twigs of several fruit species (Sakai and Nishiyama 1978). With rising interest in the preservation of genetic resources, methodologies were further developed for fruit, nut, forest and ornamental species that can cold acclimate. Although dormant buds from cold hardy herbaceous perennial species might also be useful for cryopreservation, there are few studies, with the exception of garlic, that addressed the use of cryopreservation to preserve dormant buds from herbaceous species. It should also be emphasized that in this chapter, we use the term “dormant” in a broad sense to include buds that are dormant due to either endogenous (endodormancy) or to a variety of environmental conditions (ecodormancy).

The methods for cryopreservation of dormant buds utilize techniques described for other systems, including controlled rate cooling, vitrification, and encapsulation dehydration. The main difference is that a dormant bud is used for these techniques as contrasted to an actively growing shoot tip.

The method used for cryopreservation depends on the species as well as on the cold-hardiness level of the collected material. For example, many apple species are quite cold hardy and nodal sections are used directly for cryopreservation using controlled rate cooling (Forsline et al. 1998; Towill and Bonnart 2005). Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is not as cold hardy and shoot tips excised from dormant buds are cryopreserved by vitrification (Matsumoto et al. 2001). Dormant buds or shoot tips from very coldhardy species, but which are collected in a less cold-acclimated condition, may be processed by vitrification, encapsulation dehydration or encapsulation vitrification methods.


Cold Acclimation Silver Birch Nodal Section Recovery Medium Plant Vitrification Solution 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. E. Towill
    • 1
  • D. D. Ellis
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceNational Center for Genetic Resources PreservationFort CollinsUSA

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