Environmental Stimuli Affecting Expression of the Ysa Type Three Secretion Locus

  • Shirly Mildiner-Earley
  • Virginia L. Miller
  • Kimberly A. Walker
Part of the Advances In Experimental Medicine And Biology book series (AEMB, volume 603)

Yersinia enterocolitica has two type III secretion systems (TTSS): The well characterized Ysc-Yop system and the relatively uncharacterized Ysa-Ysp system. Detection of Ysps in culture supernatants has only been observed in vitro when cultures are grown at low temperature (26°C) and in high salt (290mM NaCl). Previous reports demonstrated that expression from the ysaE promoter was activated by high salt. In this study, we report a new environmental stimulus for ysa gene expression; in the presence of high salt, growth on solid surface stimulates expression 7-fold compared to growth in high salt broth. These new data indicate that, in the presence of salt, solid surface is an extremely robust signal for the Ysa system.


Solid Surface Secretion System Yersinia Enterocolitica Miller Unit Sensor Kinase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Cornelis, G.R. (2002) Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. J. Cell. Biol. 158, 401-408.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Ferrieres, L. and Clarke, D.J. (2003) The RcsC sensor kinase is required for normal biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 and controls the expression of a regulon in response to growth on a solid surface. Mol. Microbiol. 50, 1665-1682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Haller, J.C., Carlson, S., Pederson, K.J. and Pierson, D.E. (2000) A chromosomally encoded type III secretion pathway in Yersinia enterocolitica is important in virulence. Mol. Micro-biol. 36, 1436-1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Matsumoto, H. and Young, G.M. (2006) Proteomic and functional analysis of the suite of Ysp proteins exported by the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B. Mol. Microbiol. 59, 689-706.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Michiels, T., Wattiau, P., Brasseur, R., Ruysschaert, J.M. and Cornelis, G. (1990) Secretion of Yop proteins by Yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58, 2840-2849.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Miller, J., (1992) A Short Course in Bacterial Genetics. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.Google Scholar
  7. Orth, K., Palmer, L.E., Bao, Z.Q., Stewart, S., Rudolph, A.E., Bliska, J.B. and Dixon, J.E. (1999) Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase superfamily by a Yersinia effector. Science 285, 1920-1923.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Stout, V. and Gottesman, S. (1990) RcsB and RcsC: a two-component regulator of capsule synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172, 659-669.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Takeda, S., Fujisawa, Y., Matsubara, M., Aiba, H. and Mizuno, T. (2001) A novel feature of the multistep phosphorelay in Escherichia coli: a revised model of the RcsC --> YojN --> RcsB signalling pathway implicated in capsular synthesis and swarming behaviour. Mol. Microbiol. 40, 440-450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Venecia, K. and Young, G.M. (2005) Environmental regulation and virulence attributes of the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1B. Infect. Immun. 73, 5961-5977.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Walker, K.A. and Miller, V.L. (2004) Regulation of the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica by YsaE/SycB and YsrS/YsrR. J. Bacteriol. 186, 4056-4066.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shirly Mildiner-Earley
    • 1
  • Virginia L. Miller
    • 2
  • Kimberly A. Walker
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular MicrobiologyWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Molecular Microbiology and PediatricsWashington UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations