Advertisement

Quantum Dots for Cancer Imaging

  • Swadeshmukul Santra
  • Debamitra Dutta
Part of the Fundamental Biomedical Technologies book series (FBMT, volume 102)

Abstract

During the last century cancer has slowly advanced to become the leading cause of death for patients below the age of 85 in USA in spite of rapid advances in global cancer research toward the understanding of cancer biology in the past several decades. Early cancer diagnosis, in combination with the precise cancer therapies, could eventually save millions of lives. The diagnosis of cancer at the early stage is therefore extremely important and has been an active research area of great interest in current times.

Nanoparticle technology is an interdisciplinary research area of nanoscale science and technology. An emerging branch of nanoparticle technology is the development of optical-based functional nanoparticles, such as luminescent quantum dots (Qdots), having strong potential to revolutionize nanomedicine research, specifically in the area of optical contrast agent development and their applications in various bioimaging techniques including cancer imaging.

This chapter provides a knowledge-based platform to readers who are interested in learning more about the potential of Qdot nanotechnology for diagnostic cancer imaging (Section 22.1). Our goal is to provide readers (i) the basics of luminescent Qdots, (ii) details of Qdot design, synthesis, and bioconjugate chemistries to target cancers (Section 22.2), and (iii) applications of Qdot technology in cancer imaging (Section 22.3) that include a brief description of the benefits, challenges, limitations, and the future scope of Qdot technology in both in vitro and in vivo cancer imaging applications. Finally, Section 22.4 provides concluding remarks and the perspectives of Qdot-based optical imaging of cancers.

Keywords

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Cancer Imaging Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping CdSe Nanocrystals Bioconjugate Chemistry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akerman, M.E., Chan, W.C.W., Laakkonen, P., Bhatia, S.N., Ruoslahti, E., 2002. Nanocrystal targeting in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 12617–12621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alivisatos, A.P., Gu, W.W., Larabell, C., 2005. Quantum dots as cellular probes. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 7, 55–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Cancer Society, 2005. Cancer Facts and Figures 2005. American Cancer Society, and Atlanta, p. 1.Google Scholar
  4. Artemyev, M.V., Gaponenko, S.V., Germanenko, I.N., Kapitonov, A.M., 1995. Irreversible photochemical spectral hole-burning in quantum-sized CdS nanocrystals embedded in a polymeric film. Chem Phys Lett 243, 450–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, R.E., Nie, S.M., 2003. Alloyed semiconductor quantum dots: tuning the optical properties without changing the particle size. J Am Chem Soc 125, 7100–7106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballou, B., Lagerholm, B.C., Ernst, L.A., Bruchez, M.P., Waggoner, A.S., 2004. Noninvasive imaging of quantum dots in mice. Bioconjug Chem 15, 79–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BenAri, E.T., 2003. Nanoscale quantum dots hold promise for cancer applications. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 502–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bremer, C., Ntziachristos, V., Weissleder, R., 2003. Optical-based molecular imaging: contrast agents and potential medical applications. Eur Radiol 13, 231–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brigger, I., Dubernet, C., Couvreur, P., 2002. Nanoparticles in cancer therapy and diagnosis. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54, 631–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruchez, M., Moronne, M., Gin, P., Weiss, S., Alivisatos, A.P., 1998. Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels. Science 281, 2013–2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan, W.C.W., Maxwell, D.J., Gao, X.H., Bailey, R.E., Han, M.Y., Nie, S.M., 2002. Luminescent quantum dots for multiplexed biological detection and imaging. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13, 40–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chan, W.C.W., Nie, S.M., 1998. Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281, 2016–2018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, F.Q., Gerion, D., 2004. Fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal-peptide conjugates for long-term, nontoxic imaging and nuclear targeting in living cells. Nano Letters 4, 1827–1832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clapp, A.R., Medintz, I.L., Mauro, J.M., Fisher, B.R., Bawendi, M.G., Mattoussi, H., 2004. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between quantum dot donors and dye-labeled protein acceptors. J Am Chem Soc 126, 301–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dabbousi, B.O., RodriguezViejo, J., Mikulec, F.V., Heine, J.R., Mattoussi, H., Ober, R., Jensen, K.F., Bawendi, M.G., 1997. (CdSe)ZnS core-shell quantum dots: Synthesis and characterization of a size series of highly luminescent nanocrystallites. J Phys Chem B 101, 9463–9475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahan, M., Levi, S., Luccardini, C., Rostaing, P., Riveau, B., Triller, A., 2003. Diffusion dynamics of glycine receptors revealed by single-quantum dot tracking. Science 302, 442–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dubertret, B., Skourides, P., Norris, D.J., Noireaux, V., Brivanlou, A.H., Libchaber, A., 2002. In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles. Science 298, 1759–1762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feldhein, D.L., Foss, C.A., (Eds.), 2001. Metal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization & applications, 1st ed. Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  19. Fetcho, J.R., O’Malley, D.M., 1997. Imaging neuronal networks in behaving animals. Curr Opin Neurobiol 7, 832–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gao, X.H., Chan, W.C.W., Nie, S.M., 2002. Quantum-dot nanocrystals for ultrasensitive biological labeling and multicolor optical encoding. J Biomed Opt 7, 532–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gao, X.H., Cui, Y.Y., Levenson, R.M., Chung, L.W.K., Nie, S.M., 2004. In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots. Nat Biotechnol 22, 969–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao, X.H., Nie, S.M., 2003. Molecular profiling of single cells and tissue specimens with quantum dots. Trends Biotechnol 21, 371–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gao, X.H., Yang, L.L., Petros, J.A., Marshal, F.F., Simons, J.W., Nie, S.M., 2005. In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16, 63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerion, D., Pinaud, F., Williams, S.C., Parak, W.J., Zanchet, D., Weiss, S., Alivisatos, A.P., 2001. Synthesis and properties of biocompatible water-soluble silica-coated CdSe/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots. J Phys Chem B 105, 8861–8871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldman, E.R., Anderson, G.P., Tran, P.T., Mattoussi, H., Charles, P.T., Mauro, J.M., 2002a. Conjugation of luminescent quantum dots with antibodies using an engineered adaptor protein to provide new reagents for fluoroimmunoassays. Anal Chem 74, 841–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldman, E.R., Balighian, E.D., Kuno, M.K., Labrenz, S., Tran, P.T., Anderson, G.P., Mauro, J.M., Mattoussi, H., 2002b. Luminescent quantum dot-adaptor protein-antibody conjugates for use in fluoroimmunoassays. Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Research 229, 407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldman, E.R., Balighian, E.D., Mattoussi, H., Kuno, M.K., Mauro, J.M., Tran, P.T., Anderson, G.P., 2002c. Avidin: A natural bridge for quantum dot-antibody conjugates. J Am Chem Soc 124, 6378–6382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gu, H.W., Ho, P.L., Tsang, K.W.T., Wang, L., Xu, B., 2003. Using biofunctional magnetic nanoparticles to capture vancomycin-resistant enterococci and other gram-positive bacteria at ultralow concentration. J Am Chem Soc 125, 15702–15703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gu, H.W., Zheng, R.K., Zhang, X.X., Xu, B., 2004. Facile one-pot synthesis of bifunctional heterodimers of nanoparticles: a conjugate of quantum dot and magnetic nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 126, 5664–5665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guo, W.Z., Li, J.J., Wang, Y.A., Peng, X.G., 2003. Conjugation chemistry and bioapplications of semiconductor box nanocrystals prepared via dendrimer bridging. Chem Mater 15, 3125–3133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hainfeld, J.F., Liu, W.Q., Halsey, C.M.R., Freimuth, P., Powell, R.D., 1999. Ni-NTA-gold clusters target his-tagged proteins. J Struct Biol 127, 185–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hanaki, K., Momo, A., Oku, T., Komoto, A., Maenosono, S., Yamaguchi, Y., Yamamoto, K., 2003. Semiconductor quantum dot/albumin complex is a long-life and highly photostable endosome marker. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 302, 496–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hines, M.A., Guyot-Sionnest, P., 1996. Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-Capped CdSe nanocrystals. J Phys Chem 100, 468–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hong, R., Fischer, N.O., Verma, A., Goodman, C.M., Emrick, T., Rotello, V.M., 2004. Control of protein structure and function through surface recognition by tailored nanoparticle scaffolds. J Am Chem Soc 126, 739–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoshino, A., Hanaki, K., Suzuki, K., Yamamoto, K., 2004. Applications of T-lymphoma labeled with fluorescent quantum dots to cell tracing markers in mouse body. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314, 46–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ishii, D., Kinbara, K., Ishida, Y., Ishii, N., Okochi, M., Yohda, M., Aida, T., 2003. Chaperonin-mediated stabilization and ATP-triggered release of semiconductor nanoparticles. Nature 423, 628–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jaiswal, J.K., Mattoussi, H., Mauro, J.M., Simon, S.M., 2003. Long-term multiple color imaging of live cells using quantum dot bioconjugates. Nat Biotechnol 21, 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jiang, W., Papa, E., Fischer, H., Mardyani, S., Chan, W.C.W., 2004. Semiconductor quantum dots as contrast agents for whole animal imaging. Trends Biotechnol 22, 607–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaul, Z., Yaguchi, T., Kaul, S.C., Hirano, T., Wadhwa, R., Taira, K., 2003. Mortalin imaging in normal and cancer cells with quantum dot immuno-conjugates. Cell Res 13, 503–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim, S., Bawendi, M.G., 2003. Oligomeric Ligands for luminescent and stable nanocrystal quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc 125, 14652–14653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kim, S., Lim, Y.T., Soltesz, E.G., De Grand, A.M., Lee, J., Nakayama, A., Parker, J.A., Mihaljevic, T., Laurence, R.G., Dor, D.M., Cohn, L.H., Bawendi, M.G., Frangioni, J.V., 2004. Near-infrared fluorescent type II quantum dots for sentinel lymph node mapping. Nat Biotechnol 22, 93–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larson, D.R., Zipfel, W.R., Williams, R.M., Clark, S.W., Bruchez, M.P., Wise, F.W., Webb, W.W., 2003. Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo. Science 300, 1434–1436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Leatherdale, C.A., Woo, W.-K., Mikulec, F.V., Bawendi, M.G., 2002. On the absorption cross section of CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots. J Phys Chem B 106, 7619–7622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Licha, K., 2002. Contrast agents for optical imaging. Contrast Agents Ii, pp. 1–29.Google Scholar
  45. Licha, K., Olbrich, C., 2005. Optical imaging in drug discovery and diagnostic applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 57, 1087–1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Licha, K., Riefke, B., Ebert, B., Grotzinger, C., 2002. Cyanine dyes as contrast agents in biomedical optical imaging. Acad Radiol 9, S320–S322.Google Scholar
  47. Lidke, D.S., Nagy, P., Heintzmann, R., Arndt-Jovin, D.J., Post, J.N., Grecco, H.E., Jares-Erijman, E.A., Jovin, T.M., 2004. Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction. Nat Biotechnol 22, 198–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mattheakis, L.C., Dias, J.M., Choi, Y.J., Gong, J., Bruchez, M.P., Liu, J.Q., Wang, E., 2004. Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots. Anal Biochem 327, 200–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mattoussi, H., Mauro, J.M., Goldman, E.R., Anderson, G.P., Sundar, V.C., Mikulec, F.V., Bawendi, M.G., 2000. Self-assembly of CdSe-ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein. J Am Chem Soc 122, 12142–12150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Medintz, I.L., Clapp, A.R., Mattoussi, H., Goldman, E.R., Fisher, B., Mauro, J.M., 2003. Self-assembled nanoscale biosensors based on quantum dot FRET donors. Nat Mater 2, 630–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Medintz,I.L., Konnert,J.H., Clapp,A.R., Stanish,I., Twigg,M.E., Mattoussi,H., Mauro,J.M., Deschamps,J.R., 2004a. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-derived structure of aquantum dot-protein bioconjugat enanoassembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 9612–9617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Medintz, I.L., Trammell, S.A., Mattoussi, H., Mauro, J.M., 2004b. Reversible modulation of quantum dot photoluminescence using a protein-bound photochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer acceptor. J Am Chem Soc 126, 30–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Medintz, I.L., Uyeda, H.T., Goldman, E.R., Mattoussi, H., 2005. Quantum dot bioconjugates for imaging, labelling and sensing. Nat Mater 4, 435–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Michalet, X., Pinaud, F.F., Bentolila, L.A., Tsay, J.M., Doose, S., Li, J.J., Sundaresan, G., Wu, A.M., Gambhir, S.S., Weiss, S., 2005. Quantum dots for live cells, in vivo imaging, and diagnostics. Science 307, 538–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell, G.P., Mirkin, C.A., Letsinger, R.L., 1999. Programmed assembly of DNA functionalized quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc 121, 8122–8123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morgan, N.Y., English, S., Chen, W., Chernomordik, V., Russo, A., Smith, P.D., Gandjbakhche, A., 2005. Real time in vivo non-invasive optical imaging using near-infrared fluorescent quantum dots. Acad Radiol 12, 313–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Murray, C.B., Kagan, C.R., Bawendi, M.G., 2000. Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse nanocrystals and close-packed nanocrystal assemblies. Annu Rev Mater Sci 30, 545–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Murray, C.B., Norris, D.J., Bawendi, M.G.,1993. Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse CdE (E=S,Se,Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites. J Am Chem Soc 115, 8706–8715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ntziachristos, V., Bremer, C., Weissleder, R., 2003. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging. Eur Radiol 13, 195–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Osaki, F., Kanamori, T., Sando, S., Sera, T., Aoyama, Y., 2004. A quantum dot conjugated sugar ball and its cellular uptake on the size effects of endocytosis in the subviral region. J Am Chem Soc 126, 6520–6521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Parak, W.J., Boudreau, R., Le Gros, M., Gerion, D., Zanchet, D., Micheel, C.M., Williams, S.C., Alivisatos, A.P., Larabell, C., 2002. Cell motility and metastatic potential studies based on quantum dot imaging of phagokinetic tracks. Adv Mater 14, 882–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parak, W.J., Gerion, D., Pellegrino, T., Zanchet, D., Micheel, C., Williams, S.C., Boudreau, R., Le Gros, M.A., Larabell, C.A., Alivisatos, A.P., 2003. Biological applications of colloidal nanocrystals. Nanotechnology 14, R15–R27.Google Scholar
  63. Pellegrino, T., Manna, L., Kudera, S., Liedl, T., Koktysh, D., Rogach, A.L., Keller, S., Radler, J., Natile, G., Parak, W.J., 2004. Hydrophobic nanocrystals coated with an amphiphilic polymer shell: A general route to water soluble nanocrystals. Nano Letters 4, 703–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pellegrino, T., Parak, W.J., Boudreau, R., Le Gros, M.A., Gerion, D., Alivisatos, A.P., Larabell, C.A., 2003. Quantum dot-based cell motility assay. Differentiation 71, 542–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Peng, X.G., Schlamp, M.C., Kadavanich, A.V., Alivisatos, A.P., 1997. Epitaxial growth of highly luminescent CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with photostability and electronic accessibility. J Am Chem Soc 119, 7019–7029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Peng, Z.A., Peng, X.G., 2001. Formation of high-quality CdTe, CdSe, and CdS nanocrystals using CdO as precursor. J Am Chem Soc 123, 183–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pinaud, F., King, D., Moore, H.P., Weiss, S., 2004. Bioactivation and cell targeting of semiconductor CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals with phytochelatin-related peptides. J Am Chem Soc 126, 6115–6123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pinaud, F., Michalet, X., Bentolila, L.A., Tsay, J.M., Doose, S., Li, J.J., Iyer, G., Weiss, S., 2006. Advances in fluorescence imaging with quantum dot bio-probes. Biomaterials 27, 1679–1687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Qu, L., Peng, X., 2002. Control of photoluminescence properties of CdSe nanocrystals in growth. J Am Chem Soc 124, 2049–2055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reiss, P., Bleuse, J., Pron, A., 2002. Highly luminescent CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals of low size dispersion. Nano Letters 2, 781–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosi, N.L., Mirkin, C.A., 2005. Nanostructures in biodiagnostics. Chem Rev 105, 1547–1562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Santra, S., Dutta, D., Walter, G.A., Moudgil, B.M., 2005a. Fluorescent nanoparticle probes for cancer imaging. Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment 4, 593–602.Google Scholar
  73. Santra, S., Xu, J.S., Wang, K.M., Tan, W.H., 2004. Luminescent nanoparticle probes for bioimaging. J Nanosci and Nanotechnol 4, 590–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Santra, S., Yang, H., Stanley, J.T., Holloway, P.H., Moudgil, B.M., Walter, G., Mericle, R.A., 2005b. Rapid and effective labeling of brain tissue using TAT-conjugated CdS: Mn/ZnS quantum dots. Chem Commun, 3144–3146.Google Scholar
  75. Santra, S., Yang, H.S., Holloway, P.H., Stanley, J.T., Mericle, R.A., 2005c. Synthesis of water-dispersible fluorescent, radio-opaque, and paramagnetic CdS : Mn/ZnS quantum dots: A multifunctional probe for bioimaging. J Am Chem Soc 127, 1656–1657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Slocik, J.M., Moore, J.T., Wright, D.W., 2002. Monoclonal antibody recognition of histidine-rich peptide encapsulated nanoclusters. Nano Letters 2, 169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith, A.M., Gao, X.H., Nie, S.M., 2004. Quantum dot nanocrystals for in vivo molecular and cellular imaging. Photochem Photobiol 80, 377–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith, A.M., Ruan, G., Rhyner, M.N., Nie, S.M., 2006. Engineering luminescent quantum dots for In vivo molecular and cellular imaging. Ann Biomed Eng 34, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sokolov, K., Aaron, J., Hsu, B., Nida, D., Gillenwater, A., Follen, M., MacAulay, C., Adler-Storthz, K., Korgel, B., Descour, M., Pasqualini, R., Arap, W., Lam, W., Richards-Kortum, R., 2003. Optical systems for In vivo molecular imaging of cancer. Technology in Cancer Research * Treatment 2, 491–504.Google Scholar
  80. Stroh, M., Zimmer, J.P., Duda, D.G., Levchenko, T.S., Cohen, K.S., Brown, E.B., Scadden, D.T., Torchilin, V.P., Bawendi, M.G., Fukumura, D., Jain, R.K., 2005. Quantum dots spectrally distinguish multiple species within the tumor milieu in vivo. Nat Med 11, 678–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sukhanova, A., Devy, M., Venteo, L., Kaplan, H., Artemyev, M., Oleinikov, V., Klinov, D., Pluot, M., Cohen, J.H.M., Nabiev, I., 2004. Biocompatible fluorescent nanocrystals for immunolabeling of membrane proteins and cells. Anal Biochem 324, 60–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suyver, J.F., Wuister, S.F., Kelly, J.J., Meijerink, A., 2001. Synthesis and photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ZnS : Mn2+. Nano Letters 1, 429–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tsay, J.M., Pflughoefft, M., Bentolila, L.A., Weiss, S., 2004. Hybrid approach to the synthesis of highly luminescent CdTe/ZnS and CdHgTe/ZnS nanocrystals. J Am Chem Soc 126, 1926–1927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Uyeda, H.T., Medintz, I.L., Jaiswal, J.K., Simon, S.M., Mattoussi, H., 2005. Synthesis of compact multidentate ligands to prepare stable hydrophilic quantum dot fluorophores. J Am Chem Soc 127, 3870–3878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Voura, E.B., Jaiswal, J.K., Mattoussi, H., Simon, S.M., 2004. Tracking metastatic tumor cell extravasation with quantum dot nanocrystals and fluorescence emission-scanning microscopy. Nat Med 10, 993–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Winter, J.O., Liu, T.Y., Korgel, B.A., Schmidt, C.E., 2001. Recognition molecule directed interfacing between semiconductor quantum dots and nerve cells. Adv Mater 13, 1673–1677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wu, X.Y., Liu, H.J., Liu, J.Q., Haley, K.N., Treadway, J.A., Larson, J.P., Ge, N.F., Peale, F., Bruchez, M.P., 2003. Immunofluorescent labeling of cancer marker Her2 and other cellular targets with semiconductor quantum dots. Nat Biotechnol 21, 41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Xu, C.J., Xu, K.M., Gu, H.W., Zhong, X.F., Guo, Z.H., Zheng, R.K., Zhang, X.X., Xu, B., 2004. Nitrilotriacetic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles as a general agent to bind histidine-tagged proteins. J Am Chem Soc 126, 3392–3393.Google Scholar
  89. Yager, T.D., Ikegami, R., Rivera-Bennetts, A.K., Zhao, C., Brooker, D., 1997. High-resolution imaging at the cellular and subcellular revels in flattened whole mounts of early zebrafish embryos. Biochemistry and Cell Biology-Biochimie Et Biologie Cellulaire 75, 535–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang, H., Holloway, P.H., 2004. Efficient and photostable ZnS-Passivated CdS : Mn luminescent nanocrystals. Adv Funct Mater 14, 152–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yang, H., Santra, S., Holloway, P.H., 2005. Synthesis and Application of Mn-Doped II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 5, 1364–1375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yang, H.S., Holloway, P.H., Cunningham, G., Schanze, K.S., 2004a. CdS : Mn nanocrystals passivated by ZnS: Synthesis and luminescent properties. J Chem Phys 121, 10233–10240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yang, H.S., Holloway, P.H., Santra, S., 2004b. Water-soluble silica-overcoated CdS: Mn/ZnS semiconductor quantum dots. J Chem Phys 121, 7421–7426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swadeshmukul Santra
  • Debamitra Dutta

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations