Functional Changes of Macrophages Induced by Dimeric Glycosaminylmuramyl Pentapeptide
Under the influence of dimeric glucosaminylmuramyl pentapeptide (diGMPP), a component of bacterial cell wall, macrophages undergo certain changes similar to those associated with dendritic cell (DC) maturation. The effect of diGMPP on DCs resulted in maturation and expression of CD83. Macrophages treated with diGMPP displayed reduced phagocytic activity and elevated ability to kill ingested bacteria. Reduced phagocytosis may be due to phenotypic changes that occur in macrophages during the maturation process, such as reduced expression of receptors that mediate ingesting of microorganisms (CD16, CD64, and CD11b). Down-regulated expression of pattern-recognizing receptors (TLR2, TLR4, and CD206) was accompanied by elevated expression of antigen-presenting (HLA-DR) and costimulating molecules (CD86 and CD40), similar to alterations observed in maturating DCs. In addition, diGMPP treatment of macrophages resulted in enhanced synthesis of IL-12, TNF-α , and IL-1β.
KeywordsDendritic Cell Phagocytic Activity Dendritic Cell Maturation Mycobacterium Bovis Diaminopimelic Acid
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