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Intrathymic Selection: New Insight into Tumor Immunology

  • Dmitry B. Kazansky
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 601)

Abstract

Central tolerance to self-antigens is formed in the thymus where deletion of clones with high affinity to “self” takes place. Expression of peripheral antigens in the thymus has been implicated in T cell tolerance and autoimmunity. During the last years, it has been shown that medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are the unique cell type expressing a diverse range of tissue-specific antigens. Promiscuous gene expression is a cell autonomous property of thymic epithelial cells and is maintained during the entire period of thymic T cell output. The array of promiscuously expressed self-antigens was random and included well-known targets for cancer immunotherapy, such as α -fetoprotein, P1A, tyrosinase, and gp100. Gene expression in normal tissues may result in tolerance of high-avidity cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), leaving behind low-avidity CTL that cannot provide effective immunity against tumors expressing the relevant target antigens. Thus, it may be evident that tumor vaccines that targeted the tumor-associated antigens should be inefficient due to the loss of high-avidity T cell clones capable to be stimulated. Stauss with colleagues have described a strategy to circumvent immunological tolerance that can be used to generate high-avidity CTL against self-proteins, including human tumor-associated antigens. In this strategy, the allorestricted repertoire of T cells from allogenic donor is used as a source of T cell clones with high avidity to tumor antigens of recipient for adoptive immunotherapy. Then, the T cell receptor (TCR) genes isolated from antigen-specific T cells can be exploited as generic therapeutic molecules for antigen-specific immunotherapy.

Keywords

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Central Tolerance Tumor Immunology Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cell Promiscuous Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of CarcinogenesisBlokhin Cancer Research CenterMoscowRussia

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