Normal Cardiac Output, Oxygen Delivery And Oxygen Extraction

  • Christopher B Wolff
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 599)


The total amount of blood flow circulating through the heart, lungs and all the tissues of the body represents the cardiac output. Most individual tissues determine their own flow in proportion to their metabolic rate. The skin is a notable exception where the priority is thermal rather than metabolic. Renal blood flow and metabolic rate are related but plasma flow determines metabolic rate rather than metabolic rate determining blood flow. 1 Brain, heart, skeletal muscle and the splanchnic area all vary their blood flows according to local tissue metabolic rate. Summation of peripheral blood flows constitutes venous return and hence cardiac output. Cardiac output is therefore, largely, determined by the metabolic rate of the peripheral tissues; the heart ‘from a flow standpoint, plays a “permissive” role and does not regulate its own output’. 2 This peripheral tissue, largely metabolic, determination of cardiac output has been known for many years. 3,4


Cardiac Output Metabolic Rate Oxygen Delivery Oxygen Extraction Muscle Blood Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    H.Valtin, Renal Function: Mechanisms Preserving Fluid and Solute Balance in Health and Disease. Ch 6 Renal Hemodynamics and Oxygen Consumption. (Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1973), pp 177-196.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. J. Carlson and V. Johnson, The Machinery of the body, Third edition. (The University of Chicago Press, Chicago,1948).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. D. Green, C. E. Rapela and M. C. Conrad, Resistance (conductance) and capacitance phenomena in terminal vascular beds. In, Handbook of Physiology, Circulation, (Am. Physiol. Soc., Washington D.C, sect. 2, vol. II, chapter. 28, 1963), pp. 935-960.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. C. Guyton, C. E. Jones and T. G. Coleman, Circulatory Physiology: Cardiac Output and its Regulation, (W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C. B. Wolff. Cardiac output, oxygen consumption and muscle oxygen delivery in submaximal exercise: normal and low O 2 states, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 510: 279-284 (2003).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. C. Guyton, Integrated dynamics of the circulation and body fluids. Ch 6, In, Pathologic Physiology: Mechanisms of Disease, edited by W. A. Sodeman and T. M. Sodeman, (W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia and London, 1979), pp 169-197Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. E. Donald and J. T. Shepherd, Initial cardiovascular adjustment to exercise in dogs with chronic cardiac denervation, Am J. Physiol. 207(6), 1325-1329 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. B. Rowell, Human Circulation: Regulation During Physical Stress (OUP Oxford,. 1986).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. B. Rowell, Human Cardiovascular Control (OUP Oxford., 1993).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. D. Koskolou, R. C. Roach, J. A. Calbet, G. Rådegran, and B. Saltin, Cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise with acute anemia in humans, Am. J. Physiol. 273, H1787-H1793 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. C. Roach, M. D. Koskolou, J. A. L. Calbet, and B. Saltin, Arterial O 2 content and tension in regulation of cardiac output and leg blood flow during exercise in humans, Am. J. Physiol. 276, H438-H445 (1999).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. W. Severinghaus, H. Chiodi, E. I. Eger,B. Brandstater, and T. F. Hornbein, Cerebral blood flow in man at high altitude, Circulation Res. 19, 274-282 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. B. Wolff, Cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery at high altitude, High Altitude Medicine and Biology 1(1), 33-38 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. B. Wolff, P. Barry and D. J. Collier, Cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments at altitude sustain cerebral oxygen delivery – Severinghaus revisited, Comp. Bioch. and Physiol. Part A 132, 221-229 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. H. E. Imray, A. W. Wright, C. Chan, A. R. Bradwell and the Birmingham Medical Research and Expeditionary Society (BMRES), 3% carbon dioxide increases cerebral oxygen delivery when breathing hypoxic gas mixtures, High Altitude Med. Biol. 3(1), p106 A31 2002 (abstract).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. H. E. Imray, S. Walsh, T. Clarke, H. Hoar, T. C. Harvey, C. W. M. Chan, P. J. G. Forster and the BMRES, 3% Carbon dioxide increases cerebral oxygen delivery at 150m & 3549m, High Altitude Med. Biol. 3( 1), p 106 A32 ( 2002) (abstract).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. H. E. Imray, H. Hoar, A. D. Wright, A. R. Bradwell C. Chan, and the BMRES, Cerebral oxygen delivery falls with voluntary forced hyperventilation at altitude, High Altitude Med. Biol. 3(1), p106 A33 (2002) (abstract).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. B. Wolff, and C. H. E. Imray, Partitioning of arterial and venous volumes in the brain under hypoxic conditions, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 540,19-23 (2004).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. B. Wolff, N. Richardson, O. Kemp, A. Kuttler, R. McMorrow, N. Hart and C. H. E. Imray, Near infra-red spectroscopy and arterial oxygen extraction at altitude, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 599, 183-187.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. R. Martinez, S. Setty, P. Zong, J.D.Tune and H.F.Downey, Nitric oxide contributes to right coronary vasodilatation during systemic hypoxia, Am. J. Physiol. 288(3), H1139-H1146 (2005).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Folkow and E. Neil, Circulation (Oxford University Press, London, Toronto, 1971).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. A. Guzman, A. E. Rosado and J. A. Kruse, Dopamine-1 receptor stimulation impairs intestinal oxygen utilization during critical hypoperfusion, Am. J. Physiol. 284, H668-H675 (2003).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Krogh, The Anatomy and Physiology of Capillaries (Hafner Publishing Co., New York, 1959).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. McCabe and D. J. Maguire, The measurement of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen through small volumes of viscous solution: implications for the flux of oxygen through tissues, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 467-473 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. R. Duling and R. M. Berne, Longitudinal gradients in periarteriolar oxygen tension. A possible mechanism for the participation of oxygen in local regulation of blood flow, Circulation Res. 27, 669-678 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher B Wolff
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Physiology, Block 9, St Thomas’s Hospital, Lambeth Palace Rd., LondonSE1 7EH, UK and Clinical Pharmacology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts, and The LondonLondon, EC1M 6BQUK

Personalised recommendations