Introduction and Theoretical Foundations
Neuropsychology faces an intimidating and unparalleled challenge in the 21st century. This specific challenge arises out of the need to develop theoretical frameworks and applied methods and instrumentation that are capable of explaining and assessing complex brain-behavior relationships, including cross-cultural constituents and components of such relationships. Considering that many neuropsychological theories and methods emerged out of scientific and applied endeavors conducted with the majority populations in the United States (U.S.) and abroad, particularly Western Europe, neuropsychologists should not presume that such theories, methodologies, or instrumentation are appropriate or valid for populations that differ in key demographic features. Such theories and applied methods may not necessarily apply to all individuals, including Hispanics, as if such a science and applied methods were universal despite diverging cultural or ethnic background (cf. Nell, 2000; Wong, Strickland, Fletcher-Janzen, Ardila, and Reynolds, 2000) and in spite of significant evidence to the contrary (Anger et al., 1993; Ardila et al., 1989, 1994; Irvine and Berry, 1988; LaRue et al., 1999; León-Carrión, 1989; Luria, 1976; Nell, 2000; Olazaran, Jacobs and Stern, 1996; Verney et al., 2005; Wong et al., 2000; Yeats et al., 2002; Zindi, 1994). In fact, variables such as socioeconomic status and extremely complex cultural, ethnic, and linguistic factors most likely moderate and modulate neuropsychological functions.
KeywordsParadigmatic Shift American Psychological Association Language Proficiency Neuropsychological Assessment Hispanic Population
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