Advertisement

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Coal Combustion: Emissions, Analysis, and Toxicology

  • Guijian Liu
  • Zhiyuan Niu
  • Daniel Van Niekerk
  • Jian Xue
  • Liugen Zheng
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 192)

Abstract

Coal is a complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic constituents of allothigenic or authigenic origin. Besides major (>1%) and minor (0.1%–l%) elements in coal, elements such as As, Se, and Hg occur commonly as trace elements (<l,000ppm) associated with both organic (e.g., polyaromatic hydrocarbons, PAhs) and inorganic matter (Swaine 2000; Liu et al. 1999; Finkelman 1995). PAHs in coal are the major source of organic pollution and may become easily accessible during combustion, coking, pyrolysis, and other coal preparation processes to make the coal consistent in quality and suitable for selling.

Keywords

Coal Seam Coal Combustion Atmos Environ Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acevedo S, Antonieta MR, Luis BG, Escobar G (1996) The PMO method for analysis of structural features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons relevant to asphaltenes. Fuel 75(9):1139–1144.Google Scholar
  2. Baek SO, Field RA, Goldstone ME, Kirk PW, Lester JN, Perry R (1991) A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behavior. Water Air Soil Pollut 60(3-4):279–300.Google Scholar
  3. Barbella R, Bertoli C, Ciajolo A, Danna A (1990) Behavior of a fuel oil during the combustion cycle of a direct injection diesel engine. Combust Flame 82(2): 191–198.Google Scholar
  4. Benner BAJ, Wise SA, Currie LA, Klouda GA, Klinedinst DB, Zweidinger RB, Stevens RK, Lewis CW (1995) Distinguishing the contributions of residential wood combustion and mobile source emissions using relative concentrations of dimethylphenanthrene isomers. Environ Sci Technol 29(9):2382–2389.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharyya KK (1971) Role of sorption of water vapor in the spontaneous heating of coal. Fuel 50(4):367–380.Google Scholar
  6. Bjelogrlic N, Kirsi V (1991) Benzo[a]pyrene-globin adducts detected by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry: method development and relating to lung DNA adducts in mice. Carcinogenesis 12(12):2205–2209.Google Scholar
  7. Brooks K, Glasser D (1986) A simplified model of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles. Fuel 65(8):1035–1041.Google Scholar
  8. Bruce CR, Wilkinson BB, Culross CC, Holmes SM, Martinez LE (1997) Hydrogen transfer induced cleavage of biaryl bonds. Energy Fuels 11(1):61–75.Google Scholar
  9. Carcia C, Perez JL, Moreno B (1994) Cloud point preconcentration and high performance liquid Chromatographic determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with fluorescence detection. Anal Chem 66(6):874–881.Google Scholar
  10. Cavalieri E, Rogan E (1985) Role of radical cations in aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect 64:69–84.Google Scholar
  11. Chasey KL, Aczel T (1991) Polycyclic aromatic structure distributions by highresolution mass spectrometry. Energy Fuels 5:386–394.Google Scholar
  12. Chen BH, Hong CJ, Kan HD (2004) Exposures and health outcomes from outdoor air pollutants in China. Toxicology 198:291–300.Google Scholar
  13. Chen CS, Suresh PC, Linda SL (1996) Evaluation of extraction and detection methods for determining polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils. Chemosphere 32(6):1123–1132.Google Scholar
  14. Chen YJ, Bi XH, Mai BX, Sheng GY, Fu JM (2004) Emission characterization of particulate/gaseous phases and size association for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion. Fuel 83(7-8):781–790.Google Scholar
  15. Chen YJ, Sheng GY, Bi XH, Feng YL, Mai BX, Fu JM (2005) Emission factors for carbonaceous particles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential coal combustion in China. Environ Sci Technol 39(6):1861–1867.Google Scholar
  16. Chuang JC, Mack GA, Kuhlman MR, Wilson NK (1991) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor and outdoor air in an eight-home study. Atmos Environ Part B Urban Atmos 25B(3):369–380.Google Scholar
  17. Chuang JC, Wise SA, Cao SR, Judy LM (1992) Chemical characterization of mutagenic fractions of particles from indoor coal combustion: a study of lung cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Environ Sci Technol 26(5):999–1004.Google Scholar
  18. Claessens HA, Rhemrev MM, Wevers JP, Janssen AAJ, Brasse LJ (1991) Comparison of extraction methods for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soot samples. Chromatographia 31(11-12):569–574.Google Scholar
  19. Collier AR, Rhead MM, Trier CJ, Bell MA (1995) Polycyclic aromatic compound profiles from a light-duty direct-injection diesel engine. Fuel 74(3):362–367.Google Scholar
  20. Cooke WF, Liousse C, Cachier H, Feichter J (1999) Construction of a 1° x 1° fossil fuel emission data set for carbonaceous aerosol and implementation and radiative impact in the ECHAM4 model. J Geophys Res 104(D18):22137–22162.Google Scholar
  21. Daisey JM, Spengler JD, Kaarakka P (1989) A comparison of the organic chemical composition of indoor aerosols during wood burning and non-wood burning periods. Environ Int 15(l–6):435–442.Google Scholar
  22. De Vos RH, Van Dokkum W, Schouten AP, De Jong-Berkhout P (1990) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Dutch total diet samples (1984–1986). Food Chem Toxicol 28(4):263–268.Google Scholar
  23. De Wiest F, Rondia D (1976) On the validity of determinations of benzo[a]pyrene in airborne particles in the summer months. Atmos Environ 10(6):487–489.Google Scholar
  24. Dickhut RM, Canuel EA, Gustafson KE, Liu K, Arzayus KM, Walker SE, Edgecombe G (2000) Automotive sources of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matter in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Environ Sci Technol 34(21):4635–4640.Google Scholar
  25. Donaldson K, Beswick PH, Gilmour PS (1996) Free radical activity associated with the surface of particles: a unifying factor in determining biological activity? Toxicol Lett 88(1–3):293–298.Google Scholar
  26. Donaldson K, Li XY, MacNee W (1998) Ultrafine (nanometer) particle mediated lung injury. J Aerosol Sci 29(5/6):553–560.Google Scholar
  27. Dubowsky SD, Wallace LA, Buckley TJ (1999) The contribution of traffic to indoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol 9(4):312–321.Google Scholar
  28. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander HS, Murray CJ (2002) Comparative risk assessment collaborative group of elected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 360:1347–1360.Google Scholar
  29. Fetzer C, Kershaw JR (1995) Identification of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coal tar pitch. Fuel 74(10):1533–1536.Google Scholar
  30. Finkelman RB (1995) Modes of occurence of environmentally sensitive trance elements in coal. In: Swaine DJ, Goodarzi F (eds) Environmental Aspects of Trace Elements in Coal, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 24–50.Google Scholar
  31. Finlayson-Pitts BJ, Pitts JN (1986) Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques. Wiley, & New York, p 12.Google Scholar
  32. Fischer PH, Hoek G, Van Reeuwijk H, Briggs DJ, Lebret E, Van Wijnen JH, Kingham S, Elliott PE (2000) Traffic-related differences in outdoor and indoor concentrations of particles and volatile organic compounds in Amsterdam. Atmos Environ 34(22):3713–3722.Google Scholar
  33. Foth H, Kahl R, Kahl GF (1988) Pharmacokinetics of low doses of benzo[a]pyrene in the rat. Food Chem Toxicol 26:45–51.Google Scholar
  34. Gantner E, Steinert D, Reinhardt J (1985) Raman measurements of tributyl phosphate after adsorption on silver hydrosols. Anal Chem 57(8):1658–1662.Google Scholar
  35. Glatt HR, Oesch F (1987) Species differences in enzymes controlling reactive epoxides. Arch Toxicol (Suppl) 10:111–124.Google Scholar
  36. Godish T (1989) Indoor Air Pollution Control. TD883.1.G63. Lewis, Pearl River, NY.Google Scholar
  37. Gohda H, Hatano H, Hanai T, Miyaji K, Takahashi N, Sun Z, Dong Z, Yu H, Cao T, Albrecht ID (1993) GC and GC-MS analysis of polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans and aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash from coal-burning works. Chemosphere 27(1–2):9–15.Google Scholar
  38. Graslund A, Jernstrom B (1989) DNA-carcinogen interaction: covalent DNA-adducts of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxides studied by biochemical and biophysical techniques. Quant Rev Biophys 22:1–37.Google Scholar
  39. Guilbault GG (1990) Practical Fluorescence, 2nd Ed. Dekker, New York, pp 22–26.Google Scholar
  40. Hageman KJ, Laurent M, Grabanski CB, David JM, Steven BH (1996) Coupled subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction for determining semivolatile organics in environmental solids. Anal Chem 68:3892–3898.Google Scholar
  41. Hall M, Lesley MF, Deborah KP, Grover PL, Roland CW (1989) Relative contribution of various forms of cytochrome P450 to the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene by human liver microsomes. Carcinogenesis 10(10):1815–1821.Google Scholar
  42. Hanson RL, Carpenter RL, Newton GJ, Rothenberg SJ (1979). The human to exposure to PAHs. J Environ Sci Health A14(4):223.Google Scholar
  43. Harrison RM, Smith DJT, Luhana L (1996) Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an urban location in Birmingham, U.K. Environ Sci Technol 30(3):825–832.Google Scholar
  44. Hauser TR, Pattison JN (1972) Analysis of aliphatic fraction of air particulate matter. Environ Sci Technol 6:549–557.Google Scholar
  45. Hayashi J, Kawakami T, Taniguchi T, Kusakabe K, Morooka S, Yumura M (1993) Control of molecular composition of tar by secondary reaction in fluidized-bed pyrolysis of a subbituminous coal. Energy Fuels 7:57–66.Google Scholar
  46. Heaton DM, Bartle KD, Clifford AA, Myers P, King BW (1994) Rapid separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography. Chromatographia 39(9/10):607–611.Google Scholar
  47. Hemminki K (1993) DNA adducts, mutations and cancer. Carcinogenesis 14:2007–2012.Google Scholar
  48. Hershkowitz F, Olmstead WN, Rhodes RP, Rose KD (1983) Molecular mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in nitrogen and hydrogen atmospheres. In: Geochemistry and chemistry of Oil Shales. ACS Symposium Series 230. Acs, Washington, DC, pp 301–316.Google Scholar
  49. Hoffmann D, Wynder EL (1977) In: Air Pollution, 3rd Ed., vol. IL Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Huang YL, Batterman S (2000) Residence location as a measure of environmental exposure: a review of air pollution epidemiology studies. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol 10(1):66–85.Google Scholar
  51. Jacobson MZ (2002) Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming. J Geophys Res 107:4410.Google Scholar
  52. Junk GA, Ford CS (1980) A review of organic emissions from selected combustion processes. Chemosphere 9(4):187–230.Google Scholar
  53. Katagiri AM, Tamura KK, Yamamoto S, Matsumoto M, Li YF, Cao SR, Ji RD, Liang CK (1996) Indoor and outdoor air pollution in Tokyo and Beijing supercities. Atmos Environ 30(5):695–702.Google Scholar
  54. Kavouras IG, Petros K, Manolis T, Evaggelia L, Euripides GS, Dietrich VB (2001) Source Apportionment of urban particulate aliphatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using multivariate methods. Environ Sci Technol 35(11): 2288–2294.Google Scholar
  55. Kingham S, David B, Elliott P, Fischer P, Lebret E (2000) Spatial variations in the concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in indoor and outdoor air in Huddersfield, England. Atmos Environ 34(6):905–916.Google Scholar
  56. Kister J, Pieri N, Alvarez R, Diez MA, Pis JJ (1996) Effects of preheating and oxidation on two bituminous coals assessed by synchronous UV fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy. Energy Fuels 10:948–957.Google Scholar
  57. Knobloch T, Engewald W (1993) Identification of some polar polycyclic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves. J High Resolut Chromatogr 16(4):239–242.Google Scholar
  58. Kovalenko LJ, Maechling CR, Clement SJ, Philippoz JM, Zare RN, Alexander CM (1992) Microscopic organic analysis using two-step laser mass spectrometry: application to meteoritic acid residues. Anal Chem 64:682–690.Google Scholar
  59. Lee ML, Novotny M, Bartle KD (1981) Analytical Chemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Leonhardt E, Stahl R (1998) Decomposition of acenaphthylene by ultrasonic irradiation. Anal Chem 70:1228–1230.Google Scholar
  61. Lewis IC (1982)Thermal polymerization of aromatic hydrocarbons. 18 Carbon (3):191–196.Google Scholar
  62. Li CS, Ro YS (2000) Indoor characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere of Taipei. Atmos Environ 34(4):611–620.Google Scholar
  63. Li CZ, Peter FN (1996) Fate of aromatic ring systems during thermal cracking of tars in a fluidized-bed reactor. Energy Fuels 10(5):1083–1090.Google Scholar
  64. Li CZ, Wu F, Xu B, Kandiyoti R (1995) Characterization of successive time/ temperature-resolved liquefaction extract fractions released from coal in a flowing-solvent reactor. Fuel 74(1):37–45.Google Scholar
  65. Lighty JS, Veranth JM, Sarofim AF (2000) Combustion aerosols: factors governing their size and composition and implications to human health. J Air Waste Manag Associ 50(9):1565–1622.Google Scholar
  66. Linsey MC, Kirchstetter TW, Robert AH (1999) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions. Environ Sci Technol 33(18):3091–3099.Google Scholar
  67. Liu GJ, Zheng LG (2007) Health effects of arsenic, fluorine and selenium from indoor burning of Chinese coal. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 189:89–106.Google Scholar
  68. Liu GJ, Wang GL, Zhang W (1999) Study on Environmental Geochemistry of the Trace and Minor elements in Coal. China University of Mining and Technology Press, Jiangsu.Google Scholar
  69. Liu GJ, Yang PY, Peng ZC, Chou CL (2004a) Petrographical and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou Mining Area, China. J Asian Earth Sci 23(4):491–506.Google Scholar
  70. Liu GJ, Zhang HY, Gao LF, Zheng LG, Peng ZC (2004b) Petrological and mineralogical characterizations and chemical composition of coal ashes from power plants in Yanzhou Mining District, China. Fuel Process Technol 85(15):1635–1646.Google Scholar
  71. Liu KL, Xie W, Zhao ZB, Pan WP, John TR (2000) Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash from fluidized bed combustion systems. Environ Sci Technol 34(11):2273–2279.Google Scholar
  72. Manoli E, Samara C (1996) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in waste waters and sewage sludge: extraction and clean-up for HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection. Chromatographia 43(3/4):135–142.Google Scholar
  73. Mastral AM, Callén MS (2000) A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from energy generation. Environ Sci Technol 34(15):3051–3056.Google Scholar
  74. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Mayoral C, Galbán J (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from fluidized bed combustion of coal. Fuel 74(12):1762–1766.Google Scholar
  75. Mastral AM, Murillo R, PerezSurio MJ, Perez-Surio, Callén MS (1996a) Coal hydrocoprocessing with tires and tire components. Energy Fuels 10(4):941–947.Google Scholar
  76. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Murillo R (1996b) Assessment of PAH emissions as a function of coal combustion variables. Fuel 75(13):1533–1536.Google Scholar
  77. Mastral AM, Callen MS, Murillo R, Mayoral C (1997a) Proceedings, 9th International Conference on Coal Science, Essen, Germany, September, pp 7–12.Google Scholar
  78. Mastral AM, Murillo R, José MP, Mayoral C, Callén M (1997b) Iron-catalyzed coaltire coprocessing: influence on conversion products distribution. Energy Fuels 11(4):813–818.Google Scholar
  79. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Murillo R, Garcia T (1998) Assessment of PAH emissions as a function of coal combustion variables in fluidised bed. 2. Air excess percentage. Fuel 77(13):1513–1516.Google Scholar
  80. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Murillo R, Garcia T (1999a) Influence on PAH emissions of the air flow in AFB coal combustion. Fuel 78(13):1553–1557.Google Scholar
  81. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Murillo R, Garcia T (1999b) Combustion of high calorific value waste material: organic atmospheric pollution. Environ Sci Technol 33(23): 4155–4158.Google Scholar
  82. Mastral AM, Callén MS, Garcia T (1999c) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion. Environ Sci Technol 33(18):3177–3184.Google Scholar
  83. Maximilian Z, Gerd C (1993) A review of the significance of polycyclic aromatic chemistry for pitch science. Fuel 72(9):1281–1285.Google Scholar
  84. McCrillis RC, Watts RR, Warren SH (1992) Effects of operating variables on PAH emissions and mutagenicity of emissions from woodstoves. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 42(5):691–694.Google Scholar
  85. McDonald JD, Barbara Z, Fujita EM, Sagebiel JC, Chow JC, Watson JG (2000) Fine particle and gaseous emission rates from residential wood combustion. Environ Sci Technol 34(11):2080–2091.Google Scholar
  86. Menzie CA, Potocki BB, Santodonato J (1992) Exposure to carcinogenic PAHs in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 26:1278–1284.Google Scholar
  87. Minoia C, Magnaghi S, Micoli G, Fiorentino ML, Turci R, Angeleri S, Berri A (1997) Determination of environmental reference concentration of six PAHs in urban areas (Pavia, Italy). Sci Total Environ 198(1):33–41.Google Scholar
  88. Mitra S, Bonnie R (1995) Patterns and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor air. Atmos Environ 29(22):3345–3356.Google Scholar
  89. Modica R, Fiume M, Guaitani A, Bartosek I (1983) Comparative kinetics of benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and triphenylene in rats after oral administration. I. Study with single compounds. Toxicol Lett 18(1–2):103–109.Google Scholar
  90. Monn C (2001) Exposure assessment of air pollutants: a review on spatial heterogeneity and indoor/outdoor/personal exposure to suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Atmos Environ 35(1):1–32.Google Scholar
  91. Murayama M, Dasgupta PK (1996) Liquid Chromatographie determination of nitrosubstituted polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by sequential electrochemical and fluorescence detection. Anal Chem 68(7):1226–1232.Google Scholar
  92. Naikwadi KP, Karasek FW, Hatano H (1990) Analyses of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and precursors in fly ash samples collected at different points in post-combustion zone of Japanese machida incinerator. J Chromatogr A 511(1):281–290.Google Scholar
  93. Natusch DFS, Wallace JR, Evans CAJ (1974) Toxic trace elements. Preferential concentration in respirable particles, Science 183(4121):202–204.Google Scholar
  94. Nebert DW (1993) Role of the Ah receptor and the dioxin-inducible(Ah) gene battery in toxicity, cancer, and signal transduction. Ann N Y Acade Scie 685:624–640.Google Scholar
  95. Neubert D, Tapken S (1988) Transfer of benzo[a]pyrene into mouse embryos and fetuses. Arch Toxicol 62(2–3):236–239.Google Scholar
  96. Nguyen TKO, Lars BR, Nghiem TD (1999) Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter from domestic combustion of selected fuels. Environ Sci Technol 33(16):2703–2709.Google Scholar
  97. Nguyen TKO, Le HN, Yin LP (2002) Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity, and mutagenicity from domestic cooking using sawdust briquettes, wood, and kerosene. Environ Sci Technol 36(5):833–839.Google Scholar
  98. Ni B (2000) New progress in high-precision and high resolution seismic exploration technology in coal industry of China. Acta Geol Sin 74(2):311–314.Google Scholar
  99. Nie S, Dadoo R, Zare RN (1993) Ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chem 65(24):3571–3575.Google Scholar
  100. Nikolaou K, Masclet P, Mouvier G (1984) Sources and chemical reactivity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere: a critical review. Sci Total Environ 32(2):103–132.Google Scholar
  101. Ondov JM, Zoller WH, Gordon GE (1982) Trace element emissions in aerosols from motor vehicles. Environ Sci Technol 16(6):318–328.Google Scholar
  102. Park JS, Wade TL, Sweet S (2001) Atmospheric distribution, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Atmos Environ 35(19):3241–3249.Google Scholar
  103. Purushothama S, Lioyd EG (1994) PAHs in coals. J Coal Qual 13:77–79.Google Scholar
  104. Purushothama S, Pan WP, Riley JT, Lloyd WG (1998) Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from coal fly ash. Fuel Process Technol 53(3):235–242.Google Scholar
  105. Qian K, Hsu CS (1992) Molecular transformation in hydrotreating processes studied by on-line liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 64:2327–2333.Google Scholar
  106. Reddy AP, Donna PS, Chuan J, Peter G, Lawrence JM (1992) Phosphorus-32-postlabeling analysis of DNA adduction in mouse skin following topical administration of (+)-7, 8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene. Chem Res Toxicol 5(1):26–33.Google Scholar
  107. Ross J, Nelson G, Kligerman A, Erexson G, Bryant M, Earley K, Gupta R, Nesnow S (1990) Formation and persistence of novel benzo(a)pyrene adducts in rat lung, liver, and peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA. Cancer Res 50(8):5088–5094.Google Scholar
  108. Ross J, Nelson G, Erexson G, Kligerman A, Earley K, Gupta R, Nesnow S (1991) DNA adducts in rat lung, liver and peripheral blood lymphocytes produced by i.p. administration of benzo[a]pyrene metabolites and derivatives. Carcinogenesis 12(10):1953–1955.Google Scholar
  109. Schauer JJ, Wolfgang RF, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Glen CR (1996) Source apportionment of airborne particulate matter using organic compounds as tracers. Atmos Environ 30(22):3837–3855.Google Scholar
  110. Schiede E (1970) Stimulatory effect of benzo[alpha]pyrene and phenobarbital pretreatment on the biliary excretion of benzo[alpha]pyrene metabolites in the rat. Cancer Res 30(6):1898–1908.Google Scholar
  111. Shaw GR, Connell DW (1994) Prediction and monitoring the carcinogenicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 135: 1–62.Google Scholar
  112. Simcik MF, Eisenreich SJ, Lioy PJ (1999) Source apportionment and source/sink relationships of PAHs in the coastal atmosphere of Chicago and Lake Michigan. Atmos Environ 33(30):5071–5079.Google Scholar
  113. Smith I (1984) PAH from Coal Utilization Emissions and Effects. Coal Research Report. IEA, London.Google Scholar
  114. Smith KR (1987) Biofuels, Air Pollution, and Health: A Global Review. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  115. Solomon PR, Hamblen DG, Carangelo RM, Serio MA, Deshpande GV (1988) General model of coal devolatilization. Energy Fuels 2(4):405–422.Google Scholar
  116. Spuznar CB (1992) Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals. ANL/EAIS/TM-83. Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division, Argonne, IL.Google Scholar
  117. Stephens DL, McFadden T Jr, Heath DO, Mauldin RF (1994) The effect of sonication on the recovery of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal stack ash surfaces. Chemosphere 28(10):1741–1747.Google Scholar
  118. Sun JD, Wolff RK, George MK, McClellan RO (1984) Lung retention and metabolic fate of inhaled benzo(a)pyrene associated with diesel exhaust particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 73(1):48–59.Google Scholar
  119. Susan KD, Pratim B (1998) Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon particulate and gaseous emissions from polystyrene combustion. Environ Sci Technol 32(15):2301–2307.Google Scholar
  120. Swaine DJ (2000) Why trace elements are important. Fuel Process Technol 65–66: 21–23.Google Scholar
  121. Swartz RC, Schults DW, Ozretich RJ, Lamberson JO, Cole FA, De Witt TH, Redmond MS, Ferraro SP (1995) Σ PAH: a model to predict the toxicity of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in field-collected sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 14(11):1977–1987.Google Scholar
  122. Teschke K, Hertzman C, Van Netten C, Lee E, Morrison B, Cornista A, Lau G, Hundal A (1989) Potential exposure of cooks to airborne mutagens and carcinogens. Environ Res 50(2):296–308.Google Scholar
  123. Tornquist S (1985) Inverstigation of absorption, metabolism, kinetics and DNA-binding of intratracheally administered benzo[a]pyrene in the isolated, perfused rat lung: a comparative study between microcrystalline and particulate adsorbed benzo[a]pyrene. Chem Biol Interact 54:185–198.Google Scholar
  124. USEPA (1997) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 60, subparts D, Da, Db, Dc. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  125. UNEP/GEMS (1991) Urban Air Pollution. Environment Library No. 4. United Nations Environmental Programme, New York.Google Scholar
  126. Van de Wiel JAG, Fijneman PHS, Duijf CMP, Anzion RBM, Theuws JLG, Bos RP (1993) Excretion of benzo[a]pyrene and metabolites in urine and feces of rats: influence of route of administration, sex and long-term ethanol treatment. Toxicology 80(2–3):103–115.Google Scholar
  127. Vayisoglu-Giray ES, Johnson BR, Fere B, Gizir AM, Bartle KD, Clifford AA (1998) Retention behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during supercritical fluid chromatography with 1,1,1,2-tetranuoroethane. Fuel 77(14):1533–1537.Google Scholar
  128. Visser T, Martin S, Leonardus WJ, Jolanda W (1998) Identification of isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in pyrolysates from ethynylated PAH by gas chromatography-Fourier infrared spectroscopy. Their relevance for the understanding of PAH rearrangement and interconversion processes during combustion. Fuel 77:913–920.Google Scholar
  129. Wang X, Xue W, Zhu J, Gu Y, Sheng G, Fu J (1994) Characterization of polynuclear aromatic sulfur heterocycles in a coal extract by GC/MS. J Fuel Chem Technol 22:196–202 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  130. Weyand EH, Bevan DR (1986) Benzo[a]pyrene disposition and metabolism in rats following intratracheal instillation. Cancer Res 46:5655–5661.Google Scholar
  131. Wiersma DA, Roth RA (1983) Total body clearance of circulating benzo[a]pyrene in conscious rats: effect of pretreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and the role of liver and lung. J Pharamacol Exp Ther 226:661–666.Google Scholar
  132. Williams PT, Taylor DT (1993) Aromatization of tyre pyrolysis oil to yield polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Fuel 72(11):1469–1474.Google Scholar
  133. Williams PT, Keith DB, Gordon EA (1986) The relation between polycyclic aromatic compounds in diesel fuels and exhaust particulates. Fuel 65(10):1150R–1158R.Google Scholar
  134. Wilson NK, Kuhlman MR, Chuang JC, Mack GA, Howes JE (1989) A quiet sampler for the collection of semivolatile organic pollutants in indoor air. Environ Sci Technol 23(9):1112–1116.Google Scholar
  135. Wise SA, Schantz MM, Benner BA, Hays MJ, Schiller SB (1995) Certification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a marine sediment standard reference material. Anal Chem 67:1171–1178.Google Scholar
  136. Withey JR (1991) Pharmacokintics and bioavailability of pyrene in the rat. JToxicol Environ Health 32:442–447.Google Scholar
  137. Withey JR, Shedden J, Law FCP, Abedini S (1992) Distribution to the fetus and major organs of the rat following inhalation exposure to pyrene. J Appl Toxicol 12:223–231.Google Scholar
  138. Withey JR, Shedden J, Law FCP, Abedini S (1993) Distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in pregnant rats following inhalation exposure and a comparison with similar data obtained with pyrene. J Appl Toxicol 13(3):193–202.Google Scholar
  139. World Health Organization (WHO) (1987) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In: Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, pp 105–117.Google Scholar
  140. Wolff RK (1989) Effects of repeated inhalation exposures to 1-nitropyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, Ga2O3 particles, and SO2 alone and in combinations on particle clearance, bronchoalveolar laveage fluid composition, and histopathology. J Toxicol Environ Health 27:123–138.Google Scholar
  141. Wolfgang FR, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Glen RC (1991) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 1. Charbroilers and meat cooking operations. Environ Sci Technol 25(6):1112–1125.Google Scholar
  142. Wolfgang FR, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Glen RC (1993) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 5. Natural gas home appliances. Environ Sci Technol 27(13): 2736–2744.Google Scholar
  143. Wolfgang FR, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Glen RC (1997) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 8. Boilers burning no. 2 distillate fuel oil. Environ Sci Technol 31(10):2731–2737.Google Scholar
  144. Wolfgang FR, Hildemann LM, Mazurek MA, Glen RC (1998) Sources of fine organic aerosol. 9. Pine, oak, and synthetic log combustion in residential fireplaces. Environ Sci Technol 32(1):13–22.Google Scholar
  145. Xu XC, Chen CH, Qi HY (2000) Development of coal combustion pollution control for SO2 and NOx in China. Fuel Process Technol 62:153–160.Google Scholar
  146. Xue J, Liu GJ, Niu ZY, Zhang HY (2007) The impact factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extracted from raw coal. Energy Fuels. 21(2):881–890.Google Scholar
  147. Xue J, Liu GJ, Zhang HY, Niu ZY (2006) Research on the impact of PAHs extracted from raw coal in different times. Res Environ Sci 19(5):107–112.Google Scholar
  148. Yelena YN, Steven JE, Barbara JT, Clifford PW, et al. (2002) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor and outdoor air of three cities in the U.S. Environ Sci Technol 36(12):2552–2559.Google Scholar
  149. Yu Y, Gharaibeh A, Hawthorne SB, David JM (1995) Combined temperature/ modifier effects on supercritical CO2 extraction efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples. Anal Chem 67:641–646.Google Scholar
  150. Yue M, Gu X, Zou H, Zhu R, Su W (2003) Killer of health polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Capital Normal Uni 24(3):40–44 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  151. Zander M (1980) Polycyclic aromatic and heteroaromatic hydrocarbons. Handb Environ Chem 3(A):190–131.Google Scholar
  152. Zhang HY, Liu GJ, Xue J (2005a) Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its environmental impact in coal and coal combustion products. J China Coal soc 30(suppl):97–101.Google Scholar
  153. Zhang HY, Liu GJ, Xue J (2005b) The impact on the species, concentration and distribution of PAHs extracted by different solvents from raw coal. Environ Chem 5(24):613–616.Google Scholar
  154. Zhong T, Yang W (2000) Efficient and environment friendly use of coal. Fuel Process Technol 62:137–141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guijian Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zhiyuan Niu
    • 2
  • Daniel Van Niekerk
    • 3
  • Jian Xue
    • 2
  • Liugen Zheng
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth and EnvironmentCASShaanxiChina
  2. 2.CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and Environment, School of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  3. 3.The Energy InstituteThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations