Prevention of Viral Hepatitis

  • Cindy Weinbaum
  • Karen A. Hennessey

On incarceration, all adults lose access to their usual public and private health-care and disease-prevention services. Their health care becomes the sole responsibility of either the correctional system (federal, tribal, state, or local) or, less frequently, the public health system (National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 1993). For the majority of persons, entry into the correctional system provides an opportunity to access health care that they could not access before. However, the rapid turnover of the incarcerated population, especially in jails, and the suboptimal funding of correctional health and prevention services, often limits the correctional system in providing both curative and preventive care. The significance of including incarcerated populations in community-based disease prevention and control strategies is now recognized by public health and correctional professionals (Glaser & Greifinger, 1993; Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 2002). Improved access to medical care and prevention services for incarcerated populations can benefit communities by reducing disease transmission and associated medical costs (Conklin, Lincoln, & Flanigan, 1998; Mast, Williams, Alter, & Margolis, 1998; Silberstein, Coles, Greenberg, Singer, & Voigt, 2000; Kahn, Scholl, Shane, Lemoine, & Farley, 2002; Goldstein et al., 2002). Inmates who participate in health-related programs while incarcerated have lower recidivism rates and are more likely to maintain health-conscious behaviors (Conklin et al., 1998). Finally, because incarcerated persons have a high frequency of infection with hepatitis viruses, community efforts to prevent and control these infections require inclusion of the correctional population (CDC, 1998a, 2005; Fiore, Wasley, & Bell, 2006).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Injection Drug User Correctional Facility Postexposure Prophylaxis Correctional Health 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aach, R.D., Stevens, C.E., Hollinger, F.B., et al. (1991). Hepatitis C virus infection in post-transfusion hepatitis: An analysis with first- and second-generation assays. N Engl J Med, 325, 1325–1329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, S.A., Spaulding, A., Osei, A.M., et al. (2003). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a state correctional facility. Arch Intern Med, 138, 187–190.Google Scholar
  3. Alter, M.J. (1997). Epidemiology of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 26(Suppl. 1), 62S–65S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alter, M.J. (2002). Prevention of spread of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 36(Suppl. 1), S93–S98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alter, M.J., Coleman, P.J., Alexander, W.J., et al. (1989). Importance of heterosexual activity in the transmission of hepatitis B and non-A, non-B hepatitis. JAMA, 262, 1201–1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alter, M.J., Gerety, R., Smallwood, L., et al. (1982). Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis: Frequency and epidemiology in an urban U.S. population. J Infect Dis, 145, 886–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Alter, M.J., Jett, B.W., Polito, A.J., et al. (1991). Analysis of the role of hepatitis C virus in transfusion-associated hepatitis. In F.B. Hollinger, S.M. Lemon, & H.S. Margolis (Eds.), Viral hepatitis and liver disease (pp. 396–402). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  8. Alter, M.J., Kruszon-Moran, D., Nainan, O.V., et al. (1999). The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. N Engl J Med, 341, 556–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alter, M.J., & Seeff, L.B. (2000). Recovery, persistence, and sequelae in hepatitis C virus infection: A perspective on long-term outcome. Semin Liver Dis, 20, 17–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. American Academy of Pediatrics. (1997). Hepatitis B. In G. Peter (Ed.), 1997 red book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases (24th ed., pp. 247–260). Elk Grove Village, IL: Author.Google Scholar
  11. André, F.E. (1989). Summary of safety and efficacy data on a yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Am J Med, 87(Suppl. 3A), 14S–20S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Andrus, J.K., Fleming, D.W., Knox, C., et al. (1989). HIV testing in prisoners: Is mandatory testing mandatory? Am J Public Health, 79, 840–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Armstrong, G.L., Wasley, A., Simard, E.P., McQuillan, G.M., Kuhnert, W.L., & Alter, M.J. (2006). The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med, 144, 705–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2002). Hepatitis C and incarcerated populations: The next wave for correctional health initiatives. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  15. Bader, T. (1983). Hepatitis B carriers in the prison population [Letter]. N Engl J Med, 308, 281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bader, T.F. (1986). Hepatitis B in prisons. Biomed Pharmacother, 40, 248–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baillargeon, J., Wu, H., Kelley, M.J., Grady, J., Linthicum, L., & Dunn, K. (2003). Hepatitis C seroprevalence among newly incarcerated inmates in the Texas correctional system. Public Health, 117, 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bair, R.M., Baillargeon, J.G., Kelly, P.J., et al. (2005). Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection among adolescents in detention. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 159, 1015–1018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barry, M.A., Gleavy, D., Herd, K., Schwingl, P.J., & Werner, B.G. (1990). Prevalence of markers for hepatitis B and hepatitis D in a municipal house of correction. Am J Public Health, 80, 471–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Beasley, R.P. (1988). Hepatitis B virus: The major etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer, 61, 1942–1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Beasley, R.P., Hwang, L.Y., Lin, C.C., & Chien, C.S. (1981). Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus: A prospective study of 22 707 men in Taiwan. Lancet, 2, 1129–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Beasley, R.P., Hwang, L.Y., Stevens, C.E., et al. (1983). Efficacy of hepatitis B immune globulin for prevention of perinatal transmission of the hepatitis B virus carrier state: Final report of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Hepatology, 3, 135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Beck, A.J., & Manuschak, L.M. (2002). Hepatitis testing and treatment in state prisons. Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ191702. 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
  24. Behrendt, C., Kendig, N., Dambita, C., Horman, J., Lawlor, J., & Vlahov, D. (1994). Voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a prison population with a high prevalence of HIV. Am J Epidemiol, 139, 918–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bell, B.P., Kruszon-Moran, D., Shapiro, C.N., Lambert, S.B., McQuillan, G.M., & Margolis, H.S. (2005). Hepatitis A virus infection in the United States: Serologic results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vaccine, 23, 5798–5806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bell, B.P., Shapiro, C.N., Alter, M.J., et al. (1998). The diverse patterns of hepatitis A epidemiology in the United States—Implications for vaccination strategies. J Infect Dis, 78, 1579–1584.Google Scholar
  27. Bernier, R.H., Sampliner, R., Gerety, R., Tabor, E., Hamilton, F., & Nathanson, N. (1982). Hepatitis B infection in households of chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen: Factors associated with prevalence of infection. Am J Epidemiol, 116, 199–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bower, W.A., Nainan, O.V., Han, X., & Margolis, H.S. (2000). Duration of viremia in hepatitis A viral infections. J Infect Dis, 82, 12–17.Google Scholar
  29. Cassidy, W.M., Watson, B., Ioli, V.A., Williams, K., Bird, S., & West, D.J. (2001). A randomized trial of alternative two- and three-dose hepatitis B vaccination regimens in adolescents: Antibody responses, safety, and immunologic memory. Pediatrics, 107, 626–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. CDC. (1998a). Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR, 47(No. RR-19), 1–39.Google Scholar
  31. CDC. (1998b). Hepatitis A vaccination of men who have sex with men—Atlanta, GA. MMWR, 47, 708–711.Google Scholar
  32. CDC. (2001a). Hepatitis B outbreak in a state correctional facility, 2000. MMWR, 50, 529–532.Google Scholar
  33. CDC. (2001b). Recommendations for preventing transmission of infections among chronic hemodialysis patients. MMWR, 50(No. RR-5), 1–43.Google Scholar
  34. CDC. (2001c). Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR, 50(No. RR-11), 1–42.Google Scholar
  35. CDC. (2002a). Guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections among HIV-infected persons—2002: Recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR, 51(No. RR-8), 1–46.Google Scholar
  36. CDC. (2002b). Hepatitis B vaccination among high-risk adolescents and adults—San Diego, California, 1998–2001. MMWR, 51, 618–621.Google Scholar
  37. CDC. (2002c). Substance abuse treatment and public health: Working together to benefit injection drug users. [Fact sheet series]. US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, Academy for Educational Development. Available at
  38. CDC. (2002d). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR, 51(No. RR-6), 1–80.Google Scholar
  39. CDC. (2004a). Transmission of hepatitis B virus in correctional facilities—Georgia, January 1999–June 2002. MMWR, 53, 678–681.Google Scholar
  40. CDC. (2004b). Hepatitis B vaccination of inmates in correctional facilities—Texas, 2000–2002. MMWR, 53, 681–683.Google Scholar
  41. CDC. (2005). A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), part 1: Immunization of infants, children and adolescents. MMWR, 54(No. RR-15), 1–33.Google Scholar
  42. CDC. (2006a). A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States. MMWR, 55(No. RR-16), 1–33.Google Scholar
  43. CDC. (2006b). Hepatitis Surveillance Report No. 61. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  44. Chang, M.H., Chen, C.J., Lai, M.S., et al (1997). Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. Taiwan Childhood Hepatoma Study Group. N Engl J Med, 336, 1855–1859.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Coleman, P., McQuillan, G.M., Moyer, L.A., Lambert, S.B., & Margolis, H.S. (1998). Incidence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States, 1976–1994: Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. J Infect Dis, 178, 954–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Conklin, T.J., Lincoln, T., & Flanigan, T.P. (1998). Public health model to connect correctional health care with communities. Am J Public Health, 88, 1249–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Corey, L., & Holmes, K.K. (1980). Sexual transmission of hepatitis A in homosexual men. N Engl J Med, 302, 435–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Coutinho, R.A., Albrecht-van Lent, P., Lelie, N., Nagelkerke, N., Kuipers, H., & Rijsdijk, T. (1983). Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis A among male homosexuals. Br Med J (Clin Res), 287, 1743–1745.Google Scholar
  49. Crouse, B.J., Nichol, K., Peterson, D.C., & Grimm, M.B. (1994). Hospital-based strategies for improving influenza vaccination rates. J Fam Pract, 38, 258–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Davidson, M., & Krugman, S. (1986). Recombinant yeast hepatitis B vaccine compared with plasma-derived vaccine: Immunogenicity and effect of a booster dose. J Infect, 13(Suppl. A), 31–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Decker, M.D., Vaughn, W.K., Brodie, J.S., Hutcheson, R.H., Jr., & Schaffner, W. (1984). Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B in Tennessee prisoners. J Infect Dis, 150, 450–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Des Jarlais, D.C., Diaz, T., Perlis, T., Vlahov, D., Maslow, C., Latka, M., et al (2003). Variability in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among young injecting drug users in New York City. Am J Epidemiol, 157, 467–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Des Jarlais, D.C., Perlis, T., Arasteh, K., Torian, L.V., Hagan, H., Beatrice, S., et al. (2005). Reductions in hepatitis C virus and HIV infections among injecting drug users in New York City, 1990–2001. AIDS, 19(Suppl. 3), S20–S25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Diaz, T., Des Jarlais, D.C., Vlahov, D., et al. (2001). Factors associated with prevalent hepatitis C: Differences among young adult injection drug users in lower and upper Manhattan, New York City. Am J Public Health, 91, 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Fiore, A.E., Wasley, A., & Bell, B.P. (2006). Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR, 55(No. RR-7), 1–23.Google Scholar
  56. Fried, M.W., Shiffman, M.L., Reddy, K.R., et al. (2002). Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med, 347, 975–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gaiter, J., & Doll, L.S. (1996). Editorial: Improving HIV/AIDS prevention in prisons is good public health policy. Am J Public Health, 86, 1201–1203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gao, B. (2002). Interaction of alcohol and hepatitis viral proteins: Implication in synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and viral hepatitis on liver injury. Alcohol, 27, 69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Garfein, R.S., Doherty, M.C., Monterroso, E.R., Thomas, D.L., Nelson, K.E., & Vlahov, D. (1998). Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among young adult injection drug users. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol, 18(Suppl. 1), S11–S19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Garfein, R.S., Vlahov, D., Galai, N., Doherty, M.C., & Nelson, K.E. (1996). Viral infections in short-term injection drug users: The prevalence of the hepatitis C, hepatitis B, human immunodeficiency, and human T-lymphotropic viruses. Am J Public Health, 86, 655–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Garfein, R.S., Williams, I.T., Monterroso, E.R., Valverde, R., & Swartzendruber, A. (2000). HCV, HBV and HIV infections among young, street-recruited injection drug users (IDUs): The collaborative injection drug users study (CIDUS II) [Abstract 115]. 10th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  62. Gershon, R.R., Karkashian, C.D., Vlahov, D., et al. (1999). Compliance with universal precautions in correctional health care facilities. J Occup Environ Med, 41, 181–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Glanz, K., Saraiya, M., & Wechsler, H. (2002). Guidelines for school programs to prevent skin cancer. MMWR, 51(No. RR-4), 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Glaser, J.B., & Greifinger, R.B. (1993). Correctional health care: A public health opportunity. Ann Intern Med,118, 139–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Glikson, M., Galun, E., Oren, R., Tur-Kaspa, R., & Shouval, D. (1992). Relapsing hepatitis: Review of 14 cases and literature survey. Medicine, 71, 14–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Goldstein, S.T., Alter, M.J., Williams, I.T., et al (2002). Incidence and risk factors for acute hepatitis B in the United States, 1982–1998: Implications for vaccination programs. J Infect Dis, 185, 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hagan, H., McGough, J.P., Thiede, H., Weiss, N.S., Hopkins, S., & Alexander, E.R. (1999). Syringe exchange and risk of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. Am J Epidemiol, 149, 203–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hagan, H., Thiede, H., Weiss, N.S., Hopkins, S.G., Duchin, J.S., & Alexander, E.R. (2001). Sharing of drug preparation equipment as a risk factor for hepatitis C. Am J Public Health, 91, 42–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hahn, J.A., Page-Shafer, K., Lum, P.J., Bourgois, P., Stein, E., Evans, J.L. et al. (2002). Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among young injection drug users: Relationships and risks. J Infect Dis, 186, 1558–1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Heimer, R., Khoshnood, K., Jariwala-Freeman, B., Duncan, B., & Harima, Y. (1996). Hepatitis in used syringes: The limits of sensitivity of techniques to detect hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, and antibodies to HBV core and HCV antigens. J Infect Dis, 173, 997–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hennessey, K.A., Kim, A., Wolf, C., Griffin, V., Tablan, N., Weinbaum, C.W., & Sabin, K. (2006). Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections, and HIV co-infection in three jails. 7th Annual Inside Out Summit, CenterForce, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  72. Henning, K.J., Bell, E., Braun, J., & Barker, N. (1995). A community-wide outbreak of hepatitis A: Risk factors for infection among homosexual and bisexual men. Am J Med, 99, 132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hessl, S.M. (2001). Police and corrections. Occup Med,16, 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoofnagle, J.H. (2006). Hepatitis B—preventable and now treatable. N Engl J Med, 354, 1074–1076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hoxie, N.J., Vergeront, J.M., Frisby, H.R., Pfister, J.R., Golubjatnikov, R., & Davis, J.P. (1990). HIV seroprevalence and the acceptance of voluntary HIV testing among newly incarcerated male prison inmates in Wisconson. Am J Public Health, 80, 1129–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hull, H.F., Lyons, L.H., Mann, J.M., Hadler, S.C., Steece, R., & Skeels, M.R. (1985). Incidence of hepatitis B in the penitentiary of New Mexico. Am J Public Health, 75, 1213–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hutin, Y.J., Bell, B.P., Marshall, K.L., et al. (1999). Identifying target groups for a potential vaccination program during a hepatitis A communitywide outbreak. Am J Public Health, 89, 918–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hutin, Y.J., Sabin, K.M., Hutwagner, L.C., et al. (1999). Multiple modes of hepatitis A virus transmission among methamphetamine users. Am J Epidemiol, 152, 186–192.Google Scholar
  79. Jemmott, J.B., III, Jemmott, L.S., & Fong, G.T. (1992). Reductions in HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among black male adolescents: Effects of an AIDS prevention intervention. Am J Public Health, 82, 372–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jilg, W., & Deinhardt, F. (1986). Results of immunisation with a recombinant yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine. J Infect, 13(Suppl. A), 47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kahn, R.H., Scholl, D.T., Shane, S.M., Lemoine, A.L., & Farley, T.A. (2002). Screening for syphilis in arrestees: Usefulness for community-wide syphilis surveillance and control. Sex Transm Dis, 29, 150–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Katz, M.H., Hsu, L., Wong, E., Liska, S., Anderson, L., & Janssen, R.S. (1997). Seroprevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A infection among young homosexual and bisexual men. J Infect Dis, 175, 1225–1229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaufman, M.L., Faiver, K.L., & Harness, J.K. (1983). Hepatitis B markers among Michigan prisoners [Letter]. Ann Intern Med, 98, 558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kennedy, S., Kuck, S., & Nortan, G. (2006). Testing for infectious disease in prisons and large jails: Results of findings from the 10th NIJ/CDC survey of infectious diseases in correctional facilities. Poster at National Conference on Correctional Health Care, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  85. Khan, A.J., Simard, E.P., Bower, W.A., et al. (2005). Ongoing transmission of hepatitis B virus infection among inmates at a state correctional facility. Am J Public Health, 95, 1793–1799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Khan, A., Simard, E., Wurtzel, H., et al. (2002). The prevalence, risk factors, and incidence of hepatitis B virus infection among inmates in a state correctional facility [Abstract]. Program and abstracts of the 130th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  87. Koester, S.K., & Hoffer, L. (1994). “Indirect sharing”: Additional HIV risks associated with drug injection. AIDS & Public Policy Journal, 9, 100–105.Google Scholar
  88. Koff, R.S., & Dienstag, J.L. (1995). Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C and the association with alcoholic liver disease. Semin Liver Dis, 15, 101–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Koplan, J.P., Walker, J.A., & Bryan, J.A. (1978). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody at a state prison in Kansas. J Infect Dis, 137, 505–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee, W.M. (1997). Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med, 337, 1733–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lofgren, R.P., Paul, J.M., Kefalos, S.G., & Nichol, K.L. (1990). A multifacted influenza vaccination program can be exported successfully to a different clinical site. Clin Res, 38, 864A.Google Scholar
  92. Lok, A.S., & McMahon, B.J. (2001). Chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology, 34, 1225–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. López-Zetina, J., Kerndt, P., Ford, W., Woerhle, T., & Weber, M. (2001). Prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B and self-reported injection risk behavior during detention among street-recruited injection drug users in Los Angeles County, 1994–1996. Addiction, 96, 589–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lorvick, J., Kral, A.H., Seal, K., Gee, L., & Edlin, B.R. (2001). Prevalence and duration of hepatitis C among injection drug users in San Francisco, Calif. Am J Public Health, 91, 46–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Macalino, G.E., Salas, C.M., Towe, C.W., et al. (1999). Incidence and community prevalence of HIV and other blood borne pathogens among incarcerated women in Rhode Island [Abstract]. National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  96. Magura, S., Kang, S.Y., & Shapiro, J.L. (1994). Outcomes of intensive AIDS education for male adolescent drug users in jail. J Adolesc Health, 15, 457–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Margolis, H.S., Alter, M.J., & Hadler, S.C. (1991). Hepatitis B: Evolving epidemiology and implications for control. Semin Liver Dis, 11, 84–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mast, E.E., Williams, I.T., Alter, M.J., & Margolis, H.S. (1998). Hepatitis B vaccination of adolescent and adult high-risk groups in the United States. Vaccine, 16, S27–S29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McMahon, B.J. (1997). Hepatocellular carcinoma and viral hepatitis. In R. A. Willson (Ed.), Viral hepatitis: Diagnosis, treatment, prevention (pp. 315–330). New York: Dekker.Google Scholar
  100. McMahon, B.J., Holck, P., Bulkow, L., & Snowball, M. (2001). Serologic and clinical outcomes of 1536 Alaska Natives chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. Ann Intern Med, 135, 759–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. McQuillan, G.M., Coleman, P., Kruszon-Moran, D., Moyer, L.A., Lambert, S.B., & Margolis, H.S. (1999). Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1976 through 1994. Am J Public Health, 89, 14–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Merkel, P.A., & Caputo, G.C. (1994). Evaluation of a simple office-based strategy for increasing influenza vaccine administration and the effect of differing reimbursement plans on the patient acceptance rate. J Gen Intern Med, 9, 679–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Monto, A., & Wright, T.L. (2001). The epidemiology and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Oncol, 28, 441–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Moran, W.P., Nelson, K., Wofford, J.L., Velez, R., & Case, L.D. (2000). Increasing influenza immunization among high-risk patients: Education or financial incentive? Am J Med, 101, 612–620.Google Scholar
  105. Moses, M., Potter, R.H., Hammett, T., Kennedy, S., & Kuck, S. (2007). National survey of infectious diseases in correctional facilities; hepatitis A, B and C, screening, treatment and education. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
  106. Mumola, C.J., & Karberg, J.C. (2006). Drug use and dependence, state and federal prisoners, 2004. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Publication No. NCJ 213530.Google Scholar
  107. Murrill, C.S., Weeks, H., Castrucci, B.C., et al. (2002). Age-specific seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users admitted to drug treatment in 6 US cities. Am J Public Health, 92, 385–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Nacci, P.L., & Kane, T.R. (1983). The incidence of sex and sexual aggression in federal prisons. Federal Probation, 47, 31–36.Google Scholar
  109. National Commission on Correctional Health Care. Third party reimbursement for correctional health care. Chicago, IL: National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 1993. Available at
  110. National Commission on Correctional Health Care. (2002). Health status of soon-to-be-released inmates: A report to Congress. Vol 1. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  111. National Institutes of Health. (1997). Management of hepatitis C. NIH Consensus Statement, 15, 1–41.Google Scholar
  112. Noell, J., Rohde, P., Ochs, L., et al. (2001). Incidence and prevalence of chlamydia, herpes, and viral hepatitis in a homeless adolescent population. Sex Transm Dis, 28, 4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ockenga, J., Tillmann, H.L., Trautwein, C., Stoll, M., Manns, M.P., & Schmidt, R.E. (1997). Hepatitis B and C in HIV-infected patients: Prevalence and prognostic value. J Hepatol, 27, 18–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Peters, C.J., Purcell, R.H., Lander, J.J., & Johnson, K.M. (1976). Radioimmunoassay for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen shows transmission of hepatitis B virus among household contacts. J Infect Dis, 134, 218–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Pisu, M., Meltzer, M.I., & Lyerla, R. (2002). Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination of prison inmates. Vaccine, 21, 312–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Poynard, T., Bedossa, P., & Opolon, P. (1997). Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Lancet, 349, 825–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rich, J., Holmes, L., Salas, C., et al. (2001). Successful linkage of medical care and community services for HIV-positive offenders being released from prison. J Urban Health, 78, 279–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Rizzetto, M. (1983). The delta agent. Hepatology, 3, 729–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ruiz, J.D., Molitor, F., Sun, R.K., et al. (1999). Prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C virus infection among inmates entering the California correctional system. West J Med, 170, 156–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Samuel, M.C., Doherty, P.M., Bulterys, M., & Jenison, S.A. (2001). Association between heroin use, needle sharing and tattoos received in prison with hepatitis B and C positivity among street-recruited injecting drug users in New Mexico, USA. Epidemiol Infect, 127, 475–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Saum, C.A., Surratt, H., Inciardi, J.A., & Bennett, R.E. (1995). Sex in prison: Exploring the myths and realities. The Prison Journal, 75, 413–430.Google Scholar
  122. Silberstein, G., Coles, F.B., Greenberg, A., Singer, L., & Voigt, R. (2000). Effectiveness and cost-benefit of enhancements to a syphilis screening and treatment program at a county jail. Sex Transm Dis, 27, 508–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Smith, D.A. (1986). Hepatitis B in a general psychiatric hospital [Letter]. N Engl J Med, 314, 1255–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Smith, P.F., Mikl, J., Truman, B.I., et al. (1991). HIV infection among women entering the New York state correctional system. Am J Public Health, 81(Suppl. 1), 35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Snyder, H.N., & Sickmund, M. (2006). Juvenile offenders and victims: 2006 national report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  126. Solomon, L., Flynn, C., Muck, K., & Vertefeuille, J. (2004). Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C among entrants to Maryland correctional facilities. J Urban Health, 81, 25–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Soriano, V., Bravo, R., Garcia-Samaniego, J., et al. (1994). CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in HIV-infected patients receiving interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C. HIV–Hepatitis Spanish Study Group. AIDS, 8, 1621–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Soriano, V., Garcia-Samaniego, J., Bravo, R., et al. (1996). Interferon a for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Hepatitis–HIV Spanish Study Group. Clin Infect Dis, 23, 585–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Spaulding, A., Greene, C., Davidson, K., Schneidermann, M., & Rich, J. (1999). Hepatitis C in state correctional facilities. Prev Med, 28, 92–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Spaulding, A.C., Weinbaum, C.M., Lau, D.T., et al. (2006). A framework for management of hepatitis C in prisons. Ann Intern Med, 144, 762–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Stephan, J.J. (1997). Census of state and federal correctional facilities, 1995. Bureau of Justice Statistics executive summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Publication No. NCJ-166582.Google Scholar
  132. Stephenson, B., Wohl, D., Kiziah, N., et al. (2000). Release from prison is associated with increased HIV RNA at time of re-incarceration [Abstract]. XIII International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa.Google Scholar
  133. Stevens, C.E., Toy, P.T., Tong, M.J., et al. (1985). Perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States: Prevention by passive-active immunization. JAMA, 253, 1740–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Stokes, M.L., Ferson, M.J., & Young, L.C. (1997). Outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexual men in Sydney. Am J Public Health, 87, 2039–2041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Sulkowski, M.S., Mast, E.E., Seeff, L.B., & Thomas, D.L. (2000). Hepatitis C virus infection as an opportunistic disease in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis, 30(Suppl. 1), S77–S84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Tewksbury, R. (1989). Measures of sexual behavior in an Ohio prison. Sociol Soc Res, 74, 34–39.Google Scholar
  137. Thomas, A.R., Keene, W.E., & Cieslak, P.R. (2005). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C in juvenile detention entrants, Oregon, 1994–1996. J Adolesc Health, 37, 410–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Thomas, D.L., Vlahov, D., Solomon, L., Cohn, S., Taylor, E., Garfein, R., et al. (1995). Correlates of hepatitis C virus infections among injection drug users. Medicine (Baltimore), 74, 212–220.Google Scholar
  139. Thorpe, L.E., Ouellet, L.J., Hershow, R., Bailey, S.L., Williams, I.T., Williamson, J., et al. (2002). Risk of hepatitis C virus infection among young adult injection drug users who share injection equipment. Am J Epidemiol, 155, 645–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Thorpe, L.E., Ouellet, L.J., Levy, J.R., Williams, I.T., & Monterroso, E.R. (2000). Hepatitis C virus infection: Prevalence, risk factors, and prevention opportunities among young injection drug users in Chicago, 1997–1999. J Infect Dis, 182, 1588–1594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Tucker, R.M., Gaffey, M.J., Fisch, M.J., Kaiser, D.L., Guerrant, R.L., & Normansell, D.E. (1987). Seroepidemiology of hepatitis D (delta agent) and hepatitis B among Virginia state prisoners. Clin Ther, 9, 622–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Van Beneden, C., Hedberg, K., Zimmerman, P., Gutelius-Johnson, M., Terry, J., & Fleming, D. (1998). Epidemic hepatitis A among illicit drug users in Oregon: Evidence for adult-to-adult transmission [Abstract]. Program and abstracts of the 1st International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. Atlanta: American Society for Microbiology.Google Scholar
  143. Vento, S., Garofano, T., Renzini, C., et al. (1998). Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N Engl J Med, 338, 286–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Vlahov, D., Nelson, K.E., Quinn, T.C., & Kendig, N. (1993). Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among male prison inmates in Maryland. Eur J Epidemiol, 9, 566–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Wasley, A., Samandari, T., & Bell, B.P. (2005). Incidence of hepatitis A in the United States in the era of vaccination. JAMA, 294, 194–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Weinbaum, C., Lyerla, R., & Margolis, H.S. (2003). Prevention and control of infections with hepatitis viruses in correctional settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep, 52, 1–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Williams, I., Boaz, K., Openo, K., et al. (2005). Missed opportunities for hepatitis B vaccination in correctional settings, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, and drug treatment programs. Annual Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  148. Williams, I.T., Fleenor, M., Judson, F., et al. (2000). Risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in the USA: 1991–1998 [Abstract 114]. 10th International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  149. Wilson, D.J. (2000). Drug use, testing, and treatment in jails. Bureau of Justice Statistics special report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Publication No. NCJ 179999.Google Scholar
  150. Zarski, J.P., Bohn, B., Bastie, A., et al. (1998). Characteristics of patients with dual infection by hepatitis B and C viruses. J Hepatol, 28, 27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Zimmerman, S.E., Martin, R., & Vlahov, D. (1991). AIDS knowledge and risk perceptions among Pennsylvania prisoners. J Crim Justice, 19, 239–256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cindy Weinbaum
    • 1
  • Karen A. Hennessey
    • 2
  1. 1.Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Viral HepatitisUS Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations