Treatment and Reentry Approaches for Offenders with Co-occurring Disorders
A number of factors explain the influx of inmates with co-occurring disorders to jails and prisons. These include the closing and “downsizing” of state mental hospitals, adoption of restrictive civil commitment criteria, inadequate access to community support services, widespread availability of relatively cheap and rapidly addicting street drugs, and law enforcement efforts to eliminate drug use and drug-related street crime. Studies examining persons with mental disorders in community settings indicate that having co-occurring disorders increases the risk for community violence and for arrest (Monahan et al., 2001, 2005). Once arrested, persons with co-occurring disorders are more likely to be incarcerated, and once incarcerated, these persons remain in jail significantly longer than other inmates, and are more likely to receive a sentence that involves a period of custody (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2006; Peters, Sherman, & Osher, in press). This chapter explores emerging and innovative approaches for treatment and reentry of offenders who have co-occurring disorders in jails, prisons, and diversion settings. Key areas highlighted in this chapter include evidence-based models of treatment, program features and principles, reentry approaches, and program outcomes. Several challenges to correctional program implementation and funding are also explored, and implications are discussed for policy development and future research.
KeywordsSubstance Abuse Treatment Assertive Community Treatment Drug Court Supplemental Security Income Substance Abuse Service
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bell, A., Jaquette, N., Sanner, D., Steele-Smith, C., & Wald, H. (2005). Treatment of individuals with co-occurring disorders in county jails: The Beaver County, Pennsylvania experience. Corrections Today, 67(3), 86–90.Google Scholar
- Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2006). Special report: Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Conly, C. (1999). Coordinating community services for mentally ill offenders: Maryland’s Community Criminal Justice Treatment Program. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
- Couturier, L., Maue, F., & McVey, C. (2005). Releasing inmates with mental illness and co-occurring disorders into the community. Corrections Today, (April), 82–85.Google Scholar
- Fletcher, B.W. (2005). National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Update and progress. Justice Research and Statistics Association: The Forum, 23(3), 5–7.Google Scholar
- Hills, H.A. (2000). Creating effective treatment programs for persons with co-occurring disorders in the justice system. Delmar, NY: The National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System.Google Scholar
- Koyanagi, C., & Blasingame, K. (2006). Best practices: Access to benefits for prisoners with mental illnesses. A Bazelon Center Issue Brief. Washington, DC: Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law.Google Scholar
- Lipton, L. (2001). Jail program helps inmates avoid health care gap. Psychiatric News, 36(16), 9.Google Scholar
- Monahan, J., Steadman, H., Silver, E., Appelbaum, P., Robbins, P., Mulvey, E., Roth, L., Grisso, T., & Banks, S. (2001). Rethinking risk assessment: The MacArthur study of mental disorder and violence. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System (2002). Maintaining Medicaid benefits for jail detainees with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Fact Sheet Series. Delmar, NY.Google Scholar
- National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System. (2004). The prevalence of co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders in jails. Fact Sheet Series. Delmar, NY.Google Scholar
- National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System. (2006). Targeted Capacity Expansion initiative for jail diversion programs. The National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System: http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/html/tapa/cmhs/overview.asp.
- Ohio Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Coordinating Center of Excellence. (2002). SAMI Matters Newsletter, 1(2), 1–2. Northfield, Ohio.Google Scholar
- Osher, F., Steadman, H.J., & Barr, H. (2002). A best practice approach to community re-entry from jails for inmates with co-occurring disorders: The APIC model. Delmar, NY: The National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System.Google Scholar
- Osher, F.C. (2006). Integrating mental health and substance abuse services for justice-involved persons with co-occurring disorders. Delmar, New York: The National GAINS Center for Systemic Change for Justice-Involved People with Mental Illness.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., & Hills, H.A. (1997). Intervention strategies for offenders with co-occurring disorders: What works? Delmar, NY: The National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., & Matthews, C.O. (2002). Substance abuse treatment programs in prisons and jails. In T.J. Fagan & R.K. Ax (Eds.), Correctional mental health handbook (pp. 73–99). Laurel, MD: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., Matthews, C.O., & Dvoskin, J.A. (2005). Treatment in prisons and jails. In J.H. Lowinson, P. Ruiz, R.B. Millman, & J.G. Langrod (Eds.), Substance abuse: A comprehensive textbook 4th ed., (pp. 707–722). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., & Osher, F. (2004). Co-occurring disorders and specialty courts. Delmar, NY: National GAINS Center for People with Co-Occurring Disorders in the Justice System and the TAPA Center for Jail Diversion.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., Sherman, P.B., & Osher, F.C. (in press). Treatment in jails and prison. In K.T. Mueser & D.V. Jeste (Eds.), Clinical handbook of schizophrenia. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Peters, R.H., & Wexler, H.K. (Eds.). (2005). Substance abuse treatment for adults in the criminal justice system. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 44. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05–4056. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
- Robins, L.N., & Regier, D.A. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Russell, B. (1999). New approaches to the treatment of women with co-occurring disorders in jails. American Jails, March/April, 21–25.Google Scholar
- Sacks, S., & Pearson, F.S. (2003). Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in offenders: Approaches, findings and recommendations. Federal Probation, 67(2), 32–39.Google Scholar
- Sacks, S., & Ries, R.K. (2005) (Eds). Substance abuse treatment for persons with co-occurring disorders. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 42. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3922. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
- Steadman, H. J., Fallon, J., Mireles, P., Williams, K., & Aronson, L. (2005). Establishing collaborations with local jails: An edited transcript of the PATH national teleconference sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA). Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from PATH: Projects for Assistance in Transition from Homelessness: http://www.pathprogram.samhsa.gov/tech_assist/default.asp.
- Steadman, H.J., & Veysey, B.M. (1997). Providing services for jail inmates with mental disorders. National Institute of Justice: Research in Brief, NCJ 162207, 1–10.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Justice (2006). Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program: FY 2006 competitive grant announcement # BJA-2006–1381. Retrieved on November 15, 2006, from Bureau of Justice Assistance Programs: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/BJA/grant/06MIOsol.pdf.
- Walsh, A. (2000). Should jails be messing with mental health or substance abuse? American Jails, 14, 60–66.Google Scholar