Scaling Trends of On-Chip Power Distribution Noise
A scaling analysis of the voltage drop across the on-chip power distribution networks is performed in this chapter. The design of power distribution networks in high performance integrated circuits has become significantly more challenging with recent advances in process technology. Insuring adequate signal integrity of the power supply has become a primary design issue in high performance, high complexity digital integrated circuits. A significant fraction of the on-chip resources is dedicated to achieve this objective.
State-of-the-art circuits consume higher current, operate at higher speeds, and have lower noise tolerance with the introduction of each new technology generation. CMOS technology scaling is forecasted to continue for at least another ten years . The scaling trend of noise in high performance power distribution grids is, therefore, of practical interest. In addition to the constraints on the noise magnitude, electromigration reliability considerations limit the maximum current density in on-chip interconnect. The scaling of the peak current density in power distribution grids is also of practical interest. The results of this scaling analysis depend upon various assumptions. Existing scaling analyses of power distribution noise are reviewed and compared along with any relevant assumptions. The scaling of the inductance of an onchip power distribution network as discussed here extends the existing material presented in the literature. Scaling trends of on-chip power supply noise in ICs packaged in high performance flip-chip packages are the focus of this investigation.
The chapter is organized as follows. Related existing work is reviewed in Section 12.1. The interconnect characteristics assumed in the analysis are discussed in Section 12.2. The model of the on-chip power distribution noise used in the analysis is described in Section 12.3. The scaling of power noise is described in Section 12.4. Implications of the scaling analysis are discussed in Section 12.5. The chapter concludes with a summary.
KeywordsSheet Resistance Power Distribution Technology Node Resistive Noise Technology Scaling
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