Advertisement

Otoacoustic Emissions as a Diagnostic Tool in a Clinical Context

  • Thomas Janssen
  • Jörg Müller
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 30)

Keywords

Otoacoustic Emission Newborn Hearing Screening Auditory Brain Stem Response Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission DPOAE Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdala C (1998) A developmental study of distortion product otoacoustic emission (2f1 − f2) suppression in humans. Hear Res 121:125–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdala C (2000) Distortion product otoacoustic emission 2f 1f 2 amplitude growth in human adults and neonates. J Acoust Soc Am 107:446–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Abdala C (2001) Maturation of the human cochlear amplifier: distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves recorded at low and high primary-tone levels. J Acoust Soc Am 110:1465–1476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Abdala C (2003) A longitudinal study of distortion product otoacoustic emission ipsilateral suppression and input/output characteristics in human neonates. J Acoust Soc Am 114:3239–3250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Abdala C, Chatterjee M (2003) Maturation of cochlear nonlinearity as measured by distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression growth in humans. J Acoust Soc Am 114:932–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Abdala C, Sininger Y, Ekelid M, Zeng FG (1996) Distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves in human adults and neonates. Hear Res 98:38–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Agrama MT, Waxman GM, Stagner BB, Martin GK, Lonsbury-Martin BL (1998) Effects of efferent activation on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in normal humans using ipsilateral acoustic stimulation. Abst Assoc Res Otolaryngol 21:152.Google Scholar
  8. Barker SE, Lesperance MM, Kileny PR (2000) Outcome of newborn hearing screening by ABR compared with four different DPOAE pass criteria. Am J Audiol 9:1–7.Google Scholar
  9. Bassim MK, Miller RL, Buss E, Smith DW (2003) Rapid adaptation of the 2f 1f 2 DPOAE in humans: binaural and contralateral stimulation effects. Hear Res 182: 140–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg AL, Spitzer JB, Garvin JH (1999) Ototoxic impact of cisplatin in pediatric oncology patients. Laryngoscope 109:1806–1814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bilger R, Matthies ML, Hammel DR, Demorest ME (1990) Genetic implications of gender differences in the prevalence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J Speech Hear Res 33:418–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boege P, Janssen T (2002) Pure-tone threshold estimation from extrapolated distortion product otoacoustic emission I/O functions in normal and cochlear hearing-loss ears. J Acoust Soc Am 111:1810–1818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boettcher FA, Salvi RJ (1991) Salicylate ototoxicity—review and synthesis. Am J Otolaryngol 12:33–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonfils P, Uziel A (1989) Clinical applications of evoked acoustic emissions—results in normally hearing and hearing-impaired subjects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 98:326–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bray PJ (1989) Click evoked otoacoustic emissions and the development of a clinical otoacoustic hearing test instrument. Dissertation at the University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London.Google Scholar
  16. Brown AM, Williams DM, Gaskill SA (1993) The effects of aspirin on cochlear mechanical tuning. J Acoust Soc Am 93:3298–3307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown AM, Harris FP, Beveridge HA (1996) Two sources of acoustic distortion products from the human cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am 100:3260–3267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brownell WE, Bader CR, Bertrand D, de Ribaupierre Y (1985) Evoked mechanical responses in isolated cochlear outer hair cells. Science 227:194–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Burns EM, Keefe DH, Ling R (1998) Energy reflectance in the ear canal can exceed unity near spontaneous otoacoustic emission frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am 103:462–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chéry-Croze S, Moulin A, Collet L (1993) Effect of contralateral sound stimulation on the distortion product 2f 1f 2 in humans: evidence of a frequency specificity. Hear Res 68:53–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Collet L, Kemp DT, Veuillet E, Duclaux R, Moulin A, Morgon A (1990) Effect of contralateral auditory stimuli on active cochlear micro-mechanical properties in human subjects. Hear Res 43:251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dallos P (1992) The active cochlea. J Neurosci 12:4575–4585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis H (1983) An active process in cochlear mechanics. Hear Res 9:79–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dorn PA, Konrad-Martin D, Neely ST, Keefe DH, Cyr E, Gorga MP (2001) Distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired human ears. J Acoust Soc Am 110:3119–3131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Doyle KJ, Sininger Y, Starr A (1998) Auditory neuropathy in childhood. Laryngoscope 108:1374–1377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Eggermont JJ, Brown DK, Ponton CW, Kimberley BP (1996) Comparison of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and auditory brain stem response (ABR) traveling wave delay measurements suggests frequency-specific synapse maturation. Ear Hear 17:386–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. EPA (1981) In: Noise in America: The Extent of the Noise Problem. United States Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  28. Fausti S, Larson VD, Noffsinger D, Wilson RH, Phillips DS, Fowler CG (1994) High-frequency audiometric monitoring strategies for early detection of ototoxicity. Ear Hear 15:232–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Frank AM, Alexiou C, Hulin P, Janssen T, Arnold W, Trappe AE (2000) Non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure changes by otoacoustic emissions (OAEs)—a report of preliminary data. Zentralbl Neurochir 61:177–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gates GA, Mills D, Nam BH, D’Agostino R, Rubel EW (2002) Effects of age on the distortion product otoacoustic emission growth functions. Hear Res 163:53–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gehr DD, Janssen T, Michaelis CE, Deingruber K, Lamm K (2004) Middle-ear and cochlear disorders result in different DPOAE growth behaviour: implications for the differentiation of sound-conductive and cochlear hearing-loss. Hear Res 193:9–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Giebel A (2001) Applying signal statistical analysis to TEOAE measurements. Scand Audiol 30:130–132.Google Scholar
  33. Glattke TJ, Robinette MS (2002) Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. In: Robinette MS, Glattke TJ (eds) Otoacoustic Emissions—Clinical Applications, 2nd edn. New York: Thieme, pp. 95–115.Google Scholar
  34. Gorga MP, Stover L, Neely ST, Montoya D (1996) The use of cumulative distributions to determine critical values and levels of confidence for clinical distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements. J Acoust Soc Am 100:968–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gorga MP, Nelson K, Davis T, Dorn PA, Neely ST (2000a) Distortion product otoacoustic emission test performance when both 2f 1f 2 and 2f 1f 2 are used to predict auditory status. J Acoust Soc Am 107:2128–2135.Google Scholar
  36. Gorga MP, Norton SJ, Sininger Y, Cone-Wesson B, Folsom RC, Vohr BR, Widen JE, Neely ST (2000b) Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: distortion product otoacoustic emissions during the perinatal period. Ear Hear 21:400–424.Google Scholar
  37. Gorga MP, Neely ST, Dorn PA, Hoover BM (2003a) Further efforts to predict pure-tone thresholds from distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions. J Acoust Soc Am 113:3275–3284.Google Scholar
  38. Gorga MP, Neely ST, Dierking DM, Dorn PA, Hoover BM, Fitzpatrick DF (2003b) Distortion product otoacoustic emission suppression tuning curves in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired human ears. J Acoust Soc Am 114:263–278.Google Scholar
  39. Grandori F, Lutman ME (1999) Screening for neonatal hearing defects—European Consensus Statement. Eur J Pediatr 158:95–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Grandori F, Ravazzani P (1993) Non-linearities of click-evoked otoacoustic emissions and the derived non-linear technique. Br J Audiol 27:97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Harris FP, Probst R, Wenger R (1991) Repeatability of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions in normally hearing humans. Audiology 30:135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hatzopoulos S, Petrucelli J, Morlet T, Martini A (2003) TEOAE recording protocols revised: data from adult subjects. Int J Audiol 42:339–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. He NJ, Schmiedt RA (1993) Fine-structure of the 2f 1f 2 acoustic distortion product—changes with primary level. J Acoust Soc Am 94:2659–2669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. He NJ, Schmiedt RA (1996) Effects of aging on the fine structure of the 2f 1f 2 acoustic distortion product. J Acoust Soc Am 99:1002–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. He NJ, Schmiedt RA (1997) Fine structure of the 2f 1f 2 acoustic distortion product: Effects of primary level and frequency ratios. J Acoust Soc Am 101:3554–3565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heitmann J, Waldmann B, Schnitzler HU, Plinkert PK, and Zenner HP (1998) Suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) near 2f 1f 2 removes DP-gram fine structure—Evidence for a secondary generator. J Acoust Soc Am 103:1527–1531.Google Scholar
  47. Hoth S (2005) On a possible prognostic value of otoacoustic emissions. A study on patients with sudden hearing-loss. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryn 262:217–224.Google Scholar
  48. Janssen T (2001) Otoakustische Emissionen. In: Lehnhardt E, Laszig R (eds) Praxis der Audiometrie. New York: Thieme, pp. 79–107.Google Scholar
  49. Janssen T, Kummer P, Arnold W (1998) Growth behavior of the 2f 1f 2 distortion product otoacoustic emission in tinnitus. J Acoust Soc Am 103:3418–3430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Janssen T, Boege P, Oestreicher E, Arnold W (2000) Tinnitus and 2f 1f 2 distortion product otoacoustic emissions following salicylate overdose. J Acoust Soc Am 107:1790–1792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Janssen T, Gehr DD, Kevanishvili Z (2003) Contralateral DPOAE suppression in humans at very low sound intensities. In: Gummer AW (ed) Biophysics of the Cochlea: From Molecule to Models. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, pp. 498–505.Google Scholar
  52. Janssen T, Boege P, von Mikusch-Buchberg J, Raczek J (2005a) Investigation of potential effects of cellular phones on human auditory function by means of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 117:1241–1247.Google Scholar
  53. Janssen T, Gehr DD, Klein A, Müller J (2005b) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions for hearing threshold estimation and differentiation between middle-ear and cochlear disorders in neonates. J Acoust Soc Am 117:2969–2979.Google Scholar
  54. Johnsen NJ, Elberling C (1982a) Evoked acoustic emissions from the human ear. 1. Equipment and response parameters. Scand Audiol 11:3–12.Google Scholar
  55. Johnsen NJ, Elberling C (1982b) Evoked acoustic emissions from the human ear. 2. Normative data in young-adults and influence of posture. Scand Audiol 11:69–77.Google Scholar
  56. Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) (2000) Position statement: Principles and Guidelines for Early Detection and Intervention Programs. Am J Audiol 9:9–29.Google Scholar
  57. Jülicher F, Camalet S, Prost J, Duke TAJ (2003) Active amplification by critical oscillations. In: Gummer AW (ed) Biophysics of the Cochlea: From Molecule to Models. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific, pp. 16–27.Google Scholar
  58. Keefe DH, Bulen JC, Arehart KH, Burns EM (1993) Ear-canal impedance and reflection coefficient in human infants and adults. J Acoust Soc Am 94:2617–2637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kemp DT (1978) Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system. J Acoust Soc Am 64:1386–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kemp DT (1979) Evidence of mechanical nonlinearity and frequency selective wave amplification in the cochlea. Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryn 224:37–45.Google Scholar
  61. Kemp DT, Chum R (1980) Properties of the generator of stimulated acoustic emissions. Hear Res 2:213–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kemp DT, Ryan S (1991) Otoacoustic emission tests in neonatal screening programs. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 482:73–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kemp DT, Bray P, Alexander L, Brown AM (1986) Acoustic emission cochleography—practical aspects. Scand Audiol Suppl 25:71–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kemp DT, Ryan S, Bray P (1990a) A guide to the effective use of otoacoustic emissions. Ear Hear 11:93–105.Google Scholar
  65. Kemp DT, Ryan S, Bray P (1990b) Otoacoustic emission analysis and interpretation for clinical purposes. In: Grandori F, Ciafrone G, Kemp DT (eds) Cochlear Mechanisms and Otoacoustic Emissions. Karger, pp. 77–98.Google Scholar
  66. Kim DO, Dorn PA, Neely ST, Gorga MP (2001) Adaptation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in humans. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2:31–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kopelman J, Budnick AS, Kramer MB, Sessions RB, Wong GY (1988) Ototoxicity of high-dose cisplatin by bolus administration in patients with advanced cancers and normal hearing. Laryngoscope 98:858–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kummer P, Janssen T, Arnold W (1995) Suppression tuning characteristics of the 2f 1f 2 distortion-product otoacoustic emission in humans. J Acoust Soc Am 98:197–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kummer P, Janssen T, Arnold W (1998) The level and growth behavior of the 2f 1f 2 distortion product otoacoustic emission and its relationship to auditory sensitivity in normal-hearing and cochlear hearing-loss. J Acoust Soc Am 103:3431–3444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kummer P, Janssen T, Hulin P, Arnold W (2000) Optimal L 1L 2 primary tone level separation remains independent of test frequency in humans. Hear Res 146:47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lasky RE (1998a) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in human newborns and adults. I. Frequency effects. J Acoust Soc Am 103:981–991.Google Scholar
  72. Lasky RE (1998b) Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in human newborns and adults. II. Level effects. J Acoust Soc Am 103:992–1000.Google Scholar
  73. Liberman MC, Dodds LW (1984) Single-neuron labeling and chronic cochlear pathology. III. Stereocilia damage and alterations of threshold tuning curves. Hear Res 16:55–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Liberman MC, Puria S, Guinan JJ Jr. (1996) The ipsilaterally evoked olivocochlear reflex causes rapid adaptation of the 2f 1f 2 distortion product otoacoustic emission. J Acoust Soc Am 99:3572–3584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Long GR, Tubis A (1988) Modification of spontaneous and evoked otoacoustic emissions and associated psychoacoustic micro-structure by aspirin consumption. J Acoust Soc Am 84:1343–1353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK (2001) Evoked otoacoustic emissions as objective screeners for ototoxicity. Semin Hear 22:377–392.Google Scholar
  77. Luebke AE, Foster PK (2002) Variation in inter-animal susceptibility to noise damage is associated with α9 acetylcholine receptor subunit expression level. J Neurosci 22: 4241–4247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Maison SF, Liberman MC (2000) Predicting vulnerability to acoustic injury with a noninvasive assay of olivocochlear reflex strength. J Neurosci 20:4701–4707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maison S, Micheyl C, Andeol G, Gallego S, Collet L (2000) Activation of medial olivocochlear efferent system in human: influence of stimulus bandwidth. Hear Res 140:111–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Margolis RH (2002) Influence of middle-ear disease on otoacoustic emissions. In: Robinette MS, Glattke TJ (eds), Otoacoustic Emissions—Clinical Applications, 2nd ed. New York: Thieme, pp. 190–212.Google Scholar
  81. Mauermann M, Kollmeier B (2004) Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) input/output functions and the influence of the second DPOAE source. J Acoust Soc Am 116:2199–2212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McFadden D, Pasanen EG (1994) Otoacoustic emissions and quinine sulfate. J Acoust Soc Am 95:3460–3474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McFadden D, Plattsmier HS (1984) Aspirin abolishes spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 76:443–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meinke DK, Stagner BB, Martin GK, Lonsbury-Martin BL (2005) Human efferent adaptation of DPOAEs in the L_1, L_2 space. Hear Res 208:89–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Mills DM, Rubel EW (1994) Variation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions with furosemide injection. Hear Res 77:183–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mills DM, Rubel EW (1998) Development of the base of the cochlea: place code shift in the gerbil. Hear Res 122:82–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Moulin A, Collet L, Duclaux R (1993) Contralateral auditory stimulation alters acoustic distortion products in humans. Hear Res 65:193–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Müller J, Janssen T (2004) Similarity in loudness and distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions: implications for an objective hearing aid adjustment. J Acoust Soc Am 115:3081–3091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Müller J, Janssen T, Heppelmann G, Wagner W (2005) Evidence for a bipolar change in distortion product otoacoustic emissions during contralateral acoustic stimulation in humans. J Acoust Soc Am 118:3747–3756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Myers EN, Bernstein JM (1965) Salicylate ototoxicity—a clinical and experimental study. Arch Otolaryngol 82:483–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. National Institutes of Health (NIH) (1993) Early identification of hearing impairment in infants and young children. NIH Consensus Statement 11:1–24.Google Scholar
  92. Neely ST, Gorgy MP, Dorn PA (2003) Cochlear compression estimates from measurements of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 114:1499–1507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Norton SJ (1992) The effects of being a newborn on otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 91:2409.Google Scholar
  94. Norton SJ, Gorga MP, Widen JE, Folsom RC, Sininger Y, Cone-Wesson B, Vohr BR, Mascher K, Fletcher K (2000a) Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: Evaluation of transient evoked otoacoustic emission, distortion product otoacoustic emission, and auditory brain stem response test performance. Ear Hear 21:508–528.Google Scholar
  95. Norton SJ, Gorga MP, Widen JE, Folsom RC, Sininger Y, Cone-Wesson B, Vohr BR, Mascher K, Fletcher K (2000b) Identification of neonatal hearing impairment: Summary and recommendations. Ear Hear 21:529–535.Google Scholar
  96. O’Brien A (1994) Temperature dependency of the frequency and level of a spontaneous otoacoustic emission during fever. Brit J Audiol 28:281–290.Google Scholar
  97. Penner MJ, Zhang T (1997) Prevalence of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in adults revisited. Hear Res 103:28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Penner MJ, Glotzbach L, Huang T (1993) Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: measurement and data. Hear Res 68:229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Probst R, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK, Coats AC (1987) Otoacoustic emissions in ears with hearing-loss. Am J Otolaryngol 8:73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Puel JL, Rebillard G (1990) Effects of contralateral sound stimulation on the distortion product 2f 1f 2: evidence that the medial efferent system is involved. J Acoust Soc Am 87:1630–1635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Puria S, Guinan JJ Jr, Liberman MC (1996) Olivocochlear reflex assays: effects of contralateral sound on compound action potentials versus ear-canal distortion products. J Acoust Soc Am 99:500–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rhodes MC, Margolis RH, Hirsch JE, Napp AP (1999) Hearing screening in the newborn intensive care nursery: comparison of methods. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 120: 799–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ruggero MA, Rich NC, Recio A, Narayan SS, Robles L (1997) Basilar-membrane responses to tones at the base of the chinchilla cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am 101: 2151–2163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Shera CA, Guinan JJ Jr (1999) Evoked otoacoustic emissions arise by two fundamentally different mechanisms: a taxonomy for mammalian OAEs. J Acoust Soc Am 105: 782–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Siegel JH (1994) Ear-canal standing waves and high-frequency sound calibration using otoacoustic emission probes. J Acoust Soc Am 195:2589–2597.Google Scholar
  106. Sininger Y, Cone-Wesson B (2004) Asymmetric cochlear processing mimics hemispheric specialization. Science 305:1581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Skellett RA, Crist JR, Fallon M, Bobbin RP (1996) Chronic low-level noise exposure alters distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Hear Res 98:68–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Smurzynski J, Kim DO (1992) Distortion-product and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions of normally-hearing adults. Hear Res 58:227–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Starr A, Picton TW, Sininger Y, Hood LJ, Berlin CI (1996) Auditory neuropathy. Brain 119:741–753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stavroulaki P, Apostolopoulos N, Segas J, Tsakanikos M, Adamopoulos G (2001) Evoked otoacoustic emissions—an approach for monitoring cisplatin induced ototoxicity in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 59:47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Steinberg JC, Gardner MB (1937) The dependence of hearing impairment on sound intensity. J Acoust Soc Am 9:11–23.Google Scholar
  112. Talmadge CL, Long GR, Tubis A, and Dhar S (1999) Experimental confirmation of the two-source interference model for the fine structure of distortion product otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 105:275–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Topolska MM, Hassman E, Baczek M (2000) The effects of chronic otitis media with effusion on the measurement of distortion products of otoacoustic emissions: presurgical and postsurgical examination. Clin Otolaryngol 25:315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Tunstall MJ, Gale JE, Ashmore JF (1995) Action of salicylate on membrane capacitance of outer hair cells from guinea-pig cochlea. J Physiol 485:739–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Veuillet E, Collet L, Duclaux R (1991) Effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation on active cochlear micromechanical properties in human subjects—dependence on stimulus variables. J Neurophysiol 65:724–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. von Specht H, Ganz M, Pethe J, Leuschner S, Pytel J (2001) Linear versus non-linear recordings of transiently-evoked otoacoustic emissions—methodological considerations. Scand Audiol Suppl 52:116–118.Google Scholar
  117. Whitehead ML, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK (1992) Evidence for two discrete sources of 2f 1f 2 distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in rabbit: I. Differential dependence on stimulus parameters. J Acoust Soc Am 91:1587–1607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Whitehead ML, McCoy MJ, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK (1995a) Dependence of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in primary levels in normal and impaired ears. I. Effects of decreasing L 2 below L 1. J Acoust Soc Am 97:2346–2358.Google Scholar
  119. Whitehead ML, Stagner BB, McCoy MJ, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK (1995b) Dependence of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in primary levels in normal and impaired ears. II. Asymmetry in L 1, L 2 space. J Acoust Soc Am 97:2359–2377.Google Scholar
  120. Whitehead ML, Stagner BB, Lonsbury-Martin BL, Martin GK (1995c) Effects of ear-canal standing waves on measurements of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 98:3200–3214.Google Scholar
  121. Wier CC, Pasanen EG, McFadden D (1988) Partial dissociation of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions and distortion products during aspirin use in humans J Acoust Soc Am 84:230–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Williams DM, Brown AM (1995) Contralateral and ipsilateral suppression of the 2f 1f 2 distortion product in human subjects. J Acoust Soc Am 97:1130–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilson JMG, Jungner G (1968) Principles and Practice of Screening for Disease. World Health Organization (WHO).Google Scholar
  124. Zhang M, Zwislocki JJ (1995) OHC response recruitment and its correlation with loudness recruitment. Hear Res 85:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Zwicker E, Schloth E (1984) Interrelation of different oto-acoustic emissions. J Acoust Soc Am 75:1148–1154.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Janssen
  • Jörg Müller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations