A Multiple-Indicators Approach to Monitoring Urban Sustainable Development
An eco-city is a complex system intended to harmonize economic development, social advancement, and ecological conservation, a city where the flow of materials, energy, information, population, and currency is highly efficient (Zhang, 2001; Gao et al., 2001; Zhang and Wen, 2001). The eco-city is required to develop within the bounds of its larger ecosystem in order to realize sustainable development. Consequently, we can conclude that sustainable development becomes an obvious characteristic of an eco-city.
In order that an eco-city should not remain an abstract concept, it is essential to construct a set of common indicators to monitor and compare the structure and function of different cities contemporaneously and over time. These indicators should provide at least the following (Zhang et al., 2003a): (1) explanatory tools to translate the concepts of sustainable development into practical terms; (2) pilot tools to assist in making policy choices that promote sustainable development and provide directional guidance for decision makers when facing alternative policies; and (3) performance assessment tools to decide how effective efforts to meet sustainable development goals and objectives have been.
KeywordsSustainable Development Gross Domestic Product Ecological Footprint Capita Gross Domestic Product Urban Sustainability
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