Selection of Pollution-Tolerant Trees for Restoration of Degraded Forests and Evaluation of the Experimental Restoration Practices at the Ulsan Industrial Complex, Korea
In many parts of Korea, forest vegetation near industrial complexes began to show symptoms of decline in the 1970s, when active industrialization was begun (National Institute of Environmental Research, 1981; Lee, 1992). These symptoms also appeared in urban areas that have experienced chronic air pollution since the 1990s (National Institute of Environmental Research, 1990; Kim, 1991, 1994; Lee, 1992; Rhyu, 1994; Rhyu and Kim, 1994). Given that industrialized and urbanized areas are continuously expanding in Korea, forest areas showing such symptoms are likely to increase in the future. Symptoms of vegetation decline are due to the indirect impacts of soil acidification as well as to the direct effects of air pollutants on the plants themselves (Kitajima, 1988; Kim, 1991; Rhyu and Kim, 1994; Freedman, 1995; Gunn, 1995). Vegetation decline induces structural simplification and functional weakening of plant communities, and consequently leads to negative effects on other biotic communities, such as animal and microbial communities (Smith, 1990; Freedman, 1995). Restoration of degraded ecosystems, therefore, is urgently required to prevent the spread of such pollution damage (Gunn, 1995).
The Society for Ecological Restoration (2002) defines restoration as “the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed.” Ecological restoration is the return of an ecosystem to a close approximation of its condition prior to a disturbance (National Research Council, 1991), and it can also be defined as the re-creation of naturalistic and self-maintaining ecosystems (Berger, 1993).
KeywordsSewage Sludge Bare Ground Detrended Correspondence Analysis Restorative Treatment Tolerant Species
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