Advertisement

Other Microbial Components Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Their Effects on Interferon-α/Ribavirin Treatment

  • Luigi Amati
  • Vittorio Pugliese
  • Emilio Jirillo

Keywords

Kupffer Cell Fulminant Hepatitis Leukocyte Biology Liver Dendritic Cell Aggravate Liver Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, G., Czop, J.K. (1992). Stimulation of human monocyte Beta-Glucan receptor by glucan particles production of TNF-alfa and IL-1 beta. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 14: 1363–1373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adachi, Y., Moore, L.E., Bradford, B.V., Gao, W., Bojes, H.K., Thurman, R.G. (1995). Antibiotics prevent liver injury in rats following long-term exposure to ethanol. Gastroenterology, 108: 218–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adachi, Y., Bradford, V., Gao, W., Bojes, H.K., Thurman, R.G. (1994). Inactivation of Kupffer cells prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury. Hepatology, 20: 453–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ajuebor, M.N., Carey, J.A., Swain, M.G. (2006). CCR5 in T-cell mediated liver disease: what’s going on? Journal of Immunology, 177: 2039–2045.Google Scholar
  5. Amati, L., Caradonna, L., Magrone, T., Mastronardi, M.L., Cuppone, R., Cozzolongo, R., Manghisi, O.G., Caccavo, D., Amoroso, A., Jirillo, E. (2002). Modifications of the immune responsiveness in patients with hepatitis C virus infection following treatment with IFN-α/Ribavirin. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 8: 981–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amati, L., Cozzolongo, R., Manghisi, O.G., Cuppone, R., Pellegrino, N.M., Caccavo, D., Jirillo, E. (2004). The immune responsiveness in hepatitis C virus infected patients: effects of interferon-alpha/ribavirin combined treatment on the lymphocyte response with special reference to B cells. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 10: 2093–2100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amati, L., Leogrande, D., Finkelman, M.A., Tamura, H., Jirillo, E. (2005a). Peripheral immunity in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: different roles of endotoxins (LPS) and β-glucans. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 10: 362 [abstract].Google Scholar
  8. Amati, L., Leogrande, D., Passeri, M.E., Mastronardi, M.L., Passantino, L., Venezia, P., Jirillo, E. (2005). β-glucans: old molecules with newly discovered immunological activities. Drug Design Reviews-Online, 2: 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertolino, P., Trescol-Biemont, M.C., Rabourdin-Combe, C. (1998). Hepatocytes induce functional activation of naive CD8+ T lymphocytes but fail to promote survival. European Journal of Immunology, 28: 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowen, D.G., Walker, C.M. (2005). Adaptive immune response in acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Nature, 436: 946–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowen, D.G., McCaughan, G.W., Bertolino, P. (2005). Intrahepatic immunity: a tale of two sites? Trends in Immunology, 26: 512–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, G.D., Taylor, P.R., Reid, D.M., Willment, J.A., Williams, D.L., Martinez-Pomares, L., Wong, S.Y.C., Gordon, S. (2002). Dectin-1 is a major β-glucan receptor on macrophages. The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 196: 407–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgio, V.L., Ballardini, G., Artini, M., Caratozzolo, M., Bianchi, F.B., Levriero, M. (1998). Expression of co-stimulatory molecules by Kupffer cells in chronic hepatitis of hepatitis C virus etiology. Hepatology, 27: 1600–1606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caccavo, D., Afeltra, A., Pece, S., Giuliani, G., Freudenberg, M., Galanos, C., Jirillo, E. (1999). Lactoferrin-lipid A-lipopolysaccharide interaction: inhibition by anti-human lactoferrin monoclonal antibody AMG 10.14. Infection and Immunity, 67: 4668–4672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Caccavo, D., Pellegrino, N.M., Altamura, M., Rigon, A., Amati, L., Amoroso, A., Jirillo, E. (2002). Antimicrobial and immunoregulatory functions of lactoferrin and its potential therapeutic application. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 8: 403–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cacciarelli, T.V., Martinez, O.M., Gish, R.G., Villanueva, J.C., Krams, S.M. (1996). Immunoregolatory cytokines in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: pre- and posttreatment with interferon alpha. Hepatology, 24: 6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caradonna, L., Mastronardi, M.L., Magrone, T., Cozzolongo, R., Cuppone, R., Manghisi, O.G., Caccavo, D., Pellegrino, N.M., Amoroso, A., Jirillo, E., Amati, L. (2002). Biological and clinical significance of endotoxemia in the corse of hepatitis C virus infection. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 8: 995–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chan, C.C., Hwang, S.J., Lee, F.Y., Wang, S.S., Chang, F.Y., Li, C.P., Chu, J.C., Lu, R.H., Lee, S.D. (1997). Prognostic value of plasma endotoxin levels in patients with cirrhosis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 32: 942–946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chang, K.M. (1998). The mechanisms of chronicity in hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology, 115: 1015–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Conlan, J.W. (1997). Critical roles of neutrophils in host defense against experimental systemic infections of mice by Listeria monocytogens, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica . Infection and Immunity, 65: 630–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Decreus, A., Abe, M., Lau, A.H., Hackstein, H., Raimondi, G., Thomson, A.W. (2005). Low TLR4 expression by liver dendritic cells correlates with reduced capacity to activate allogeneic T cells in response to endotoxin. Journal of Immunology, 174: 2037–2045.Google Scholar
  22. Diehl, A.M. (1999). Cytokine and the molecular mechanisms of alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholic Clinical Experimental Research, 23: 1419–1424.Google Scholar
  23. Engstad, C.S., Engstad, R.E., Olsen, J.O., Osterud, B. (2002). The effect of soluble beta-(1,3)-glucan and lipopolysaccharide on cytokine production and coagulation activation in whole blood. International Immunopharmacology, 11: 1585–1597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Enomoto, N., Ikejima, K., Bradford, B.V., Rivera, C., Kono, H., Brenner, D.A., Thurman, R.G. (1998). Alcohol causes both tolerance and sensitization of rat Kupffer cells via mechanism dependent on endotoxin. Gastroenterology, 115: 443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fax, E.S., Thomas, P., Broitmans, A. (1999). Clearance of gut-derived endotoxins by the liver. Release and modifications of 3H, 14C-lipopolysaccharide by isolated Kupffer cells. Gastroenterology, 96: 456–461.Google Scholar
  26. Fearns, C., Kravchenko, V.V., Ulevitch, R.J, Loskutoff, D.J. (1995). Murine CD14 gene expression in vivo: extramyeloid synthesis and regulation by lipopolysaccharides. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 181: 857–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finkelman, M.A., Lempitski, S.J., Slater, J.E. (2006). B-glucans in standardized allergen extracts. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 12: 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Francis, J.N., Till, S.J., Durham, S.R. (2003). Induction of IL-10+ CD4+ CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 111: 1255–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fraser, D.A., Bohlson, S.S., Jasinskiene, N., Rawal, N., Palmarini, G., Ruiz, S., Rochford, R., Tenner, A.J. (2006). C1q and MBL, components of the innate immune system, influence monocyte cytokine expression. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 80: 107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Galanos, C., Freudenberg, M.A., Reutter, W. (1979). Galactosamine-induced sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA, 76: 5939–5943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gantner, B.N., Simmons, R.M., Canavera, S.J., Akira, S., Underhill, D.M. (2003). Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 197: 1107–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goddard, S., Youster, J., Morgan, E., Adams, D.H. (2004). Interleukin-10 secretion differentiates dendritic cells from human liver and skin. American Journal of Pathology, 164: 511–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Godfrey, D.I., Kronenberg, M. (2004). Going both ways: immune regulation via CD1d-dependent NKT cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114: 1379–1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gregory, S.H., Sagnimeni, A.J., Wing, E.J. (1996). Bacteria in the blood stream are trapped in the liver and killed by immigrating neutrophils. Journal of Immunology, 157: 2514–2520.Google Scholar
  35. Gregory, S.H., Cousens, L.P., Van Rooijen, N., Dopp, E.A., Carlos, T.M., Wing, E.J. (2002). Complementary adhesion molecules promote neutrophil-Kupffer cell interaction and the elimination of bacteria taken up by the liver. Journal of Immunology, 168: 308–315.Google Scholar
  36. Harcourt, G.C., Lucas, M., Sheridan, I., Barnes, E., Phillips, R., Klenerman, P. (2004). Longitudinal mapping of protective CD4+ T cell responses against HCV: analysis of fluctuating dominant and subdominant HLA-DR11 restricted epitopes. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 11: 324–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoffman, O.A., Olson, E.J., Limper, A.H. (1993). Fungal beta-glucans modulate macrophage release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Immunology Letters, 37(1): 19–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iimuro, Y., Gallucci, R.M., Luster, M.I., Kono, H., Thurman, R.G. (1997). Antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha attenuate hepatic necrosis and inflammation caused by chronic exposure to ethanol in the rat. Hepatology, 26: 1530–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jabbari, A., Harty, J.T. (2006). The generation and modulation of antigen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 80: 16–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jellison, E.R., Kim, S.K., Welsh, R.M. (2005). Cutting edge: MHC class II-restricted killing in vivo during viral infection. Journal of Immunology, 174: 614–618.Google Scholar
  41. Jirillo, E., Greco, B., Caradonna, L., Satalino, R., Pugliese, V., Cozzolongo, R., Cuppone, R., Manghisi, O.G. (1995). Evaluation of cellular immune responses and soluble mediators in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (cHCV) infection. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 17: 347–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jirillo, E., Greco, B., Caradonna, L., Satalino, R., Amati, L., Cozzolongo, R., Cuppone, R., Manghisi, O.G. (1996). Immunological effects following administration of interferon-α in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (cHCV) infection. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 18: 355–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jirillo, E., Amati, L., Caradonna, L., Greco, B., Cozzolongo, R., Cuppone, R., Piazzolla, G., Caccavo, D., Antonaci, S., Manghisi, O.G. (1998). Soluble (s) CD14 and plasmatic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in patients with chronic hepatitis C before and after treatment with interferon (IFN)-α. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 20: 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jirillo, E., Pellegrino, N.M., Piazzolla, G., Caccavo, D., Antonaci, S. (2000). Hepatitis C virus infection: immune responsiveness and interferon-α treatment. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 6: 169–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jirillo, E., Caccavo, D., Magrone, T., Piccigallo, E., Amati, L., Lembo, A., Kalis, C., Gumenscheimer, M. (2002). The role of the liver in the response to LPS: experimental and clinical findings. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 8: 319–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kataoka, K., Muta, T., Yamazaki, S., Takeshige, K. (2002). Activation of macrophages by linear (1-right-arrow 3)-beta D-glucans. Implications for recognition of fungi by innate immunity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277: 36825–36831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Knolle, P.A., Limmer, A. (2001). Neighborhood politics: the immunoregolatory function of organ-resident liver endothelial cells. Trends in Immunology, 22: 432–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kondo, T., Suda, T. Fukuyama, H., Adachi, M., Nagata, S. (1997). Essential roles of the Fas ligand in the development of hepatitis. Nature Medicine, 3: 409–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kronenberger, B., Herrmann, E., Hofmann, W.P., Wedemeyer, H., Sester, M., Mihm, V., Ghahai, T., Zeuzem, S., Sarrklin, C. (2006). Dynamics of CD81 expression on lymphocyte subsets during interferon-α-based antiviral treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 80: 298–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuratsune, H., Koda, T., Kurahori, T. (1983). The relationship between endotoxin and the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system. Hepatogastroenterology, 30: 79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Le Moine, O., Marchant, A., Degroote, D., Azar, C., Goldman, M., Deviere, J. (1995). Role of defective monocyte interleukin-10 release in tumor necrosis factor overproduction in alcoholic cirrhosis. Hepatology, 22: 1436–1439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liehr, H., Grun, M., Brunswig, D., Sautter, T. (1976). Endotoxinamie bei leberzirrhose. Zeitschrift Gastroenterologie, 14: 14–23.Google Scholar
  53. Li, W., Krishnadas, D.K., Li, J., Tyrrell, D.L.J., Agrawal, B. (2006). Induction of primary human T cell responses against hepatitis C virus-derived antigens NS3 or core by autologous dendritic cells expressing hepatitis C virus antigens: potential for vaccine and immunotherapy. Journal of Immunology, 176: 6065–6075.Google Scholar
  54. Li, X.K., Fujino, M., Sugioka, A., Morita, M., Okuyama, T., Guo, L., Funeshima, N., Rimura, H., Enosawa, S., Amemiya, H., Suzuki, S. (2001). Fulminant hepatitis by Fas-ligand expression in MLR-lpr/lpr mice grafted with Fas-positive livers and wild-type mice with Fas-mutant livers. Transplantation, 71: 503–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu, S., Khemlani, L.S., Shapiro, R.A., Johnson, M.L., Liu, K., Geller, D.A., Watkins, S.C., Goyert, S.M., Billiar, T.R. (1998). Expression of CD14 by hepatocytes: upregulation by cytokines during endotoxemia. Infection and Immunity, 66: 5089–5098.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. MacPhee, P.J., Schmidt, E.E., Groom, A.C. (1992). Evidence for Kupffer cell migration along liver sinusoids from high-resolution in vivo microscopy. American Journal of Physiology, 263: G17–G23.Google Scholar
  57. Maitra, S.K., Rachmilewitz, D., Eberle, D., Haplowitz, N. (1981). The hepatocellular uptake and biliary excretion of endotoxin in the rat. Hepatology, 8: 1550–1554.Google Scholar
  58. Marr, K.A., Arunmozhi Balajee, S., Hawn, T.R., Ozinsky, A., Pham, U., Akira, S., Aderem, A., Liles, W.C. (2003). Differential role of MyD88 in macrophage-mediated responses to opportunistic fungal pathogens. Infection and Immunity, 71: 5280–5286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mignon, A., Rouquet, N., Fabre, M., Martin, S., Pages, J.C., Dhainaut, J.E., Kahn, A., Briand, P., Joulin, V. (1999). LPS challenge in D-galactosamine-sensitized mice accounts for caspase-dependent fulminant hepatitis, not for septic shock. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 159: 1308–1315.Google Scholar
  60. Miyake, K. (2006). Roles for accessory molecules in microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 12: 195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nakagawa, Y., Ohno, N., Muras, T. (2003). Suppression by Candida albicans beta-glucan of cytokine release from activated human monocyte and from T cells in the presence of monocytes. Journal of Infectious Disease, 187: 710–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nanji, A.A., Khettry, V., Sadrzaden, S.M. (1994). Lactobacillus feeding reduces endotoxemia and severity of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Proceedings Society Experimental Biology Medicine, 205: 243–247.Google Scholar
  63. Napoli, J., Bishop, G.A., McGuinness, P.H., Painter, D.M., McCaughan, G.W. (1996). Progressive liver injury in chronic hepatitis C infection correlates with increased intrahepatic expression of Th-1-associated cytokines. Hepatology, 24: 759–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Neumann-Haefelin, C., Blum, H.E., Chisari, F.U., Thimme, R. (2005). T cell response in hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Clinical Virology, 32: 75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ni, H.T., Deeths, M.J., Mescher, M.F. (1999). LFA-1-mediated costimulation of CD8+ T cell proliferation requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Journal of Immunology, 166: 6523–6529.Google Scholar
  66. Nolan, J.P. (1975). The role of endotoxin in liver injury. Gastroenterology, 69: 1345–1356.Google Scholar
  67. Oesterreicher, C., Pfefel, F., Petermann, D., Muller, C. (1995). Increased in vitro production and serum levels of the soluble lipopolysaccharide receptor sCD14 in liver disease. Journal of Hepatology, 23: 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Opal, S.M., Scannon, P.J., Vincent, J.L., White, M., Caroll, S.E., Palardy, J.E., Parejo, N.A., Pribble, J.P., Lemke, J.H. (1999). Relationship between plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Journal of Infectious Disease, 180: 1584–1589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Poltorak, A., He, X., Smirnova, I., Liu, M.Y., VanHuffel, C., Du, X., Birdwell, D., Alejos, E., Silva, M., Galanos, C., Freudenberg, M. (1998). Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science, 282: 2085–2088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Prytz, H., Holtz-Christensen, J., Korner, B., Liehr, H. (1976). Portal venous and systemic endotoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 11: 857–863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Rehermann, B., Nascimbeni, M. (2005). Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Nature Review in Immunology, 5: 215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sandberg, J.K., Ljunggren, H.-G. (2005). Development and function of CD1d-restricted NKT cells: influence of sphingolipids, SAP and sex. Trends in Immunology, 26: 347–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sansonno, D., DeVita, S., Iacobelli, A.R., Cornacchiulo, V., Boiocchi, M., Dammacco, F. (1998). Clonal analysis of intrahepatic B cells from HCV-infected patients with and without mixed cryoglobulinemia. Journal of Immunology, 160: 3594–3601.Google Scholar
  74. Sato, T., Asanuma, Y., Tanaka, J., Koyama, K. (1997). Inflammatory cytokine production enhancement in the presence of lipopolysaccharide after hepatic resection in cirrhotic patients. Therapeutic Apheresis, 1: 75–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sato, T., Iwabuchi, K., Nagaoka, I., Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., Tamura, H., Seyama, K., Fukuchi, Y., Nakayama, H., Yoshizaki, F., Takamori, K., Ogawa, H. (2006). Induction of human neutrophil chemotaxis by Candida albicans-derived β-1,6-long glycoside-chain-branched β-glucan. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 80: 204–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Seljelid, R., Figenschau, Y., Bogwald, J., Rasmussen, L.T., Austgulen, R. (1989). Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by aminated beta 1-3 D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 30: 687–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sher, A., Oswald, I.P., Hieny, S., Gazzinelli, R.T. (1993). Toxoplasma gondii induces a T-independent IFN-gamma response in natural killer cells that requires both adherent accessory cells and tumor necrosis factor-α. Journal of Immunology, 150: 3982–3989.Google Scholar
  78. Sherwood, E.R., Varma, T.K., Fram, R.Y., Lin, C.Y., Koutrouvelis, A.P., Toliver-Kinsky, T.E. (2001). Glucan phosphate potentiates endotoxin-induced interferon-gamma expression in immunocompetent mice, but attenuates induction of endotoxin tolerance. Clinical Science, 101: 541–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shoukry, N.H., Sidney, J., Sette, A., Walker, C.M. (2004). Conserved hierarchy of helper T cell responses in a chimpanzee during primary and secondary hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Immunology, 172: 483–492.Google Scholar
  80. Snyder, J.T., Alexander-Miller, M.A., Berzofskyl, J.A., Belyakov, I.M. (2003). Molecular mechanism and biological significance of CTL avidity. Current HIV Research, 1: 287–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Soltys, J., Quinn, M.T. (1999). Modulation of endotoxin-and enterotoxin-induced cytokine release by in vivo treatment with β-(1,6)-branched β-(1,3)-glucan. Infection and Immunity, 67: 244–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sutmuller, R.P.M., Morgan, M.E., Netea, M.G., Graver. O, Adema, G.J. (2006). Toll-like receptors on regulatory T cells: expanding immune regulation. Trends in Immunology, 27: 387–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tannahil, C.L., Fukuzuka, K., Marum, T., Abouhamze, Z., MacKay, S.L., Copeland, E.M. III, Moldawer, L.L. (1999). Discordant tumor necrosis factor-alpha superfamily gene expression in bacterial peritonitis and endotoxemic shock. Surgery, 126: 349–357.Google Scholar
  84. Tian, Z., Shen, X., Feng, H., Gao, B. (2000). IL-1 beta attenuates IFN-alpha/beta-induced antiviral activity and Stat1 activation in the liver. Journal of Immunology, 165: 3959–3965.Google Scholar
  85. Trobonjaca, Z., Leithauser, F., Moller, P., Schirmbeck, R., Reimann, J. (2001). Activating immunity in the liver. I. Liver dendritic cells (but not hepatocytes) are potent activators of IFN-γ release by liver NKT cells. Journal of Immunology, 167: 1413–1422.Google Scholar
  86. Tsutsui, H. Matsui, K. Okamura, H., Nakanishi, K. (2000). Pathophysiological roles of interleukin-18 in inflammatory liver diseases. Immunological Reviews, 174: 192–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Uhrig, A., Banafsche, R., Kremer, M., Hegenbarth, S., Hamann, A., Neurath, M., Gerken, G., Limmer, A., Knolle, P.A. (2005). Development and functional consequences of LPS tolerance in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 77: 626–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Underhill, D.M., Olinsky, A. (2002). Toll-like receptors: key mediators of microbe detection. Current Opinion in Immunology, 14: 103–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Urbani, S., Amadei, B., Cariani, E., Fisicaro, P., Orlandini, A., Missale, G., Ferrari, C. (2005). The impairment of CD8 responses limits the selection of escape mutations in acute hepatitis C virus infection. Journal of Immunology, 175: 7519–7529.Google Scholar
  90. Van Andel, R.A., Hook, R.R., Jr., Franklin, C.L., Besch-Williford, C.L., Van Roijen, N., Riley, L.K. (1997). Effects of neutrophil, natural killer cell, and macrophage depletion on murine Clostridium piliforme infection. Infection and Immunity, 65: 2725–2731.Google Scholar
  91. Van Molle, W., Denecker, G., Rodriguez, I., Brouckaert, P., Vandenabeele, P., Libert, C. (1999). Activation of caspases in lethal experimental hepatitis and prevention by acute phase proteins. Journal of Immunology, 163: 5235–5241.Google Scholar
  92. Vento, S. (2000). Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 7: 7–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Verdrengh, M., Tarkowsky, A. (1997). Role of neutrophils in experimental septicemia and septic arthritis induced by Staphylococcus aureus. Infection and Immunity, 65: 2517–2521.Google Scholar
  94. Vodovotz, Y., Liu, S., McCloskey, C., Shapiro, R., Green, A., Billiar, T.R. (2001). The hepatocyte as a microbial product-responsive cell. Journal of Endotoxin Research, 7: 365–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Weunsch, S.A., Pierce, R.H., Crispe, N.I. (2006). Local intrahepatic CD8+ T cell activation by a non-self-antigen results in full functional differentiation. Journal of Immunology, 177: 1689–1697.Google Scholar
  96. Williams, D.L., Ha, T., Li, C., Kalbfleish, J.A., Laffan, J.J., Ferguson, D.A. (1999). Inhibiting early activation of tissue nuclear factor-Kappa B and interleukin-6. (1 → 3)-Beta-D-Glucan increases long-term survival in polymicrobial sepsis. Surgery, 126: 54–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, D.L., Ha, T., Li, C., Laffan, J.J., Kalbfleish, J.A., Browder, W. (2002). Inhibition of LPS-induced NFKAPPAB activation by a glucan ligand involves down-regulation of IKKBETA kinase activity and altered phosphorylation and degradation of IKKABALPHA. Shock, 13: 446–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams, D.L.A., Mueller, A., Browder, W. (1998). Glucan-based macrophage stimulators: a review of their anti-infective potential. Clinical Immunotherapy, 5: 392–399.Google Scholar
  99. Williams, R.C., Jr., Malone, C.C., Kao, K.J. (1994). IgM rheumatoid factors react with human class I HLA molecules. Journal of Immunology, 156: 1684–1694.Google Scholar
  100. Wright, S.D., Ramos, R.A., Tobias, P.S., Ulevitch, R.J., Mathison, J.C. (1990). CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Science, 249: 1431–1433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yin, M., Bradford, B.V., Wheeler, M.D., Uesugi, T., Froh, M., Goyert, S.M., Thurman, R.G. (2001). Reduced early alcohol-induced liver injury in CD14-deficient mice. Journal of Immunology, 166: 4737–4742.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Amati
  • Vittorio Pugliese
  • Emilio Jirillo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations