Advertisement

Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in “Difficult-to-Treat” Patients in the Clinical Setting

  • Ana Moreno
  • Rafael Bárcena
  • Carmen Quereda

Keywords

Sustained Virological Response Sustained Virological Response Rate Early Virological Response Partial Splenic Embolization Orthotropic Liver Transplantation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akuta, N., Suzuki, F., Suzuki, Y., Sezaki, H., Hosaka, T., Someya, T., Kobayashi, M., Saitoh, S., Arase, Y., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, M., Kumada, H. (2005). Hepatocyte steatosis is an important predictor of response to interferon (IFN) monotherapy in Japanese patients with HCV genotype 2a: virological features of IFN-resistant cases with hepatocyte steatosis. Journal of Medical Virology, 75: 550–558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akuta, N., Suzuki, F., Sezaki, H., Suzuki, Y., Hosaka, T., Someya, T., Kobayashi, M., Saitoh, S., Watahiki, S., Sato, J., Kobayashi, M., Arase, Y., Ikeda, K., Kumada, H. (2006). Predictive factors of virological non-response to interferon-ribavirin combination therapy for patients infected with hepatitis C virus of genotype 1b and high viral load. Journal of Medical Virology, 78: 83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous. (1999). Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C. Report of a WHO consultation organized in collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board, Antwerp, Belgium. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 6: 35–47.Google Scholar
  4. Ball, L.M., Sulkowski, M.S., Wolf, L, Weiz, K.B., Tice, A.D, Dieterich, D.T. (1999). Filgrastim use for interferon induced neutropenia in patients with hepatitis C (abstract). Gastroenterology, 116: A1188.Google Scholar
  5. Bárcena, R., Gil-Grande, L., Moreno, J., Foruny, J.R., Otón, E., García, M., Blázquez, J., Sánchez, J., Moreno, A., Moreno, A. (2005). Partial splenic embolization for the treatment of hypersplenism in liver transplanted patients with hepatitis C virus recurrence before peg-interferon plus ribavirin. Tranplantation, 79: 1634–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bárcena, R., Moreno, A., Foruny, J.R., Moreno, A., Sánchez, J., Gil-Grande, L., Blázquez, J., Nuño, J., Fortún, J., Rodriguez-Gandía, M.A., Otón, E. (2006). Improved graft function in liver-transplanted patients after partial splenic embolization: reversal of splenic artery steal syndrome? Clinical Transplantation, 20: 517–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benhamou, Y., Bochet, M., Di Martino, V., Charlotte, F., Azria, F., Coutellier, A., Vidaud, M., Bricaire, F., Opolon, P., Katlama, C., Poynard, T. (1999). Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. The Multivirc Group. Hepatology, 30: 1054–1058.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benhamou, Y., Di Martino, V., Bochet, M., Colombert, G., Thibault, V., Liou, A., Katlama, C., Poynard, T.; Multivirc Group (2001). Factors affecting liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients: impact of protease inhibitor therapy. Hepatology, 34: 283–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berenguer, M (2005). What determines the natural history of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation? Journal of Hepatology, 42: 448–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berenguer, M., Ferrell, L., Watson, J., Prieto, M., Kim, M., Rayon, M., Cordoba, J., Herola, A., Ascher, N., Mir, J., Berenguer, J., Wright, T.L. (2000). HCV-related fibrosis progression following liver transplantation: increase in recent years. Journal of Hepatology, 32: 673–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berg, T., von Wagner, M., Nasser, S., Sarrazin, C., Heintges, T., Gerlach, T., Buggisch, P., Goeser, T., Rasenack, J., Pape, G.R., Schmidt, W.E., Kallinowski, B., Klinker, H., Splenger, U., Martus, P., Alshuth, U., Zeuzem, S. (2006). Extended treatment duration for hepatitis C virus type 1: comparing 48 versus 72 weeks of peginterferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology, 130: 1086–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bica, I., McGovern, B., Dhar, R., Stone, D., McGowan, K., Scheib, R., Snydman, D.R. (2001). Increasing mortality due to end-stage liver disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 32: 492–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Biggins, S.W., Terrault, N.A. (2005). Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Clinics in Liver Disease, 9 : 505–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bizollon, T., Palazzo, U., Ducerf, C., Chevallier, M., Elliot, M., Baulieux, J., Pouyet, M., Trepo, C. (1997). Pilot study of the combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin as therapy of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Hepatology, 26: 500–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonacini, M., Govindarajan, S., Blatt, L.M., Schmid, P., Conrad, A., Lindsay, K.L. (1999). Patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus demonstrate higher levels of hepatic HCV RNA. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 6: 203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brady, C.W., Muir, A.J. (2005). HIV coinfection shortens the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis. Hepatology, 42: 496–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruno, S., Cammá, C., Di Marco, V., Rumi, M., Vinci, M., Camozzi, M., Rebucci, C., Di Bona, D., Colombo, M., Craxi, A., Mondelli, M.U., Pinzello, G. (2004). Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for naïve patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Hepatology, 41: 474–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carrat, F., Bani-Sadr, F., Pol, S., Rosenthal, E., Lunel-Fabiani, F., Benzekri, A., Morand, P., Goujard, C., Pialoux, G., Piroth, L., Salmon-Ceron, D., Degott, C., Cacoub, P., Perrone, C., ANRS HCO2 RIBAVIC Study Team (2004). Pegylated interferon alpha-2b vs standard interferon alpha-2b, plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292: 2839–2848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chalasani, N., Manzarbeitia, C., Ferenci, P., Vogel, W., Fontana, R.J., Voigt, M., Riely, C., Martin, P., Teperman, L., Jiao, J., Lopez-Talavera, J.C., Pegasys Transplant Study Group (2005). Peginterferon alpha-2a for hepatitis C after liver transplantation: two randomized, controlled trials. Hepatology, 41: 289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Choo, Q.L., Kuo, G., Weiner, A.J., Overby, L.R., Bradley, D.W., Houghton, M. (1989). Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science, 244: 359–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chung, R.T., Andersen, J., Volberding, P., Robbins, G.K., Liu, T., Sherman, K.E., Peters, M.G., Koziel, M.J., Bhan, A.K., Alston, B., Colquhoun, D., Nevin, T., Harb, G., van der Horst, C., AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5071 Study Team (2004). Peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. New England Journal of Medicine, 351: 451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craxi, A, Camma, C. (2006). Treating patients with HCV genotype 1 and low viraemia: more than meets the eye. Journal of Hepatology, 44: 4–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cribier, B., Rey, D., Schmitt, C., Lang, J.M., Kirn, A., Stoll-Keller, F. (1995). High hepatitis C viraemia and impaired antibody response in patients coinfected with HIV. AIDS, 9: 1131–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Curry, M., Cárdenas, A., Afdhal, N.H. (2005). Effect of maintenance Peg-Interferon therapy on portal hypertension and its complications: results from the COPILOT study. Journal of Hepatology, 42: 40 [abstract 95].Google Scholar
  25. Davis, G.L. (2002). Monitoring of viral levels during therapy of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 36 (Suppl. 1): S145–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, G.L., Wong, J.B., McHutchison, J.G., Manns, M.P., Harvey, J., Albrecht, J. (2003). Early virological response to treatment with peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology, 38: 645–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dieterich, D.T., Spivak J.L. (2003a). Hematologic disorders associated with hepatitis C virus infection and their management. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 37 : 533–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dieterich, D.T., Wassermen, R., Bräu, N., Hassanein, T.I., Bini, E.J., Bowers, P.J., Sulkowski, M.S. (2003b). Once-weekly epoietin alpha improves anemia and facilitates maintenance of ribavirin dosing in hepatitis C virus-infected patients receiving ribavirin plus interferon alpha. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 98: 2491–2499.Google Scholar
  29. Drusano, G.L., Preston, S.L. (2004). A 48-week duration of therapy with pegylated interferon a2b plus ribavirin may be too short to maximize long-term response among patients infected with genotype-1 hepatitis C virus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189: 964–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dumortier, J., Scoazec, J.Y., Chevallier, P., Boillot, O. (2004). Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a pilot study of peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin combination. Journal of Hepatology, 40: 669–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Everson, G.T. (2004). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Reviews in Gastroenterological Disorders, 4 (Suppl. 1): S31–S38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Fattovich, G., Giustina, G., Degos, F., Tremolada, F., Diodati, G., Almasio, P., Nevens, F., Solinas, A., Mura, D., Brouwer, J.T., Thomas, H., Njapoum, C., Casarin, C., Bonetti, P., Fuschi, P., Basho, J., Tocco, A., Bhalla, A., Galassini, R., Noventa, F., Schalm, S.W., Realdi, G. (1997). Morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type C: a retrospective follow-up study of 384 patients. Gastroenterology, 112: 463–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fattovich, G., Pantalena, M., Zagni, I., Realdi, G., Schalm, S.W., Christensen, E. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP) (2002). Effect of hepatitis B and C virus infections on the natural history of compensated cirrhosis: a cohort study of 297 patients. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 97: 2886–2895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferenci, P. (2004). Predicting the therapeutic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C: the role of viral kinetics studies. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemoterapy, 43 : 15–18.Google Scholar
  35. Ferenci, P., Fried, M.W., Shiffman, M.L., Smith, C.I., Marinos, G., Goncales, F.L., Jr., Haussinger, D., Diago, M., Carosi, G., Dhumeaux, D., Craxi, A., Chaneac, M., Reddy, K.R. (2005). Predicting sustained virological responses in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon alpha-2a (40kd)/ribavirin. Journal of Hepatology, 43: 425–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forman, L.M., Lewis, J.D., Berlin, J.A, Feldman, H.I., Lucey, M.R. (2002). The association between hepatitis C infection and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. Gastroenterology, 122: 889–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Foruny, J.R., Blázquez, J., Moreno, A., Bárcena, R., Gil-Grande, L., Quereda, C., Pérez-Elías, M.J., Moreno, J., Sánchez, J., Muriel, A., Rodriguez-Sagrado, M.A., Moreno, S. (2005). Safe use of pegylated interferon/ribavirin in hepatitis C virus cirrhotic patients with hypersplenism after partial splenic embolization. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , 17: 1157–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foruny, J.R., Bárcena, R., Moreno, A., Blázquez, J., Manzano, R., Gil-Grande, L.A., Moreno, A., Nuño, J. (2006). Benefit of pegylated interferon-alpha-2a/ribavirin in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus cirrhosis after liver transplantation and splenic embolization. Transplantation, 82: 289–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fried, M.W. (2002). Side effects of therapy of hepatitis C and their management. Hepatology , 36 (Suppl. 1): S237–S244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fried, M.W., Shiffman, M.L., Reddy, K.R., Smith, C., Marinos, G., Goncales, F.L., Jr., Haussinger, D., Diago, M., Carosi, G., Dhumeaux, D., Craxi, A., Lin, A., Hoffman, J., Yu, J. (2002). Peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. W2Ti New England Journal of Medicine , 347: 975–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fuster, D., Planas, R., González, J., Force, L., Cervantes, M., Vilaro, J., Roget, M., García, I., Pedrol, E., Tor, J., Ballesteros, A.L., Salas, A., Sirera, G., Videla, S., Clotet, B., Tural, C. (2006). Results of a study of prolonging treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with no early virological response. Antiviral Therapy, 11: 473–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gane, E. (2002). Treatment of recurrent hepatitis C. Liver Transplantation, 8 (Suppl.): S28–S37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greub, G., Ledergerber, B., Battegay, M., Grob, P., Perrin, L., Furrer, H., Burgisser, P., Erb, P., Boggian, K., Piffaretti, J.C., Hirschel, B., Janin, P., Francioli, P., Flepp, M., Telenti, A. (2000). Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus co-infection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet, 356: 1800–1805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Heathcote, E.J. (2003). Treatment considerations in patients with hepatitis C and cirrhosis. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 37: 395–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hadziyannis, S.J., Sette, H. Jr., Morgan, T.R., Balan, V., Diago, M., Marcellin, P., Ramadori, G., Bodenheimer, H. Jr., Bernstein, D., Rizzetto, M., Zeuzem, S., Pockros, P.J., Lin, A., Ackrill, A.M., PEGAYS International Study Group (2004). Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomzed study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140: 346–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hayashi, N., Takehara, T. (2006). Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: past, present, and future. Journal of Gastroenterology, 41: 17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoofnagle, J.H., Mullen, K.D., Jones, D.B., Rustgi, V., Di Bisceglie, A., Peters, M., Waggoner, J.G., Park, Y., Jones, E.A. (1986). Treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis with recombinant human alpha interferon. A preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine, 315: 1575–1578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Höroldt, B., Haydon, G., O’Donnell, K., Dudley, T., Nightingale, P., Mutimer, P. (2006). Results of combination treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C infection. Liver International, 26: 650–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobson, I.M., Brown, R.S., Freilich, B., Afdhal, N., Kwo, P., Santoro, J., Becker, S., Wakil, A., Pound, D., Godofsky, E., Strauss, R., Bernstein, D., Flamm, S., Bala, N., Araya, V., Davis, M., Monsour, H., Vierling, J., Regenstein, F., Balan, V., Dragutsky, M., Epstein, M., Herring, R.W., Rubin, R., Galler, G., Pauli, M.P., Griffel, L.H., the WIN-RS Group (2005). Weight-based ribavirin dosing increases sustained viral response in patients with chronic hepatitis C: final results of the WIN-R study, a US community based trial. Hepatology, 42 (Suppl. 1): Abstract LB03.Google Scholar
  50. Jensen, D.M., Marcellin, P. (2005). The rationale and design of the REPEAT study: a phase III, randomized clinical trial of peginterferon alpha-2a (40kDa) plus ribavirin in non-responders to peginterferon alpha-2b (12kDa) plus ribavirin. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 17: 899–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jensen, D.M., Morgan, T.R., Marcellin, P., Pockros, P.J., Reddy, K.R., Hadziyannis, S.J., Ferenci, P., Ackrill, A.M., Willems, B. (2006). Early identification of HCV genotype 1 patients responding to 24 weeks peginterferon a-2a (40kd)/ribavirin therapy. Hepatology, 43: 954–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Laguno, M., Murillas, J., Blanco, J.L., Martínez, E., Miquel, R., Sánchez-Tapias, J.M., Bargallo, X., García-Criado, A., de Lazzari, E., Larrousse, M., Leon, A., Lonca, M., Milinkovic, A., Gatell, J.M., Mallolas, J. (2004). Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for treatment of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. AIDS, 18: F27–F36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, W.M., Dienstag, J.L., Lindsay, K.L., Lok, A.S., Bonkovsky, H.L., Shiffman, M.L., the HALT-C Trial Group (2004). Evolution of the HALT-C trial: pegylated interferon as maintenance therapy for chronic hepatitis C in previous interferon nonresponders.Controlled Clinical Trials, 25: 472–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maddison, F.E. (1973). Embolic therapy for hypersplenism. Investigative Radiology, 8: 280–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Manns, M.P., McHutchison, J.G., Gordon, S.C., Rustgi, V.K., Shiffman, M., Reindollar, R., Goodman, Z.D., Koury, K., Ling, M., Albrecht, J.K. (2001). Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet, 358: 958–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Manns, M.P., Wedemeyer, H., Cornberg, M. (2006). Treating viral hepatitis C: efficacy, side effects, and complications. Gut, 55: 1350–1359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Martinot-Peignoux, M., Comanor, L., Minor, J.M., Ripault, M.P., Pham, B.N., Boyer, N., Castelnau, C., Giuily, N., Hendricks, D., Marcellin, P. (2006). Accurate model predicting sustained reponse at week 4 of therapy with pegylated interferon with ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 13: 701–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McHutchison, J.G., Gordon, S.C., Schiff, E.R., Shiffman, M.L., Lee, W.M., Rustgi, V.K., Goodman, Z.D., Ling, M.H., Cort, S., Albrecht, J.K. (1998). Interferon alpha-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 339: 1485–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McHutchison, J.G., Manns, M., Patel, K., Poynard, T., Lindsay, K.L., Trepo, C., Dienstag, J., Lee, W.M., Mak, C., Garaud, J.J, Albrecht, J.K., International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (2002). Adherence to combination therapy enhances sustained virological response in genotype-1-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology, 123: 1061–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McHutchison, J.G., Afdhal, N., Shiffman, M.L., Gordon, S., Mills, P., Sigal, S., Midwinter, D., Campbell, F.M., Williams, D., Theodore, D. (2006). Efficacy and safety of eltrombopag, an oral platelet growth factor, in subjects with HCV associated thrombocytopenia: preliminary results from a phase II dose-ranging study. Program and abstracts of the 41st. Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver. Abstract 745.Google Scholar
  61. Miró, J.M., Laguno, M., Moreno, A., Rimola, A., the Hospital Clinic OLT in HIV Working Group (2006). Management of end stage liver disease (ESLD): what is the current role of orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT)? Journal of Hepatology, 44 (Suppl.): S140–S145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miró, J.M., Montejo, M., Vargas, V., Rimola, A., Rafecas, A., Miralles, P., Fortún, J., Blanes, M., de la Torre, J., Pons, J.A., the Spanish LT in HIV-Infected Patients Working Group (2006). Spanish cohort of HIV-infected patients with orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT): evaluation of 50 cases in the highly active antiretroviral (HAART) era (2002-2005). In Program and Abstracts of the 13 th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, abstract 875.Google Scholar
  63. Moreno, A., Bárcena, R., Blázquez, J., Quereda, C., Gil-Grande, L., Sánchez, J., Moreno, L., Pérez-Elías, M.J., Antela, A., Moreno, J., del Campo, S., Moreno, S. (2004a). Partial splenic embolization for the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhotic HIV-HCV patients prior to peg-interferon and ribavirin. Antiviral Therapy, 9: 1027–1030.Google Scholar
  64. Moreno, A., Quereda, C., Moreno, L., Pérez-Elías, M.J., Muriel, A., Casado, J.L., Antela, A., Dronda, F., Navas, E., Bárcena, R., Moreno, S. (2004b). High rate of didanosine-related mitochondrial toxicity in HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving ribavirin. Antiviral Therapy, 9: 133–138.Google Scholar
  65. Moreno, A., Bárcena, R., García-Garzón, S., Muriel, A., Quereda, C., Moreno, L., Mateos, M.L., Fortún, J., Martín-Dávila, P., García, M., Blesa, C., Otón, E., Moreno, A., Moreno, S. (2005). HCV clearance and treatment outcome in genotype 1 HCV-monoinfected, HIV-coinfected and liver transplanted patients on peg-INF-α-2b/ribavirin. Journal of Hepatology, 43: 783–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moreno, A., Bárcena, R., García-Garzón, S., Moreno, L., Quereda, C., Muriel, A., Zamora, J., Mateos, M.L., Pérez-Elías, M.J., Antela, A., Diz, S., Moreno, A., Moreno, S. (2006). Viral kinetics and early prediction of nonresponse to peg-IFN-α-2b plus ribavirin in HCV genotype 1/4 according to HIV serostatus. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 13: 466–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neumann, A.U., Lam, N.P., Dahari, H., Gretch, D.R., Wiley, T.E., Layden, T.J., Perelson, A.S. (1998). Hepatitis C viral dynamics in vivo and the antiviral efficacy of interferon-alpha therapy. Science , 282: 103–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. N’Kontchou, G., Seror, O., Bourcier, V., Mohand, D., Ajavon, Y., Castera, L., Grando-Lemaire, V.,Ganne-Carrie, N., Sellier, N., Trinchet, J.C., Beaugrand, M. (2005). Partial splenic embolization in patients with cirrhosis: efficacy, tolerance, and long-term outcome in 32 patients. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 17: 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Otón, E., Bárcena, R., Moreno-Planas, J.M., Cuervas-Mons, V., Moreno-Zamora, A., Barrios, C., García-Garzón, S., Moreno, A., Boullosa-Graña, E., Rubio-González, E., García-González, M., Blesa, C., Mateos, M.L. (2006). Hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation: viral and histologic response to full-dose peg-interferon and ribavirin. American Journal of Transplantation, 6: 2348–2355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pälsson, B., Hallen, M., Forsberg-Mandahl, A.M., Alwmark, A. (2003). Partial splenic embolization—long-term outcome. Langenbecks Archives of Surgery, 387: 421–426.Google Scholar
  71. Pälsson, B., Verbaan, H. (2005). Partial splenic embolization as pretreatment for antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 17: 1153–1155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pawlotsky, J.M. (2006). Therapy of hepatitis C: from empiricism to eradication. Hepatology, 43: S207–S220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pawlotsky, J.M., Hezode, C., Pellegrin, B., Soulier, A., von Wagner, M., Brouwer, J.T., Missale, G,, Germanidis, G., Lurie, Y., Negro, F., Esteban, J., Hellstrand, K., Ferrari, C., Zeuzem, S., Schalm, S.W., Neumann, A.U.. (2002). Early HCV genotype 4 replication kinetics during treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (Pegasys)-ribavirin combination: a comparison with HCV genotypes 1 and 3 kinetics. Hepatology, 36 (Suppl.): 219A.Google Scholar
  74. Pineda, J.A., Romero-Gómez, M., Diaz-García, F., Girón-González, J.A., Montero, J.L., Torre-Cisneros, J., Andrade, R.J., Gonzalez-Serrano, M., Aguilar, J., Aguilar-Guisado, M., Navarro, J.M., Salmerón, J., Caballero Granado, F.J., García-García, J.A., Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas; Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio del Hígado (2005). HIV coinfection shortens the survival of patients with hepatitis C virus-related decompensated cirrhosis. Hepatology, 41: 779–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Poynard, T., Marcellin, P., Lee, S.S., Niederau, C., Minuk, G.S., Ideo, G., Bain, V., Heathcote, J., Zeuzem, S., Trepo, C., Albrecht, J. (1998). Randomised trial of interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha-2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet, 352: 1426–1432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rios, R., Sangro, B., Herrero, I., Quiroga, J., Prieto, J. (2005). The role of thrombopoetin in the thrombocytopenia of patients with liver cirrhosis. American Journal of Gastroenterology , 100: 1311–1316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sakata, K., Hirai, K., Tanikawa, K. (1996). A long-term investigation of transcatheter splenic arterial embolization for hypersplenism. Hepatogastroenterology, 43: 309–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Salmon-Ceron, D., Lewden, C., Morlat, P., Bevilacqua, S., Jougla, E., Bonnet, F., Heripret, L., Costagliola, D., May, T., Chene, G., The Mortality 2000 Study Group (2005). Liver disease as a major cause of death among HIV infected patients: role of hepatitis C and B viruses and alcohol. Journal of Hepatology, 42: 799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sánchez-Tapias, J.M., Diago, M., Escartín, P., Enríquez, J., Romero-Gómez, M., Bárcena, R., Crespo, J., Andrade, R., Martínez-Bauer, E., Pérez, R., Testillano, M., Planas, R., Solá, R., García-Bengoechea, M., García-Samaniego, J., Muñoz-Sánchez, M., Moreno-Otero, R. (2006). Peginterferon-alpha-2a plus ribavirin for 48 versus 72 weeks in patients with detectable hepatitis C virus RNA at week 4 of treatment. Gastroenterology, 131: 451–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sangiovanni, A., Pratti, G.M., Fasani, P., Ronchi, G., Romeo, R., Manini, M., Del Ninno, E., Morabito, A., Colombo, M. (2006). The natural history of compensated cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus: a 17-year cohort study of 214 patients. Hepatology, 43: 1303–1310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sangro, B., Bilbao, I., Herrero, I., Corella, C., Longo, J., Beloqui, O., Ruiz, J., Zozaya, J.M., Quiroga, J., Prieto, J. (1993). Partial splenic embolization for the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhosis. Hepatology, 18: 309–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sarrazin, C., Teuber, G., Kokka, R., Rabenau, H., Zeuzem, S. (2000). Detection of residual hepatitis C virus RNA by transcription mediated amplification in patients with complete virologic response according to polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Hepatology, 32: 818–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Serfaty, L., Aumaitre, H., Chazouilleres, O., Bonnand, A.M., Rosmorduc, O., Poupon, R.E., Poupon, R. (1998). Determinants of outcome of compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. Hepatology, 27: 1435–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shiffman, M.L., Price, A., Hubbard, S., Wilson, M., Salvatori, J., Sterling, R.K., Stravitz, R.T., Luketic, V.A., Sanyal, A.J. (2005). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 with peginterferon alpha-2b, high weight based dose ribavirin and epoietin-alpha enhances sustained virological response (abstr). Hepatology, A55.Google Scholar
  85. Solá, R., Tural, C., Rubio, R., Santín, M., Fuster, D., Moreno, S., Berenguer, J., González, J., Clotet, B., Planas, R. (2005). Lack of benefit of an induction dose of peginterferon alpha2a on early hepatitis C virus kinetics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients: results from the CORAL-1 Pilot, Multicenter Study. In program and abstracts of the 45 th Interscience Conference of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC): abstract LB H-416b.Google Scholar
  86. Soriano, V. (2006). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-positive individuals: selection of candidates. Journal of Hepatology, 44 (Suppl.): S44–S48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Soriano, V., Puoti, M., Sulkowski, M., Mauss, S., Cacoub, P., Cargnel, A., Dieterich, D., Hatzakis, A., Rockstroh, J. (2004). Care of patients with hepatitis C and HIV co-infection: updated recommendations from the HIV-HCV International Panel. AIDS, 17: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Soto, B., Sánchez-Quijano, A., Rodrigo, L., del Olmo, J.A., García-Bengoechea, M., Hernández-Quero, J., Rey, C., Abad, M.A., Rodriguez, M., Sales Gilabert, M., González, F., Miron, P., Caruz, A., Relimpio, F., Torronteras, R., Leal, M., Lissen, E. (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. Journal of Hepatology, 26: 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Strader, D.B., Wright, T., Thomas, D.L., Seef, L.B. (2004). American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C. Hepatology, 39: 1147–1171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tajiri, T., Onda, M., Yoshida, H., Mamada, Y., Taniai, N., Kumazaki, T. (2002). Long-term hematological and biochemical effects of partial splenic embolization in hepatic cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology, 49: 1445–1448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Terrault, N.A. (2003). Prophylactic and preemptive therapies for hepatitis C virus-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation, 9 (Suppl.): 95–100. Terrault, N.A., Berenguer, M. (2006). Treating hepatitis C infection in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transplantation, 12: 1192–1204.Google Scholar
  92. Torriani, F.J., Rodriguez-Torres, M., Rockstroh, J.K., Lissen, E., González-García, J., Lazzarin, A,, Carosi, G., Sasadeuz, J., Katlama, C., Montaner, J., Sette, H. Jr., Passe, S., De Pamphilis, J., Duff, F., Schrenk, U.M., Dieterich, D.T., APRICOT Study Group (2004). Peginterferon alpha-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients. New England Journal of Medicine, 351: 438–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vallet-Pichard, A., Pol, S. (2006). Natural history and predictors of severity of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. Journal of Hepatology, 44 (Suppl.): S28–S34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vujic, I., Lauver, J.W. (1981). Severe complications from partial splenic embolization in patients with liver failure. British Journal of Radiology, 54 : 492–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wiesner, R.H., Sorrell, M., Villamil, F. (2003). Report of the First International Liver Transplantation Society Expert Panel Consensus Conference on liver transplantation and hepatitis C. Liver Transplantation, 9 (Suppl.): S1–S9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zeuzem, S. (2000). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in patients with cirrhosis. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, 7: 327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zeuzem, S., Buti, M., Ferenci, P., Sperl, J., Horsmans, Y., Cianciara, J., Ibranyi, E., Weiland, O., Noviello, S., Brass, C., Albretch, J. (2006). Efficacy of 24 weeks treatment with peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C infected with genotype 1 and low pretreatment viremia. Journal of Hepatology, 44: 97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zylberberg, H., Pol, S. (1996). Reciprocal interactions between human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 23 : 1117–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Moreno
    • 1
  • Rafael Bárcena
  • Carmen Quereda
  1. 1.Service of Infectious Diseases,Hospital Ramón y CajalCarretera de Colmenar Km 9,1Spain

Personalised recommendations