• J.H. Cross
  • E.R. Chen
Part of the World Class Parasites book series (WCPA, volume 11)


Animal life is a major source of food for many of the world’s populations, and the preparation and the eating of the animals is highly variable. In some societies, animal meat may be cooked, smoked, pickled, fermented, or eaten raw. Unfortunately, there are often parasitic infections in the animals that are transmitted to humans, especially when animal products are eaten raw or poorly cooked.


Intermediate Host Definitive Host Pacific Basin Paratenic Host Dead Worm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aguilar, R.F., Topham, K., Heatley, J.J. et al. (1999). Neural angiostrongyliasis in non-human primates: diagnosis, treatment and control of an outbreak in Southern Louisiana. Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet 272–276.Google Scholar
  2. Alicata, J.E. (1962). Angiostrongylus cantonensis(Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) as a causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis of man in Hawaii and Tahiti. Can J Zool 40, 5–8.Google Scholar
  3. Alicata, J.E., and Jindrak, K. (1970). Angiostrongylosis in the Pacific and Southeast Asia. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  4. Ambu, S., Rain, A.N., Mak, J.W., Maslah, D., and Maidah, S. (1997). Detection of Angiostrongylus malaysiensiscirculating antigen using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAB-ELISA). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28(suppl), 143–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ash, L.R. (1968). The occurrence of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin frogs of New Caledonia with observations on paratenic hosts of metastrongyles. J Parasitol 54, 432–436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ash, L.R. (1976). Observation on the role of mollusks and planarians in the transmission of Angiostrongylus cantonensisinfection to man in New Caledonia. Rev Biol Trop 24, 163–174.Google Scholar
  7. Bailey, C.A. (1948). An epidemic of eosinophilic meningitis, a previously undescribed disease occurring on Ponape, Eastern Carolines. Naval Med Res Enst Rpt No 7, 1–32.Google Scholar
  8. Beaver, P.C., and Rosen, L. (1964). Memorandum on the first report of Angiostrongyliasis in man by Nomura and Lin, 1945. Am J Trop Med Hyg 13, 589–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhaibulaya, M. (1968). A new species of Angiostrongylusin an Australian, rat Rattus fuscipes. Parasitology 58, 789–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhaibulaya, M. (1975). Comparative studies of the life history of Angiostrongylus macherrasae(Bhaibulaya, 1968) and Angiostrongylus cantonensis(Chen, 1935). Int J Parasitol 5, 7–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhaibulaya, M. (1979). Morphology and taxonomy of major Angiostrongylusspecies of Eastern Asia and Australia. In: Cross, J.H., ed. Studies on Angiostrongyliasis in Eastern Asia and Australia. NAMRU-2-SP-44. MS Naval Medical Research unit No2 Taipei, Taiwan: 4–13.Google Scholar
  12. Bhaibulaya, M., and Cross, J.H. (1972). Angiostrongylus malaysiensis(Nematode: Metastrongylidae), a new species of rat-lungworm from Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2, 527–533.Google Scholar
  13. Caldeira, R.L., Carvalho, G.S., Mendonca, C., Groeff-Teixeira, C., Silva, M., Ben, R., Maurer, R., Lima, W.S., and Lenzi, H.L. (2003). Molecular differentiation of Angiostrongylus costariciensis, A. cantonensisand A. vasorumby Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mem Iros Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 98, 1039–1043.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, B.C., and Little, M.D. (1988). The findings of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin rats in New Orleans. Am J Trop Med Hyg 38, 568–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlisle, M.S., Prociv, P., Grennan, J., et al. (1998). Cerebrospinal angiostrongyliasis in five captive tamrins (Sanguinus spp). Aust Vet J 76, 167–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, H.T. (1935). Un nouveau nematode pulmonaire, Pulmonema cantonensisn.g., n. sp. des rats de Canton. Ann Parasitol 13, 312–317.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, X.G., Li, H., and Lun, Z.R. (2005). Angiostrongyliasis, Mainland China. Emerg Infect Dis 11, 1645–1647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chotmongkol, V., Sawadpanitch, K., Sawanyawesuth, K., Louhawilal, S., and Limpawattana, P. (2006). Treatment of eosinophilic meningitis with combination of prednisolone and albendazole. 74, 1122–1124.Google Scholar
  19. Chotmongkol, V., Wongjitrat,C.L., Sawadpanit, K., and Sawanyawisuth, K. (2004a). The treatment of eosinophilic meningitis with a combination of albendazole and corticosteroid. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35, 172–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chotmongkol, V., Yimtae, K., and Itapan, P.M. (2004b). Meningitis associated with sensorineural hearing loss. J Laryngol Otol 118, 57–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chye, S.M., Lim, S.R., Chin, Y.L., Chung, L.Y., and Yin, C.M. (2004). Immuno-PCR for detection of antigen to Angiostrongylus cantonensiscirculating fifth-staged worms. Clin Chem 50, 51–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooke-Yarborough, C.M., Kornberg, A.J., Hogg, G.G., Spratt, D.M., and Forsyth, J.R. (1999). A fatal case of Angiostrongyliasis in an 11 month old infant. Med J Aust 170, 541–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Costa, L.R.R., McClure, J.J., Cnider, T.G., and Stewart, T.B. (2000). Verminous menin-goencephalomyelitis by Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensisin an American miniature horse. Equine Vet Educ 12, 2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crook, J.R., Fulton, S.E., and Supanwong, K. (1971). The infectivity of third-stage Angiostrongylus cantonensisshed from drowned Achatina fulicaand the effect of chemical agents on infectivity. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65, 602–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cross, J.H. (1977). Angiostrongyliasis.0 In: Stanford, CT: eds. Appleton & Lange, Pathology of Infectious Disease. Connor, D., Chandler, F., Schwatz, D., Manz, H., and Lack, E., 1307–1314.Google Scholar
  26. Cross, J.H. (1978). Clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis syndrome associated with angiostrongyliasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 9, 161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cross, J.H., ed. (1979). Experimental studies on Angiostrongylusspecies and strains in monkeys and laboratory animals. In: Cross, J.H., ed. Studies on Angiostrongyliasis in Eastern Asia and Australia. NAMRU-2-SP-44, Taipei, Taiwan, 118–127.Google Scholar
  28. Cross, J.H. (1998). Angiostrongylosis. In: Palmer, S.R., Saulsby, L., and Simpson, D.H., eds. Zoonoses. Oxford University Press, 773–781.Google Scholar
  29. Cross, J.H. (2004). Iterant Angiostrongylus (Parastrongyliasis) cantonensis. Proceedings of the European Multicolloqum on Parasitology, Valencia, Spain, 165–174.Google Scholar
  30. Cross, J.H., and Bhaibulaya, M. (1974). Validity of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. Bhaibu-laya and Cross. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 5, 374–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cross, J.H., and Chi, J.H.C. (1982). ELISA for the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensisantibodies in patients with eosinophilic meningitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub-lic Health 13, 73–77.Google Scholar
  32. Cuneo, P., Clement, S., and Sokol, T. (2006). Eosinophilic meningitis and angiostrongyliasis. Louisiana Morbid Rep 17:1.Google Scholar
  33. de Silva, A.C., Graeff-Teixeira, C., and Zoho, A. (2003). Diagnosis of angiostrongyliasis by PCR from sera of patients. Rev Inst Med Trop San Palo 45, 295–297.Google Scholar
  34. Dissanaike, A.S., Ihalamulla, R.L., Naotunne, T.S., Sexarathna, T., and Withana, D.S. (2001). Third report of ocular Parastrongyliasis (Angiostrongyliasis) from Sri Lanka. Parasitologia 43, 95–97.Google Scholar
  35. Dissanaike, A.S., and Cross, J.H. (2004). Ocular parastrongyliasis (angiostrongyliasis): probable first report of human infection in a patient in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). Parasitologia 46, 315–316.Google Scholar
  36. Dougherty, E.C. (1946). The genus AelurostrongylusCameron, 1927 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) and its relatives with description of Parafilaroides gen. Nov., and Angiostrongylus gubernaculatussp. nov. Proc Helm Soc Wash 13, 16–26.Google Scholar
  37. Duffy, M.S., Miller, C.L., Kinsella, J.M., and deLahunta, A. (2004). Parastrongylus cantonensisin a non-human primate, Florida. Emerg Infect Dis 10, 2207–2210.Google Scholar
  38. Eamsobhana, P., Yoolex, A., Punthuprapasa, P., and Suvouttho, S. (2004). ELISA mimicking immunoblot analysis for the specific diagnosis of human parastrongyliasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35Google Scholar
  39. Eamsobhana, P., and Tungtrongchitr, A. (2005). Angiostrongyliasis in Thailand. In: Arizowo, R., Chai, J.Y., Nawa, Y., Takahashi, Y., and Yano, A., eds. Asian Parasitology. Japan: FAP Journal, 183–198.Google Scholar
  40. Eamsobhana, P., Ongrotchanakun, J., Yoolek, A., Punthuprapasa, P., Monkong, N., and Dekumyoy, P. (2006). Multi-immunodot for rapid differential diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to parasitic infections. J Helminth 88, 249–254.Google Scholar
  41. Franco, R., Bories, S., and and Couzin, B. (1960). A propos de 142 cas de meningite a eosinophiles observes a Tahiti et en Nouvell-Caledonie. Med Trop 20, 41–55.Google Scholar
  42. Gardiner, C.H., Wells, S., Gutter, A.E., Fitzgerald, L., Anderson, D., Harris, R., and Nichols, D. (1990). Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensisas the cause of death in captive non-human primates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42, 70–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Heyneman, D., and Lim, B.L. (1967). Angiostrongylus cantonensis: proof of direct trans-mission with its epidemiological implication. Science 158, 1057–1058.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hidelaratchi, M.D., Riffsy, M.T., and Wijesekera, J.C. (2005). A case of eosinophilic meningitis following monitor lizard consumption, exacerbated by anthelminthics. Ceylon Med J 50, 84–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hung, T.P., and Chen, E.R. (1988). Angiostrongyliasis (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). In: Vinken, P., Bruyn, G., and Klawans, H., eds. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. New York: Elsevier, 8, 545–562.Google Scholar
  46. Hwang, K.P., and Chen, E.R. (1991). Clinical studies on angiostrongyliasis cantonensis among children in Taiwan. In Proceedings of the 33rdSEAMEO-TROPMED. Seminar on Emerging Problems in Food-borne Parasitic Zoonoses, November 1990, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 194–199.Google Scholar
  47. Jaroonvesama, N., Charoenlarp, K., Buranasin, P., Zaraspe, G.G., and Cross, J.H. (1985). ELISA testing in cases of clinical angiostrongyliasis in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 116, 110–112.Google Scholar
  48. Jin, E., Ma, D., Liang, Y., Ji, A., and Gan, S. (2005). MRI findings on eosinohpilic myelomeningoencephalitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Clin Radiobiol 60, 242–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim, D.Y., Stewart, T.B., Bauer, B.W., and Mitchell, M. (2002). Parastrongylus(Angiostrongylus) cantonensisnow endemic in Louisiana wildlife. 88, 1024–1026.Google Scholar
  50. Kinjo, K., Sueyoshi, S., Ota, M., Ohama, M., and Nakamoto, M. (1975). Two cases of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, Angiostrongyliasis caused by swallowing of liver of a toad, Bufo asiaticus. Abstracts of the 46th annual meeting, Okinawa-ken Ishikai-igakkai, (In Alicanta and Jindrak 1970) 7–8.Google Scholar
  51. Kliks, M.M., Kroenke, K., and Hardman, J.M. (1982). Eosinophilic radiculomyeloen-cephalitis: an angiostrongyliasis outbreak in American Samoa related to the ingestion of Achatina fulicasnails. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31, 1114–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kliks, M.M., and Palumbo, N.F. (1992). Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific basin: the global dispersion of a peridomestic zoonosis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm of rats. Soc Sci Med 34, 199–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kuberski, T., Bart, R.D., Briley, J.M., and Rosen, L. (1979). Recovery of Angiostrongylus cantonensisfrom cerebrospinal fluid of a child with eosinophilic meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 9, 629–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumar, V., Kyprianou, I., and Keenan, J.M. (2005). Ocular Angiostrongyliasis: removal of a live nematode from the anterior chamber. Eye 19, 229–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lai, S.C. (2006). Chinese herbal medicine Yin-Chin-extract as an adjunct to anthelminthic albendazole used against Angiostrongylus cantonensis–induced eosinophilic-meningitis meningoencephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75, 556–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Lindo, J.F., Waugh, C., Hall, J., Cunningham-Myrie, C., Ashley, D., Robinson, D.G., Holtz, T., and Robinson, R.D. (2002). Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensisin rats and snails after an outbreak of human eosinophilic meningitis in Jamaica. Emerg Infect Dis 8, 324–326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Lindo, J.F., Escoffery, C.T., Reid, B., Codrington, C., Cunningham-Myrie, C., and Eber-hard, M. (2004). Fatal autochthonous eosinophilic meningitis in a Jamaican child caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70, 425–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu, I.H., Chung, Y.M., Chen, S.J., and Cho, W.I. (2006). Necrotizing retinitis induced by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Am J Ophthalmol 141, 577–579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mackerras, M.J., and Sandars, D.F. (1955). The life history of the rat lungworm. Angiostrongylus cantonensis(Chen, Nematoda: Metastrongyldiae). Aust J Zool 3, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maleewong, W., Sombatsawat, P., Intapan, P.M., Wongkham, C., and Chotmongkol, C. (2001). Asia Pac J Allergy Immunol 19, 267–273.Google Scholar
  61. Malhotra, S., Mehta, D., Arora, R., Chauhan, D., Ray, S., and Jain, M. (2006). Ocular Angiostrongyliasis in a child. First case report from India. J Trop Pediatr 52, 223–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Matsumoto, T. (1937). On nematode found in the lung, especially in the pulmonary artery of the wild rat (in Japanese) J Formosan Med Assoc 36, 2620–2623.Google Scholar
  63. Mehta, D.K., Arora, A., Chouhan, D., Shroff, D., and Narula, R. (2006). Chemoparalysis for the removal of a line intraocular worm in ocular angiostrongyliasis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 34, 493–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, C.L., Kinsella, J.M., Garner, M.M., Evans, S., Gulleti, P.A., and Schmidt, R.E. (2006). Endemic infections of Parastrongylus(? Angiostrongylus) costaricensisin two species of non-human primates, raccoons and opposums from Miami, Florida. J Parasitol 9, 406–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morera, P., and Cespedes, R. (1971). Angiostrongylus costaricensisn. sp. (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) A new lungworm occurring in man in Costa Rica. Rev Biol Trop (Costa Rica) 18, 173–185.Google Scholar
  66. New, D., Little, M.D., and Cross, J.H. (1995). Angiostrongylus cantonensisinfection from eating raw snails. N Engl J Med 332, 1105–1106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Nomura, S., and Lin, P.H. (1945). First case report of human infection with Haemostrongylus ratti. Yokogawa Taiwan no Ikai 3, 589–592 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  68. Ohbayashi, M., Kamiya, M., and Bhaibulaya, M. (1979). Studies on parasitfauna of Thailand. I. Two new metastrongylid nematodes. Angiostrongylus siamensissp.n and Thaistrongylus harinsutigen. et sp.n (Metastrongylidae: Angiostrongylidae) from wild rats. Jpn J Vet Res 27, 5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Panackel, C., Vishad, Cherian, G., Vijayakumar, K., and Sharma, R.N. (2006). Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Indian J Med Microbiol 24, 220–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Pien, F.D., and Pien, B.C. (1999). Angiostrongylus cantonensiseosinophilic meningitis. Int J Infect Dis 3, 161–163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Prociv, P., Spratt, D.M., and Carlisle, M.S. (2000). Nuero-angiostrongyliasis: unsolved issues. Int J Parasitol 30, 1295–1303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Prociv, P., and Carlisle, M.S. (2001) The spread of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin Australia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32(suppl 2), 126–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Prommindaroj, K., Leelawong, S.N., and Pradatsundarasar, A. (1962). Human angiostrongyliasis of the eye in Bangkok. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11, 759–761.Google Scholar
  74. Punyagupta, S., Tuttijudat, P., and Bunnag, T. (1975). Eosinophilic meningitis in Thailand. Clinical studies of 484 typical cases probably caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24, 921–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Punyagupta, S. (1979). Angiostrongyliasis: clinical features and human pathology. In: Cross, J.H., ed. Studies of Angiostrongyliasis in Eastern Asia and Australia. U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2, special publication 44. Taipei, Taiwan. R.O.C., 138–150.Google Scholar
  76. Richards, C.S., and Merritt, J.W. (1967). Studies on Angiostrongylus cantonensisin molluscan intermediate hosts. J Parasitol 53, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No 2 382–388.Google Scholar
  77. Rosen, L., Chapell, R., Lacquer, G.L., Wallace, G.D., and Weinstein, P.P. (1962). Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by metastrongylid lungworm of rats. JAMA 179, 620–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosen, L., Laigret, J., and Bories, S. (1961). Observations on an outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis on Tahiti, French Polynesia. Am J Hyg 74, 26–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Slom, T.J., Cortese, M.M., Gerber, S.I., Jones, R.C., Holtz, T.H., Lopez, A.S., Zambrano, C.H., Sakolvaree, Y., Chaicumpa, W., Herwalt, B.L., and Johnson, S. (2002). An out-break of eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensisin travelers returning from the Caribbean. N Engl J Med 346, 668–675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sun, T. (1998). Parasitic Disorders: Pathology Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  81. Thu, T.P., Nguyen, N.X., Lan, L.T., and Kuchie, M. (2002). Ocular Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in a female Vietnamese patient: case report. Klin Monatshl Augenheilkd 219, 892–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Toma, H., Matsumura, Oshiro, C., Hidaka, T., and Sato, Y. (2002). Ocular angiostrongylia-sis without meningitis symptoms in Okinawa, Japan. J Parasitol 88, 211–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tsai, H.C., Liu, Y.C., Kunin, C.M., Lee, S.J.L., Chen, Y.S., Lin, H.H., Tsai, T.H., Lin, W.R., Huang, C.K., Yen, H.H., Tsai, T.H., Lin, W.R., Huang, C.K., Yen, M.H., and Yen, C.M. (2001a). Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis: report of 17 cases. Am J Med 111, 109–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Tsai, H.C., Liu, Y.C., and Kunin, C.M. (2001b). Eosinophilic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensiswith eating raw snails: correlation of brain magnetic reso-nance imaging scans with clinical findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68, 281–285.Google Scholar
  85. Tsai, H.C., Lee, S.J., Huang, C.K., Yen, C.M., Chen, E.R., and Liu, Y.C. (2004). Outbreak of eosinophilic meningitis associated with drinking raw vegetables juice in Southern Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71, 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ubelaker, J.F. (1986). Systematics of species referred to the genus Angiostrongylus. J Parasitol 72, 237–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wallace, G.D., and Rosen, L. (1969). Studies on eosinophilic meningitis. V. Molluscan Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensison Pacific Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18, 206–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wan, K.S., and Weng, W.C. (2004). Eosinophilic meningitis in a child raising snails as pets. Acta Trop 90, 51–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Wang, X., Huang, H., Dong, Q., Lin, Y., Wang, Z., and Li, F. (1999). A clinical research for eosinophilic meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongyliasis. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 38, 326–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Widagdo, S., Lokollo, D.M., and Margono, S.S. (1997). Ocular Angiostrongyliasis in Semorong, Central Java. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26, 72–74.Google Scholar
  91. Wang, L.C., Wang, I.H., and Jou, J.R. (2006). Optic neuritic secondary to Angiostrongylus cantonensisinfection. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 14, 189–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Yii, C.Y. (1976). Clinical observations on eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephali-tis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensisin Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25, 233–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Yii, C.Y., Chen, C.Y., Fresh, J.W., Chen, T., and Cross, J.H. (1968). Human angiostrongy-losis involving the lungs. Chin J Microbiol 1, 148–150.Google Scholar
  94. Yokogawa, S. (1937). A new species of nematode found in the lungs of rats. Haemostrongylus rattin.sp. now. Trans Nat Hist Soc Formosa 27, 247–250.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.H. Cross
    • 1
  • E.R. Chen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Preventive Medicine and BiometricsUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of ParasitologyKaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiungR.O.C

Personalised recommendations