• J. Waikagul
  • S. P. Diaz Chamacho
Part of the World Class Parasites book series (WCPA, volume 11)


Gnathostomiasis is a major food-borne parasitic zoonosis and an important public health problem in regions where raw freshwater fish is a favorite dish, such as koipla in Thailand, koi ga in Vietnam, sashimi and sushi in Japan, and cebiche and callos in Central and South America. Although these dishes are considered delicious and safe in nonendemic areas, they are a real disease culprit in endemic localities. Recently, gnathostomiasis has been considered an emerging parasitic infection for tourists who travel in Central and South America, and Southeast Asia, who, after returning to their respective countries, develop migratory swelling in skin of limbs and other organsAsia, who, after returning to their respective countries, develop migratory swelling in skin of limbs and other organs Gnathostomiasis is caused by a zoonotic nematode in the genus Gnathostoma; 12 species in this genus have been considered valid species (Table 7.1), but only five are causative agents of human infection. Four species G. spinigerum, G. doloresi, G. hispidum, and G. malaysiae are distributed in Asia, and one species G. binucleatum occurs in Central and South America (Daengsvang, 1980; Almeyda-Artigas, 1991; Almeyda-Artigas et al., 2000). The countries with high gnathostomiasis prevalence are Mexico, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam. More than 9000 people were infected in Mexico and Thailand, and over 4000 cases reported in Japan.


Wild Boar Adult Worm Stomach Wall Final Host Paratenic Host 
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Waikagul
    • 1
  • S. P. Diaz Chamacho
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Helminthology, Faculty of Tropical MedicineMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Public Health Research “Louis Pasteur”, Faculty of Chemical and Biological SciencesUniversidad Autonoma de SinaloaCuliacánMexico

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