• David Blair
  • Takeshi Agatsuma
  • Wenlin Wang
Part of the World Class Parasites book series (WCPA, volume 11)


Paragonimiasis is the disease caused by lungflukes of the genus Paragonimus. Despite that fact that some 293 million people are at risk of paragonimiasis (Keiser and Utzinger, 2005), and several million are actually infected, the condition is not likely to feature in the curriculum of medical colleges in economically developed countries.


Wild Boar Cysteine Protease Adult Worm Sodium Cholate Snail Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agatsuma, T., and Hirai, H. (2005) Genetic variation of Paragonimusspecies. In: Arizono, N., Chai, J.Y., Nawa Y., and Takahashi, Y., eds. Asian Parasitology, Vol. 1: Food-Borne Helminthiasis in Asia (pp. 155–165). Japan: FAP Journal.Google Scholar
  2. Alonso, D., Munoz, J., Gascon, J., Valls, M.E., and Corachan, M. (2006) Short report: failure of standard treatment with praziquantel in two returned travelers with Schistosoma haematobiuminfection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74, 342–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arene, F.O.I., Ibanga, E., and Asor, J.E. (1998) Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Cross River Basin, Nigeria—prevalence and intensity of infection due to Paragonimus uterobilateralisin Yakurr Local Government Area. Public Health 112, 119–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashitani, J., Kumamoto, K., and Matsukura, S. (2000) Paragonimiasis westermani with multifocal lesions in lungs and skin. Intern Med 39, 433–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Asor, J.E., Ibanga, E.S., and Arene, F.O.I. (2003) Paragonimus uterobilateralis: peak period of egg output in sputum of infected subjects in Cross River Basin, Nigeria. Mary Slessor J Med 3, 24–27.Google Scholar
  6. Belizario, V., Guan, M., Borja, L., Ortega, A.R., and Tiri, R. (1997) Pulmonary para-gonimiasis in non-responding tuberculosis patients in Irosin, Sorsogon. Philippines J Microbiol Infect Dis 26, 13–15.Google Scholar
  7. Blair, D., Agatsuma, T., and Watanobe, T. (1997) Molecular evidence for the synonymy of three species of Paragonimus, P. ohiraiMiyazaki, 1939, P. iloktsuenensisChen, 1940 and P. sadoensisMiyazaki et al., 1968. J Helminthol 71, 305–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blair, D., Waikagul, J., Honzako, Y., and Agatsuma, T. (1998) Phylogenetic relationships among the Thai species of Paragonimusinferred from DNA sequences. In: Tada, I., Kojima, S., and Tsuji, M., eds. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Parasitology, Chiba, Japan, 24–28 August 1998 (pp. 643–647). Bologna: Monduzzi International.Google Scholar
  9. Blair, D., Xu, Z.B., and Agatsuma, T. (1999) Paragonimiasis and the genus Paragonimus. Adv Parasitol 42, 113–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair, D., Davis, G.M., and Wu, B. (2001) Evolutionary relationships between trematodes and snails emphasizing schistosomes and paragonimids. Parasitol 123, S229–S243.Google Scholar
  11. Blair, D., Chang, Z.S., Chen, M.G., Cui, A.L., Wu, B., Agatsuma, T., Iwagami, M., Corlis, D., Fu, C.B., and Zhan, X.M. (2005) Paragonimus skrjabiniChen, 1959 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species in eastern Asia: a combined molecular and morpho-logical approach to identification and taxonomy. Syst Parasitol 60, 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cabrera, B.D. (1984) Paragonimiasis in the Philippines: current status. Arzneimittelforschung 34, 1188–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cabrera, B.D., and Fevidal, P.M. (1974) Studies on Paragonimusand paragonimiasis in the Philippines. III. Prevalence and treatment of human paragonimiasis with bithionol in Jaro, Leyte, Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 5, 39–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calvopiña, M., Guderian, R.H., Paredes, W., Chico, M., and Cooper, P.J. (1998) Treatment of human pulmonary paragonimiasis with triclabendazole—clinical tolerance and drug efficacy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92, 566–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Calvopiña, M., Guderian, R.H., Paredes, W., and Cooper, P.J. (2003) Comparison of two single-day regimens of triclabendazole for the treatment of human pulmonary paragonimiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97, 451–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Castilla, E.A., Jessen, R., Sheck, D.N., and Procop, G.W. (2003) Cavitary mass lesion and recurrent pneumothoraces due to Paragonimus kellicottiinfection—North American paragonimiasis. Am J Surg Pathol 27, 1157–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cha, S.H., Chang, K.H., Cho, S.Y., Han, M.H., Kong, Y., Suh, D.C., Choi, C.G., Kang, H.K., and Kim, M.S. (1994) Cerebral paragonimiasis in early active stage: CT and MR features. AJR 162, 141–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chang, Z.S., Wu, B., Blair, D., Zhang, Y., Hu, L., Chen, S.H., Chen, M., Feng, Z., and Davis, G. (2000) Gene sequences for identification of Paragonimuseggs from a human case. Chinese J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 18, 213–215.Google Scholar
  19. Chen, M.G., Chang, Z.S., Shao, X.Y., Liu, M.D., Blair, D., Chen, S.H., Zhang, Y.N., Hong, J.L., Shen, B.G., and Feng, Z. (2001) Paragonimiasis in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China: clinical, parasitological and karyotypic studies on Paragonimus westermani. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32, 760–769.Google Scholar
  20. Cheng, Y.Z., Xu, L.S., Chen, B.J., Li, L.S., Zhang, R.Y., Lin, C.X., Lin, J.X., Li, Y.S., Li, Y.R., Fang, Y.Y., Lin, K.Q., and Zheng, G.B. (2005) Survey on the current status of important human parasitic infections in Fujian Province. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 23, 283–287 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  21. China, Coordinating Office of the National Survey on the Important Human Parasitic Diseases (2005) A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 23, 332–340.Google Scholar
  22. Cho, S.Y., Kong, Y., and Kang, S.Y. (1997) Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Korea. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28, 32–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Choi, D.W. (1990) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 28 (suppl), 79–102.Google Scholar
  24. Choi, J.H., Lee, J.H., Yu, H.S., Jeong, H.J., Kim, J., Hong, Y.C., Kong, H.H., and Chung, D.I. (2006) Molecular and biochemical characterization of hemoglobinase, a cysteine proteinase, in Paragonimus westermani. Korean J Parasitol 44, 187–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Choo, J.D., Suh, B.S., Lee, H.S., Lee, J.S., Song, C.J., Shin, D.W., and Lee, Y.H. (2003) Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis combined with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69, 466–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chung, Y.B., Kong, Y., Joo, I.J., Cho, S.Y., and Kang, S.Y. (1995) Excystment of Paragonimus westermanimetacercariae by endogenous cysteine protease. J Parasitol 81, 137–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Chung, Y.B., Kong, Y., Yang, H.J., Kang, S.Y., and Cho, S.Y. (1997) cysteine protease activities during maturation stages of Paragonimus westermani. J Parasitol 83, 902–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chung, J.Y., Bae, Y.A., Na, B.K., and Kong, Y. (2005a) Cysteine protease inhibitors as potential antiparasitic agents. Expert Opin Ther Patents 15, 995–1007.Google Scholar
  29. Chung, Y.B., Kim, T.S., and Yang, H.J. (2005b) Early cysteine protease activity in excre-tory bladder triggers metacercaria excystment of Paragonimus westermani. J Parasitol 91, 953–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cilento, R.W., and Backhouse, T.C. (1927) Paragonimiasis. Its first recorded occurrence in the territory of New Guinea. Med J Aus 14, 79–81.Google Scholar
  31. Cioli, D., and Pica-Mattoccia, L. (2003) Praziquantel. Parasitol Res 90, S3–S9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Clyti, E., Khéosang, P., Huerre, M., Sayasone, S., Martinez-Aussel, B., and Strobel, M. (2006) Cutaneous paragonimiasis with flare up after treatment: a clinical case from Laos. Int J Dermatol 45, 1110–1112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Croft, S.L. (1997) The current status of antiparasite chemotherapy. Parasitology 114, S3-S15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cross, J.H. (1984) Changing patterns of some trematode infections in Asia. Arzneimittelforschung 34, 1224–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cui, J., Wang, Z.Q., Wu, F., and Jin, X.X. (1998) An outbreak of paragonimiasis in Zhengzhou city, China. Acta Trop 70, 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dainichi, T., Nakahara, T., Moroi, Y., Urabe, K., Koga, T., Tanaka, M., Nawa, Y., and Furue, M. (2003) A case of cutaneous paragonimiasis with pleural effusion. Int J Dermatol 42, 699–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dalton, J.P., Brindley, P.J., Knox, D.P., Brady, C.P., Hotez, P.J., Donnelly, S., O’Neill, S.M., Mulcahy, G., and Loukas, A. (2003) Helminth vaccines: from mining genomic information for vaccine targets to systems used for protein expression. Int J Parasitol 33, 621–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. De, N.V., Murrell, K.D., Cong, L.D., Cam, P.D., Chau, L.V., Toan, N.D., and Dalsgaard, A. (2003) The food-borne trematode zoonoses of Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34 (suppl 1), 12–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. DeFrain, M., and Hooker, R. (2002) North American paragonimiasis—case report of a severe clinical infection. Chest 121, 1368–1372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Dekumyoy, P., Setasuban, P., Waikagul, J., Yaemput, S., and Sanguankiat, S. (1995) Human lung fluke Paragonimus heterotremus: differentiation of antigen proteins of adult worms by enzyme-linked immunoeletrotransfer blot technique. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 26, 434–438.Google Scholar
  41. Dekumyoy, P., Waikagul, J., and Eom, K.S. (1998) Human lung fluke Paragonimus heterotremus: differential diagnosis between Paragonimus heterotremusand Paragonimus westermaniinfections by EITB. Trop Med Int Health 3, 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. de Leon, W.U., and Piad, J.N.C. (2005) Paragonimiasis in the Philippines. In Arizono, N., Chai, J.Y., Nawa, Y., and Takahashi, Y., eds. Asian Parasitology Vol. 1: Food-Borne Helminthiasis in Asia (pp. 133–137). Japan: FAP Journal.Google Scholar
  43. Doanh, P.N., Le, N.T., and The, D.T. (2005) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis in Vietnam. In Arizono, N., Chai, J.Y., Nawa, Y., and Takahashi, Y., eds. Asian Parasitology; Vol 1: Food-Borne Helminthiasis in Asia (pp. 149–153). Japan: FAP Journal.Google Scholar
  44. Fairweather, I. (2005) Triclabendazole: new skills to unravel an old(ish) enigma. J Helminthol 79, 227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gao, J., Liu, Y., Wang, X., and Hu, P. (2003) Triclabendazole in the treatment of Paragonimiasis skrjabini. Chin J 116, 1683–1686.Google Scholar
  46. Grove, D.I. (1990) A History of Human Helminthology. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Google Scholar
  47. Guevara, A., Vieira, J.C., Araujo, N., Calvopiña, M., Guderian, R.H., and Carlier, Y. (1995) Antibody isotypes, including igg subclasses, in Ecuadorian patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis. Memórias Inst Oswaldo Cruz 90, 497–502.Google Scholar
  48. Gyoten, J. (1994) Changes of living habits related to the infection in human paragonimiasis in Japan, based on the epidemiological data. Jpn J Parasitol 43, 462–470.Google Scholar
  49. Harinasuta, T., and Bunnag, D. (1990) Liver, lung and intestinal trematodiasis. In: Warren, K.S., and Mahmoud, A.A.F., eds. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 2nd ed (pp. 473–489). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Haswell-Elkins, M.R., and Levri, E. (2003) Food-borne trematodes. In: Cook, G.C., and Zumla, A.I., eds. Manson’s Tropical Diseases, 21st ed (pp. 1473–1486). London: Saunders.Google Scholar
  51. Heydon, G.M. (1927) Paragonimus ringeriin a New Guinea native. Med J Aus 14, 204–205.Google Scholar
  52. Hong, Y.A., Joo, C.Y., and Pyun, Y.S. (1986) Infestation status of Paragonimus westermanimetacercariae in the second intermediate host in Ulchin County, Kyungpook Province. Korean J Parasitol 24, 194–200.Google Scholar
  53. Ibanga, E.S., Arene, F.O.I., and Asor, J.E. (2003) Association of pulmonary Paragonimiasis with active pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Yakurr community in Cross River Basin, Nigeria. Mary Slessor J Med 3, 19–23.Google Scholar
  54. Ibanga, E.S., and Eyo, V.M. (2001) Pulmonary paragonimiasis in Oban community in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria: prevalence and intensity of infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95, 159–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ikeda, T. (1998) Cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunodiag-nosis of human paragonimiasis and fascioliasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59, 286–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ikeda, T. (2001a) Effect of ionophores on in vitro excystment of Paragonimus ohiraimetacercariae. Parasitol Res 87, 343–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ikeda, T. (2001b) Protein A immunocapture assay detecting antibodies to fluke cysteine proteinases for immunodiagnosis of human paragonimiasis and fascioliasis. J Helminthol 75, 245–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ikeda, T. (2003) Involvement of cysteine proteinases in excystment of Paragonimus ohiraimetacercariae induced by sodium cholate and A23187. J Helminthol 77, 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ikeda, T. (2006) Effects of L-type Ca2? channel antagonists in in vitro excystment of Paragonimus ohiraimetacercariae induced by sodium cholate. Parasitol Res 99, 336–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Im, J.G., Chang, K.H., and Reeder, M.M. (1997) Current diagnostic imaging of pul-monary and cerebral paragonimiasis, with pathological correlation. Semin Roentgenol 32, 301–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Intapan, P.M., Wongkham, C., Imtawil, K.J., Pumidonming, W., Prasongdee, T.K., Miwa, M., and Maleewong, W. (2005) Detection of Paragonimus heterotremuseggs in experimen-tally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. J Parasitol 91, 195–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Itoh, M., and Sato, S. (1990) Multi-dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for sero-diagnosis of trematodiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 21, 471–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Iwagami, M., Ho, L.Y., Su, K., Lai, P.F., Fukushima, M., Nakano, M., Blair, D., Kawashima, K., and Agatsuma, T. (2000) Molecular phylogeographic studies on Paragonimus westermaniin Asia. J Helminthol 74, 315–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Iwagami, M., Rajapakse, R.P.V.J., Paranagama, W., and Agatsuma, T. (2003) Identities of two Paragonimusspecies from Sri Lanka inferred from molecular sequences. J Helminthol 77, 239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jeon, K., Koh, W.J., Kim, H., Kwon, O.J., Kim, T.S., Lee, K.S., and Han, J. (2005) Clinical features of recently diagnosed pulmonary paragonimiasis in Korea. Chest 128, 1423–1430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jeong, M.G., Yu, J.S., Kim, K.W., Kim, J.K., Kim, S.J., Kim, H.J., and Choi, Y.D. (1999) Retroperitoneal paragonimiasis: a case of ectopic paragonimiasis presenting as peri-ureteral masses. J Comput Assist Tomogr 23, 696–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jiang, X., Fan, Z., Wang, X., and Du, Y. (2000) Clinical analysis of 258 cases with Pagumogonimus skrjabiniin west of Hubei Province. Endemic Dis Bull 15, 88–90 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  68. Jin, Y.N., Lee, J.C., Choi, I.Y., Kim, E.A., Shin, M.H., and Kim, W.K. (2006) Excretory-secretory products produced by Paragonimus westermanidifferentially regulate the nitric oxide production and viability of microglial cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 139, 16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kawanaka, M., Sugiyama, H., and Kato, K. (1999) Paragonimiasis acquired by eating boar meat: current status in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis 52, 49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Keiser, J., and Utzinger, J. (2004) Chemotherapy for major food-borne trematodes: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother 5, 1711–1726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Keiser, J., and Utzinger, J. (2005) Emerging foodborne trematodiasis. Emerg Infect Dis 11, 1507–1514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Keiser, J., Engels, D., Buscher, G., and Utzinger, J. (2005) Triclabendazole for the treat-ment of fascioliasis and paragonimiasis. Expert Opin Invest Drugs 14, 1513–1526.Google Scholar
  73. Keiser, J., Xiao, S.H., Tanner, M., and Utzinger, J. (2006) Artesunate and artemether are effective fasciolicides in the rat model and in vitro. J Antimicrobial Chemother 57, 1139–1145.Google Scholar
  74. Kim, J.S. (1969) Mass chemotherapy in the control of paragonimiasis. Korean J Parasitol 7, 6–14.Google Scholar
  75. Kim, J.S., and Park, S.S. (1974) Values of intradermal test and multiple sputum examina-tions for diagnosis of paragonimiasis. Korean J Parasitol 12, 119–125.Google Scholar
  76. Kim, T.Y., Joo, I.J., Kang, S.Y., Cho, S.Y., Kong, Y., Gan, X.X., Sukomtason, K., Sukom-tason, K., and Hong, S.J. (2001) Recombinant Paragonimus westermaniyolk ferritin is a useful serodiagnostic antigen. J Infect Dis 185, 1373–1375.Google Scholar
  77. Kim, T.S., Na, B.K., Park, P.H., Song, K.J., Hontzeas, N., and Song, C.Y. (2000) Cloning and expression of a cysteine proteinase gene from Paragonimus westermaniadult worms. J Parasitol 86, 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kohler, F., and Glaubrecht, M. (2001) Toward a systematic revision of the Southeast Asian freshwater gastropod BrotiaH. Adams, 1866 (Cerithioidea: Pachychilidae): an account of species from around the South China Sea. J Molluscan Studies 67, 281–318.Google Scholar
  79. Kong, Y., Ito, A., Yang, H.J., Chung, Y.B., Kasuya, S., Kobayashi, M., Liu, Y.H., and Cho, S.Y. (1998) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and IgE responses in human paragonimiases caused by three different species. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5, 474–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kumar, S., Tamura, K., and Nei, M. (2004) MEGA3: integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings Bioinformatics 5, 150–163.Google Scholar
  81. Kuroki, M., Hatabu, H., Nakata, H., Hashiguchi, N., Shimizu, T., Uchino, N., and Tamura, S. (2005) High-resolution computed tomography findings of P. westermani. J Thoracic Imag 20, 210–213.Google Scholar
  82. Le, T.H., De, N.V., Blair, D., McManus, D.P., Kino, H., and Agatsuma, T. (2006) Paragonimus heterotremusChen and Hsia (1964), in Vietnam: a molecular identifi-cation and relationships of isolates from different hosts and geographical origins. Acta Trop 98, 25–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee, S.C., Jwo, S.C., Hwang, K.P., Lee, N., and Shieh, W.B. (1997) Discovery of encysted Paragonimus westermanieggs in the omentum of an asymptomatic elderly woman. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57, 615–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lee, E.G., Na, B.K., Bae, Y.A., Kim, S.H., Je, E.Y., Ju, J.W., Cho, S.H., Kim, T.S., Kang, S.Y., Cho, S.Y., and Kong, Y. (2006) Identification of immunodominant excretory-secretory cysteine proteases of adult Paragonimus westermaniby proteome analysis. Proteomics 6, 1290–1300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Li, Y.S., Lin, J.X., Cheng, Y.Z., and Lin, C.X. (1999) Study on reasons and changes of infection rate in 10 epidemic areas of paragonimiasis in Fujian Province. Chin J Parasitic Dis Contr 12, 275–277.Google Scholar
  86. Li, Y., and Huang, Y. (2002) A survey of paragonimiasis in Taiwan. J Trop Med (Guangzhou), 2, 105–107 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  87. Ling, J., Hou, M., Liu, J., Zhang, Z., and Zhang, Y. (2003) Cloning and identification of the gene fragments of Paragonimus westermani. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 21, 144–146 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  88. Liu, S., Wang, Y., and Cai, S. (2002) A collective infection of Paragonimus westermanicaused by entertaining at a seafood banquet. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 20, 360 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  89. Luo, S.J., Kim, J.H., Johnson, W.E., van der Welt, J., Martenson, J., Yuhki, N., Miquelle, D.G., Uphyrkina, O., Goodrich, J.M., Quigley, H.B., Tilson, R., Brady, G., Martelli, P., Subramaniam, V., McDougal, C., Hean, S., Huang, S.Q., Pan, W.S., Karanth, U.K., Sunquist, M., Smith, J.L.D., and O’Brien, S.J. (2004) Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris). PLOS Biol 2, 2275–2293.Google Scholar
  90. Mahajan, R.C. (2005) Paragonimiasis: an emerging public health problem in India. Indian J Med Res 121, 716–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Maleewong, W. (1997) Recent advances in diagnosis of paragonimiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 (suppl 1), 134–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Maleewong, W., Intapan, P.M., Wongkham, C., Wongratanacheewin, S., Tapchaisri, P., Morakote, N., and Chaicumpa, W. (1997) Detection of Paragonimus heterotremusin experimentally infected cat feces by antigen capture-ELISA and by DNA hybridization. J Parasitol 83, 1075–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Maleewong, W., Intapan, P.M., Wongkham, C., Pajongthanasaris, M.P., Morakote, N., and Chaicumpa, W. (1998) Indirect haemagglutination test using monoclonal antibody-affinity purified antigens for diagnosis of human paragonimiasis due to Paragonimus heterotremus. Trop Med Int Health 3, 57–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Marty, A.M., and Neafie, R.C. (2000) Paragonimiasis. In: Meyers, W.M., Neafie, R.C., Marty, A.M., and Wear, D.J., eds. Pathology of Infectious Diseases: Vol. I—Helminthiases (pp. 49–67). Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and American Registry of Pathology.Google Scholar
  95. Maruyama, H., Noda, S., and Nawa, Y. (1996) Emerging problems of parasitic diseases in southern Kyushu, Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 45, 192–200.Google Scholar
  96. Maruyama, H., Noda, S., Choi, W.Y., Ohta, N., and Nawa, Y. (1997) Fine binding speci-ficities to Ascaris suumand Ascaris lumbricoidesantigens of the sera from patients of probable visceral larval migrans due to Ascaris suum. Parasitol Int 46, 181–188.Google Scholar
  97. Matsumoto, T., Kimura, S., Yamauchi, M., Nawa, Y., and Miike, T. (1998) Soluble CD23 and IL-5 levels in the serum and culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a girl with cutaneous paragonimiasis: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr 18, 49–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Min, D.Y., Lee, Y.A., Ryu, J.S., Ahn, M.H., Chung, Y.B., Sim, S., and Shin, M.H. (2004) Caspase-3-mediated apoptosis of human eosinophils by the tissue-invading helminth Paragonimus westermani. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 133, 357–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Miyazaki, I. (1991) An Illustrated Book of Helminthic Zoonoses. Tokyo: International Medical Foundation of Japan.Google Scholar
  100. Miyazaki, I., and Harinasuta, T. (1966) The first case of human paragonimiasis caused by Paragonimus heterotremusChen et Hsia, 1964. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 60, 509–514.Google Scholar
  101. Miyazaki, I., Terasaki, K., and Habe, S. (1981) Comparison of single worm infection to cats between Paragonimus westermaniand P. pulmonalis. Med Bull Fukuoka Univ 8, 405–416.Google Scholar
  102. Moyou-Somo, R., and Tagni-Zukam, D. (2003) La paragonimose au Cameroun: tableaux radio-cliniques et evolution sous traitement. Med Trop 63, 163–167 (in French, English abstract).Google Scholar
  103. Mukae, H., Taniguchi, H., Matsumoto, N., Iiboshi, H., Ashitani, J.I., Matsukura, S., and Nawa, Y. (2001) Clinicoradiologic features of pleuropulmonary Paragonimus westermanion Kyusyu Island, Japan. Chest 120, 514–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Na, B.K., Kim, S.H., Lee, E.G., Kim, T.S., Bae, Y.A., Kang, I., Yu, J.R., Sohn, W.M., Cho, S.Y., and Kong, Y. (2006) Critical roles for excretory-secretory cysteine proteases during tissue invasion of Paragonimus westermaninewly excysted metacercariae. Cell Microbiol 8, 1034–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Nagakura, K., Oouchi, M., Abe, K., and Araki, K. (2002) Pulmonary paragonimiasis misdiagnosed as tuberculosis: with special references on paragonimiasis. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 27, 97–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., Onah, D.N., and Nawa, Y. (2001a) Clinical features of paragonimiasis cases recently found in Japan: parasite-specific immunoglobulin M and G antibody classes. Clin Infect Dis 32, e171-e175.Google Scholar
  107. Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., Onah, D.N., and Nawa, Y. (2001b) Clinical features and parasite-specific IgM/IgG antibodies of paragonimiasis patients recently found in Japan. South-east Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32, 55–58.Google Scholar
  108. Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., Mukae, H., and Nawa, Y. (2002) Paragonimiasis: a Japanese perspective. Clin Chest Med 23, 409–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Narain, K., Devi, K.R., and Mahanta, J. (2004) Pulmonary paragonimiasis and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: a diagnostic dilemma. Int J Tuberculosis Lung Dis 8, 621–622.Google Scholar
  110. Narain, K., Devi, K.R., and Mahanta, J. (2005) Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human paragonimiasis. Indian J Med Res 121, 739–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Nawa, Y. (2000) Re-emergence of paragonimiasis. Intern Med 39, 353–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Nishida, H., and Shibahara, T. (2003) Epidemiology of paragonimiasis. Prog Med Parasitol Japan 8, 201–217.Google Scholar
  113. Nolan, M.J., and Cribb, T.H. (2005) The use and implications of ribosomal DNA sequenc-ing for the discrimination of digenean species. Adv Parasitol 60, 101–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Obara, A., Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., Hiromatsu, K., and Nawa, Y. (2004) Paragonimiasis cases recently found among immigrants in Japan. Intern Med (Tokyo) 43, 388–392.Google Scholar
  115. Okamoto, M., Miyake, Y., Shouji, S.I., Fujikawa, T., Tamaki, A., Takeda, Z., and Nawa, Y. (1993) A case of severe paragonimiasis miyazakii with lung and skin lesions showing massive egg production in sputum and faeces. Jpn J Parasitol 42, 429–433.Google Scholar
  116. Otsuji, Y. (2003) Paragonimiasis. Prog Med Parasitol Japan 8, 183–200.Google Scholar
  117. Pan, H.M., Chen, L.Z., Wang, C.Q., Yi, Z.D., Lu, D.X., Zhang, X.H., Qin, S., and Zhou, X.C. (2001) Case reports and epidemiologic investigation of paragonimiasis in the area of Three Gorges. Chin J Parasitic Dis Control 14, IV–V. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  118. Park, G.M., Im, K.I., and Yong, T.S. (2003) Phylogenetic relationship of ribosomal ITS2 and mitochondrial COI among diploid and triploid Paragonimus westermaniisolates. Korean J Parasitol 41, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Procop, G.W., Marty, A.M., Scheck, D.N., Mease, D.R., and Maw, G.M. (2000) North American paragonimiasis—a case report. Acta Cytol 44, 75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sachs, R., and Cumberlidge, N. (1990) The dog as a natural reservoir host for Paragonimus uterobilateralisin Liberia, West Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 84, 101–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sajid, M., and McKerrow, J.H. (2002) Cysteine proteases of parasitic organisms. Mol Biochem Parasitol 120, 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Schuster, H., Agada, F.O., Anderson, A.R., Jackson, R.S., Blair, D., McGann, H., and Kelly, G. (2007) Otitis media and a neck lump—current diagnostic challenges for Paragonimus-like trematode infections. J Infect 54, e103–e106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Seo, B.S. (1984) Socio-economic and cultural aspects of human trematode infections in Korea. Arzneimittel forschung 34, 1116–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Shibahara, T., Nishida, H., Aohagi, Y., Iwaki, T., Tsuboi, T., Torii, M., Kubo, N., Kashiwagi, A., Fukudome, H., Okamoto, M., and Yamamoto, H. (2004) Geographical distribution of the lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani-diploid type (Trematoda, Troglotrematidae) in the northern part of Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Biogeography 6, 87–93.Google Scholar
  125. Shin, M., and Min, D. (1999) Infection status of Paragonimus westermanimetacercariae in crayfish (Cambaroides similis) collected from Bogildo (Islet), Wando-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 37, 55–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Shin, M.H., Kita, H., Park, H.Y., and Seoh, J.Y. (2001) Cysteine protease secreted by Paragonimus westemaniattenuates effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated with immunoglobulin G. Infect Immun 69, 1599–1604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Shin, M.H., Seoh, J.Y., Park, H.Y., and Kita, H. (2003) Excretory-secretory products secreted by Paragonimus westermanidelay the spontaneous cell death of human eosinophils through autocrine production of GM-CSF. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 132, 48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Singh, T.S., Mutum, S.S., and Razaque, M.A. (1986) Pulmonary paragonimiasis: clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 39 cases in Manipur. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80, 967–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Singh, T.S., Singh, Y.I., and Singh, K.N. (1998) A case of paragonimiasis in a civet cat with a new Paragonimussub species in Manipur, India. Ind J Pathol Microbiol 41, 351–353.Google Scholar
  130. Singh, T.N., Kananbala, S., and Devi, K.S. (2005) Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis—a report of three cases. Ind J Med Microbiol 23, 131–134.Google Scholar
  131. Sohn, W.M., and Chai, J.Y. (2005) Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 43, 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sumitani, M., Mikawa, T., Miki, Y., Nisida, K., Tochino, Y., Kamimori, T., Fujiwara, H., Fujikawa, T., and Nakamura, F. (2005) [A case of chronic pleuritis by Paragonimus westermaniinfection resistant to standard chemotherapy and cured by three additional cycles of chemotherapy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 43, 427–431 (in Japanese).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Tay, N.S.W.T., Ong, K.C., Tan, S.Y., and Kaw, G.J.L. (2005) Tuberculosis mimicry. Eur Respir J 26, 554–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Tomita, M., Ichinari, H., Matsuzaki, Y., Shibata, K., Koga, Y., Yamaguchi, R., Mukai, H., Masumoto, H., Matsukura, S., Maruyama, H., and Nawa, Y. (1996) A case of chronic pleural empyema by Paragonimus westermaniinfection resistant to chemotherapy and cured by surgical decortication. Jpn J Parasitol 45, 242–246.Google Scholar
  135. Tort, J., Brindley, P.J., Knox, D., Wolfe, K.H., and Dalton, J.P. (1999) Proteinases and associated genes of parasitic helminths. Ad Parasitol 43, 161–266.Google Scholar
  136. Toscano, C., Yu, S.H., Nunn, P., and Mott, K.E. (1995) Paragonimiasis and tuberculosis, diagnostic confusion: a review of the literature. Trop Dis Bull 92, R1–R26.Google Scholar
  137. Uchiyama, F., Morimoto, Y., and Nawa, Y. (1999) Re-emergence of paragonimiasis in Kyushu, Japan. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 30, 686–691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Van Herwerden, L., Blair, D., and Agatsuma, T. (1999) Genetic diversity in partheno-genetic triploid Paragonimus westermani. Int J Parasitol 29, 1477–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Vélez, I., Velásquez, L.E., and Vélez, I.D. (2003) Morphological description and life cycle of Paragonimussp (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae): causal agent of human paragonimiasis in Colombia. J Parasitol 89, 749–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Vélez, I.D., Ortega, J., Hurtado, M.I., Salazar, A.L., Robledo, S.M., Jimenez, J.N., and Velásquez, L.E. (2000) Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94, 661–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Waikagul, J., and Yaemput, S. (1999) Two AchillurbainiaMetacercariae from Mountain Crabs in Central Thailand. J Trop Med Parasitol 22, 1–6.Google Scholar
  142. Waikagul, J., and Yoonuan, T. (2005) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis in Thailand. In Arizono, N., Chai, J.Y., Nawa, Y., and Takahashi, Y., eds. Asian Parasitology; Vol 1: Food-Borne Helminthiasis in Asia (pp. 139–148). Japan: FAP Journal.Google Scholar
  143. Waikagul, J., Lazo, R., Cornejo, E., Lazo, M., Llaguno, M., Barrezueta, J., Llaguno, M., Botta, M., Yoonuan, T., and Akahane, H. (2003) Paragonimusinfection in Pedernales, Ecuador. Bull Central Res Inst Fukuoka Univ Series E Interdisc Sci 1, 259–273.Google Scholar
  144. Wang, Z.Q., Cui, J., Mao, F.R., Ling, X.M., Jin, X.X., and Wu, F. (1998) Epidemiological study of paragonimosis in central China. Helminthologia 35, 117–121.Google Scholar
  145. Wang, C.R., Qiu, J.H., Zhao, J.P., Xu, L.M., Yu, W.C., and Zhu, X.Q. (2006) Prevalence of helminthes in adult dogs in Heilongjiang Province, the People’s Republic of China. Parasitol Res 99, 627–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wongkham, C., Intapan, P.M., Maleewong, W., and Miwa, M. (2005) Evaluation of human IgG subclass antibodies in the serodiagnosis of paragonimiasis heterotremus. Asian Pacific J Allergy Immunol 23, 205–211.Google Scholar
  147. World Health Organization. (1995) Control of Foodborne Trematode Infections. (Technical Report Series No. 849). Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  148. World Health Organization. (2004) Report on Joint WHO/FAO Workshop on Foodborne Trematode Infections in Asia. (Held in Hanoi, Viet Nam from 26–28 November 2002.) Report Series Number: RS/2002/GE/40(VTN). Manila: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  149. Yan, Q., Yan, T., Zhou, X., Li, Y., Zhu, C., Shi, L., Ma, X., and Hu, N. (2004) Epidemio-logical survey on the infection of Paragonimus westermaniin Jiangxi Province. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 22, 250–252 (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  150. Yang, J.S., Chen, M.G., Feng, Z., and Blair, D. (2000) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis in China: a review of the literature. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis Special Issue, 1–78.Google Scholar
  151. Yokogawa, M. (1965) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis. Adv Parasitol 3, 99–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Yokogawa, S., Cort, W., and Yokogawa, M. (1960) Paragonimusand paragonimiasis. Exp Parasitol 10, 81–137,139–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Yoo, I.R., Park, H.J., O, J.H., Chung, Y.A., Sohn, H.S., Chung, S.K., and Kim, S.H. (2006) Two cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis on FDG-PET CT imaging. Ann Nucl Med 20, 311–315.Google Scholar
  154. Yoshikawa, M., Ouji, Y., Moriya, K., Saito, K., Ishizaka, S., Sakurai, M., Morii, T., Fukuoka, A., Hamada, K., Kimura, H., Takamure, M., Tonomura, Y., Yakura, H., Kataoka, H., Ueno, S., Nakamura-Uchiyama, F., Hiromatsu, K., and Nawa, Y. (2005) Immunopositivity for Trichinella spiralispresented in a case of Paragonimiasis westermani—suspected infection by ingestion of raw bear meat. J Nara Med Assoc 56, 253–259 (in Japanese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  155. Yun, D.H., Chung, J.Y., Chung, Y.B., Bahk, Y.Y., Kang, S.Y., Kong, Y., and Cho, S.Y. (2000) Structural and immunological characteristics of a 28-kilodalton cruzipain-like cysteine protease of Paragonimus westermaniexpressed in the definitive host stage. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7, 932–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhang, X.L., Wang, Y., Huang, Y., Chen, G.G., Huang, Z.G., Huang, Y., Li, J., Qin, Q., Xiao, J., and Chen. C. (2002) Effects of variation in ecological environment of the Three Gorges reservoir areas on the epidemic of paragonimiasis. Chin J Parasitic Dis Control 15, 30–32. (in Chinese, English abstract).Google Scholar
  157. Zhang, Z., Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Dong, C., Zhang, Y., Wu, Z., Piessens, W.F., Zhang, Z.H., Zhang, Y.J., Liu, L.T., Dong, C.X., Zhang, Y.Q., and Wu, Z.Y. (1996) Antigen detection assay to monitor the efficacy of praziquantel for treatment of Paragonimus westermaniinfections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90, 43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhong, H.L., He, L.Y., Xu, Z.B., and Cao, W.J. (1981) Recent progress in studies of Paragonimusand paragonimiasis control in China. Chin Med J 94, 483–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Blair
    • 1
  • Takeshi Agatsuma
    • 2
  • Wenlin Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Marine and Tropical BiologyJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health ScienceKochi Medical SchoolOko, Nankoku CityJapan
  3. 3.Department of ParasitologyKunming Medical CollegeKunmingP.R. China

Personalised recommendations