Advertisement

Intestinal Flukes

  • Jong-Yil Chai
Part of the World Class Parasites book series (WCPA, volume 11)

Abstract

Around the world, 40 to 50 million people are currently estimated to be infected with food-borne intestinal trematodes (Fried et al., 2004), including at least 18 million people infected by fish-borne trematodes (Chai et al., 2005a). However, this may be an underestimate of the total number of humans infected. The number of trematode species, currently known to be involved, is 70 (Yu and Mott, 1994; Chai and Lee, 2002).

Keywords

Intermediate Host Human Infection Ventral Sucker Fresh Water Fish Collar Spine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Africa, C.M., and Garcia, E.Y. (1935). Heterophyid trematodes of man and dog in the Philippines with descriptions of three new species. Philippine J Sci 57, 253–267.Google Scholar
  2. Africa, C.M., de Leon, W., and Garcia, E.Y. (1940). Visceral complications in intestinal heterophyidiasis of man. Acta Med Philippina Monogr Series No. 1, 1–132.Google Scholar
  3. Ahluwalia, S.S. (1962). Studies on some helminthes of the domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica)in western Uttar Pradesh. J Helminthol 36, 347–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahn, Y.K. (1983). Lateolaborax japonicus, a role of the second intemediate host of Metag-onimus yokogawai. New Med J (Korea), 26, 135–139.Google Scholar
  5. Ahn, Y.K. (1993). Intestinal fluke of genus Metagonimusand their second intermediate hosts in Kangwon-do. Korean J Parasitol 31, 331–340 (in Korean).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahn, Y.K., Ryang, Y.S., Chai, J.Y., and Sohn, W.M. (1989). Cercarial shedding of Echinos-toma cinetorchisand experimental infection of the cercariae to several kinds of snails. Korean J Parasitol 27, 203–211 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  7. Ahn, H., Rim, H.J., and Kim, S.J. (1991). Antigenic localities in the tissues of Metagonimus yokogawaiobserved by immunogold labeling method. Korean J Parasitol 29, 245–257 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  8. Ando, R., and Ozaki, Y. (1923). On four new species of trematodes of the family Echinos-tomatidae. Dobutsugaku Zasshi 35, 108–119 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  9. Aokage, K. (1956). Studies on the trematode parasites of brackish water fishes in Chugoku coast of Setonaikai. Tokyo Iji Shinshi 73, 217–224 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  10. Asada, J. (1926). On a new echinostomatid trematode and its life history. Trans Jpn Soc Pathol 16, 293–294 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  11. Asada, J.I., Otagaki, H., Morita, M., Takeuchi, T., Sakai, Y., Konoshi, T., and Okahashi, K. (1962). A case report on the human infection with Plagiorchis murisTanabe, 1922 in Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 11, 512–516 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  12. Ashford, R.W., and Crewe, W. (2002). The Parasites of Homo sapiens. London: Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine.Google Scholar
  13. Bandyopadhyay, A.K., Manna, B., and Nandy, A. (1989). Human infection of Artyfechi-nostomum oraonin. sp. (Paryphostominae: Echinostomatidae) in a tribal community, “Oraons’ in West Bengal, India. Indian J Parasitol 13, 191–196.Google Scholar
  14. Bandyopadhyay, A.K., Maji, A.K., Manna, B., Bera, D.K., Addy, M., and Nandy, A. (1995). Pathogenicity of Artyfechinostomum oraoniin naturally infected pigs. Trop Med Parasitol 46, 138–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Belzario, V.Y. Jr., de Leon, W.U., Bsrsaba, M.J.J., Purnomo, Baird, J.K., and Bangs, M.J. (2005). A focus of human infection by Haplorchis taichui(Trematoda: Heterophyidae) in the southern Philippines. J Parasitol 90, 1165–1169.Google Scholar
  16. Betlejewska, K.M., and Jorol, E.N. (2002). Taxonomic, topical and quantitative structure of the community of intestinal flukes (Digenea) of mallards, Anas platyrhynchosLin-naeus, 1758 from the area of Szcecin. Wiadomosci Parazitologiczne 48, 343–357.Google Scholar
  17. Beaver, P.C., Jung, R.C., and Cupp, E.W. (1984). Clinical Parasitology 9th ed. Philadel-phia: Lea & Febiger.Google Scholar
  18. Bindseil, E., and Christensen, N.O. (1984). Thymus-independent crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy in the small intestine of mice infected with the trematode Echinostoma revolutum.Parasitol 88, 431–438.Google Scholar
  19. Brunet, I.R., Joseph, S., Dunne, D.W., and Fried, B. (2000). Immune responses during the acute stage of infection with the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni. Parasitol 120, 565–571.Google Scholar
  20. Bunnag, D., Radomyos, P., and Harinasuta, C. (1983). Field trial on the treatment of fasci-olopsiasis with praziqautnel. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 14, 216–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Butcher, A.R., and Grove, D.I. (2001). Description of life-cycle stages of Brachylaima cribbin. sp. (Digenea: Brachylaimidae) derived from eggs recovered from human feces in Australia. Syst Parasitol 49, 211–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Butcher, A.R., and Grove, D.I. (2005). Second intermediate host land snails and definitive host animals of Brachylaima cribbiin southern Australia. Parasite 12, 31–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Butcher, A.R., Parasuramar, P., Thompson, C.S., and Grove, D.I. (1998). First report of the isolation of an adult worm of the genus Brachylaima(Digenea: Brachylaimidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of a human. Int J Parasitol 28, 607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butcher, A.R., Palethope, H.M., and Grove, D.I. (2003). Response to re-infection with Brachylaima cribbiin immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. Parasitol Int 52, 219–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Castro, G.A. (1989). Immunophysiology of enteric parasitism. Parasitol Today, 5, 11–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chai, J.Y. (1979). Study on Metagonimus yokogawai(Katsurada, 1912) in Korea V. Intesti-nal pathology in experimentally infected albino rats. Seoul J Med 20, 104–117.Google Scholar
  27. Chai, J.Y., and Sohn, W.M. (1988). Identification of Stellantchasmus falcatusmetacercariae encysted in mullets in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 26, 65–68.Google Scholar
  28. Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (2002). Food-borne intestinal trematode infections in the Repub-lic of Korea. Parasitol Int 51, 129–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chai, J.Y., Cho, S.Y., and Seo, B.S. (1977). Study on Metagonimus yokogawai(Katsurada, 1912) in Korea. IV. An epidemiological investigation along Tamjin River Basin, South Cholla Do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 15, 115–120.Google Scholar
  30. Chai, J.Y., Seo, B.S., and Lee, S.H. (1984a). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XI. Two cases of human infection by Heterophyes heterophyes nocens. Korean J Parasitol 22, 37–42.Google Scholar
  31. Chai, J.Y., Seo, B.S., and Lee, S.H. (1984b). Study on Metagonimus yokogawai(Katsurada, 1912) in Korea VII. Susceptibility of various strains of mice to Metagonimusinfection and effect of prednisolone. Korean J Parasitol 22, 153–160.Google Scholar
  32. Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., Sohn, W.M., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1985a). Further cases of human Heterophyes heterophyes nocensinfection in Korea. Seoul J Med 26, 197–200.Google Scholar
  33. Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., Son, D.W., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1985b). Metacercariae of the Echinochasmus japonicusencysted in a fresh water fish, Pseudorasbora parva, and their development in experimental mice. Korean J Parasitol 23, 221–229.Google Scholar
  34. Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., Sohn, W.M., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1985c). Studies on intestinal trematode in Korea XVI. Infection status of loaches with the metacercariae of Echinos-toma hortense. Korean J Parasitol 23, 18–23.Google Scholar
  35. Chai, J.Y., Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Hong, S.J., and Sohn, W.M. (1986a). Human infections by Heterophyes heterophyesand H. disparimported from Saudi Arabia. Korean J Parasitol 24, 82–88.Google Scholar
  36. Chai, J.Y., Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., and Hong, S.T. (1986b). Growth and development of Pygidiopsis summain rats and mice with a supplementary note on its morphological characters. Korean J Parasitol 24, 55–62.Google Scholar
  37. Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1988). Stictodorasp. (Trematoda: Hetero-phyidae) recovered from a man in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 26, 127–132.Google Scholar
  38. Chai, J.Y., Park, S.K., Hong, S.J., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (1989a). Identification of Stictodora lari(Heterophyidae) metacercariae encysted in the brackish water fish, Acanthogobius flavimanus. Korean J Parasitol 27, 253–259.Google Scholar
  39. Chai, J.Y., Yu, J.R., Lee, S.H., Jung, H.C., Song, I.S., and Cho, S.Y. (1989b). An egg-negative patient of acute metagonimiasis diagnosed serologically by ELISA. Seoul J Med 30, 139–142.Google Scholar
  40. Chai, J.Y., Sohn, W.M., Kim, M.H., Hong, S.T., and Lee, S.H. (1991). Three morphologi-cal types of the genus Metagonimusencysted in the dace, Tribolodon taczanowskii, caught from the Sumjin River. Korean J Parasitol 29, 217–225.Google Scholar
  41. Chai, J.Y., Huh, S., Yu, J.R., Kook, J., Jung, K.C., Park, E.C., Sohn, W.M., Hong, S.T., and Lee, S.H. (1993a). An epidemiological study of metagonimiasis along the upper reaches of the Namhan River. Korean J Parasitol 31, 99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chai, J.Y., Kim, T.H., Kho, W.G., Chung, S.W., Hong, S.T., and Lee, S.H. (1993b). Mucosal mast cell responses to experimental Metagonimus yokogawaiinfection in rats. Korean J Parasitol 31, 129–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Chai, J.Y., Yun, T.Y., Kim, J., Huh, S., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (1994a). Chronological observation on intestinal histopathology and intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine of rats infected with Metagonimus yokogawai. Korean J Parasitol 32, 215–221 (in Korean).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chai, J.Y., Nam, H.K., Kook, J., and Lee, S.H. (1994b). The first discovery of an endemic focus of Heterophyes nocens(Heterophyidae) infection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 32, 157–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.T., Lee, S.H., Lee, G.C., and Min, Y.I. (1994c). A case of echinostomi-asis with ulcerative lesions in the duodenum. Korean J Parasitol 32, 201–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Chai, J.Y., Kim, J., and Lee, S.H. (1995a). Invasion of Metagonimus yokogawaiinto the submucosal layer of the small intestine of immunosuppressed mice. Korean J Parasitol 33, 313–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Chai, J.Y., Kim, S.J., Kook, J., and Lee, S.H. (1995b). Effects of gamma-irradiation on the survival and development of Metagonimus yokogawaimetacercariae in rats. Korean J Parasitol 33, 297–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Chai, J.Y., Han, M.S., Seo, M., and Lee, S.H. (1996). Effects of gamma-irradiation on the sur-vival and development of Gymnophalloides seoiin C3H mice. Korean J Parasitol 34, 21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Chai, J.Y., Kim, I.M., Seo, M., Guk, S.M., Kim, J.L., Sohn, W.M., and Lee, S.H. (1997). A new focus of Heterophyes nocens, Pygidiopsis summa, and other intestinal flukes in a coastal area of Muan-gun, Chollanam-do. Korean J Parasitol 35, 233–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Chai, J.Y., Song, T.E., Han, E.T., Guk, S.M., Park, Y.K., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (1998a). Two endemic foci of heterophyids and other intestinal fluke infections in southern and western coastal areas in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 36, 155–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chai, J.Y., Kim, T.K., Cho, W.H., Seo, M., Kook, J., Guk, S.M., and Lee, S.H. (1998b). Intestinal mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia in BALB/c and C3H mice infected with Neodiplostomum seoulense. Korean J Parasitol 36, 109–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Chai, J.Y., Chung, W.J., Kook, J., Seo, M., Park, Y.K., Guk, S.M., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (1999). Growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoiin immunocompetent and immunosupressed C3H/HeN mice. Korean J Parasitol 37, 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Chai, J.Y., Lee, G.C., Park, Y.K., Han, E.T., Seo, M., Kim, J., Guk, S.M., Shin, E.H., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (2000a). Persistent endemicity of Gymnophalloides seoiinfection in a southwestern coastal village with special reference to its egg laying capacity in the human host. Korean J Parasitol 38, 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Chai, J.Y., Shin, E.H., Han, E.T., Guk, S.M., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (2000b). Genetic difference in susceptibility and fatality of three strains of mice experimentally infected with Neodiplostomum seoulense. J Parasitol 86, 1140–1144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Chai, J.Y., Han, E.T., Park, Y.K., Guk, S.M., Kim, J.L., and Lee, S.H. (2000c). High endemicity of Metagonimus yokogawaiinfection among residents of Samchok-shi, Kangwon-do. Korean J Parasitol 38, 33–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Chai, J.Y., Lee, H.S., Hong, S.J., Yoo, J.H., Guk, S.M., Seo, M., Choi, M.H., and Lee, S.H. (2001a). Intestinal histopathology and in situ postures of Gymnophalloides seoiin experimentally infected mice. Korean J Parasitol 39, 31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Chai, J.Y., Han, E.T., Park, Y.K., Guk, S.M., and Lee, S.H. (2001b). Acanthoparyphium tyosenense: the discovery of human infection and identification of its source. J Parasitol 87, 794–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Chai, J.Y., Park, J.H., Han, E.T., Shin, E.H., Kim, J.L., Hong, K.S., Rim, H.J., and Lee, S.H. (2001c). A nationwide survey of the prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoiinfection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 39, 23–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Chai, J.Y., Han, E.T., Park, Y.K., Guk, S.M., Park, J.H., and Lee, S.H. (2002). Stictodora lari(Digenea: Heterophyidae): the discovery of the first human infections. J Parasitol 88, 627–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Chai, J.Y., Choi, M.H., Yu, J.R., and Lee, S.H. (2003). Gymnophalloides seoi: a new human intestinal trematode. Trends Parasitol 19, 109–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chai, J.Y., Park, J.H., Han, E.T., Shin, E.H., Kim, J.L., Guk, S.M., Hong, K.S., Lee, S.H., and Rim, H.J. (2004). Prevalence of Heterophyes nocensand Pygidiopsis summainfec-tions among residents of the western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71, 617–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Chai, J.Y., Murrell, K.D., and Lymbery, A.J. (2005a). Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int J Parasitol 35, 1233–1254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chai, J.Y., Park, J.H., Han, E.T., Guk, S.M., Shin, E.H., Lin, A., Kim, J.L., Sohn, W.M., Yong, T.S., Eom, K.S., Min, D.Y., Hwang, E.H., Phommasack, B., Insisiengmai, B., and Rim, H.J. (2005b). Mixed infections with Opisthorchis viverriniand intestinal flukes in residents of Vientiane Municipality and Saravane Province in Laos. J Helminthol 79, 283–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Chang, Y.D., Sohn, W.M., Ryu, J.H., Kang, S.Y., and Hong, S.J. (2005). A human infection of Echinostoma hortensein duodenal bulb diagnosed by endoscopy. Korean J Parasitol 43, 57–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Chen, H.T. (1936). A study of the Haplorchinae (Looss, 1899) Poche 1926 (Trematoda: Heterophyidae). Parasitology, 28, 40–55.Google Scholar
  66. Chen, H.T. (1942). The metacercaria and adult of Centrocestus formosanus(Nishigori, 1924), with notes on the natural infection of rats and cats with C. armatus(Tanabe, 1922). J Parasitol 28, 285–298.Google Scholar
  67. Chen, C.E., and Cai, G.D. (1985). Morphological testimony: demonstration of a case of human infestation with Cotylurus japonicusIshii, 1932 (Trematoda, Strigeidae). Bull Hunan Med Coll 10, 31–34 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  68. Chen, X.Q., Feng, G.X., and Qian, Z.F. (1993). Survey on infection due to Echinostoma hortensein Liaoning Province. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 11, 226 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  69. Cheng, Y.Z., Lin, J.X., Chen, B.J., Fang, Y.Y., Guo, Z.F., Xu, G.F., and Wu, Z.Y. (1992a). A new species of Echinochasmusparasitic in man and observation of its experimental infection. Wuyi Sci J 9, 43–48 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  70. Cheng, Y.Z., Lin, J.X., Fang, Y.Y., Lin, A.Q., Chen, B.J., and Zhuang H.J. (1992b). Dis-covery of human infection with Echinostoma angustitestis. Chin J Zoonoses 8, 7–8 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  71. Chi, J.G., Kim, C.W., Kim, J.R., Hong, S.T., and Lee, S.H. (1988). Intestinal pathology in human metagonimiasis with ultrastructural observations of parasites. J Korean Med Sci 3, 171–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Chieffi, P.P., Gorla, M.C.O., Torres, D.M.A.G.V., Dias, R.M.D.S., Maggini, A.C.S., Mon-teiro, A.V.M., and Woiciechovski, E. (1992). Human infection by Phagicolasp. (Trema-toda: Heterophyidae) in the municipality of Registro, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. J Trop Med Hyg 95, 346–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Cho, S.Y., and Kim, S.I. (1985). Plecoglossus altivelisas a new fish intermediate host of Heterophyopsis continua. Korean J Parasitol 23, 173–174.Google Scholar
  74. Cho, S.Y., Kang, S.Y., and Ryang, Y.S. (1981). Helminthes infections in the small intestine of stray dogs in Ejungbu City, Kyunggi Do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 19, 55–59.Google Scholar
  75. Cho, S.Y., Kang, S.Y., and Lee, J.B. (1984). Metagonimiasis in Korea. Session V: Intesti-nal fluke and Schistosoma japonicum. Arzneimittelforschung Drug Res 34, 1211–1213.Google Scholar
  76. Cho, S.Y., Kim, S.I., Earm, Y.E., and Ho, W.K. (1985). A preliminary observation on watery content of small intestine in Metagonimus yokogawaiinfected dogs. Korean J Parasitol 23, 175–177.Google Scholar
  77. Cho, S.Y., Kim, S.I., and Kang, S.Y. (1987). Specific IgG antibody response in experimen-tal cat metagonimiasis. Korean J Parasitol 25, 149–153.Google Scholar
  78. Cho, C.M., Tak, W.Y., Kweon, Y.O., Kim, S.K. Choi, Y.H., Kong, H.H., and Chung, D.I. (2003) A human case of Echinostoma hortense(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) infec-tion diagnosed by gastroduodenal endoscopy in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 41, 117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Choi, M.H., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1998a). Purification and characterization of a 16-kDa cysteine proteinase of Gymnophalloides seoi(Gymnophallidae) metacercariae. J Parasitol 84, 350–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Choi, M.H., Park, W.J., Park, Y.K., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1998b). Isolation and charac-terization of a 40 kDa cysteine protease from Gymnophalloides seoiadult worms. Korean J Parasitol 36, 133–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Choi, M.H., Choe, S.C., and Lee, S.H. (1999). A 54 kDa cysteine protease purified from the crude extract of Neodiplostomum seoulenseadult worms. Korean J Parasitol 37, 39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Choi, M.H., Kim, S.H., Chung, J.H., Jang, H.J., Eom, J.H., Chung, B.S., Sohn, W.M., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.T. (2006) Morphological observations of Echinochasmus japon-icuscercariae and the in vitro maintenance of its life cycle from cercariae to adults. J Parasitol 92, 236–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Chun, S.K. (1960a). A study on the metacercaria of Metagonimus takahashiiand Exorchis oviformisfrom Carassius carassius.Bull Pusan Fisheries Coll 3, 31–39.Google Scholar
  84. Chun, S.K. (1960b). A study on some trematodes whose intermediate hosts are brackish water fish (I). The life history of Heterophyes continus, the intermediate host of which is Lateolabrax japonicus. Bull Pusan Fisheries Coll 3, 40–44.Google Scholar
  85. Chun, S.K. (1963). A study on some trematodes whose intermediate hosts are brackish water fish (II). The life history of Pygidiopsis summus, the intermediate host of which is Mugil cephalus. Bull Pusan Fisheries Coll 5, 1–5.Google Scholar
  86. Chung, P.R., and Jung, Y. (2000). Cipangopaludina chnensis malleata(Gastropoda: Viviparidae): a new second molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke Echinostoma cinetorchis(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea. J Parasitol 85, 963–964.Google Scholar
  87. Chung, P.R., Jung, Y., and Kim, D.S. (1996). Segmentina (Polypylis) hemisphaerula(Gas-tropoda: Planorbidae): a new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke Neodiplostomum seoulense(Trematoda: Diplostomatidae) in Korea. J Parasitol 82, 336–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Collomb, P.H., Deschiens, R., and Demarchi, J. (1960). Sur Deux Cas de Distomatodse Cerebrale a Heterophyes heterophyes. Bull Soc Pathol Exotique 53, 144–147.Google Scholar
  89. Cross, J.H., and Bassaca-Sevilla, V. (1981). Intestinal parasitic infections in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 12, 262–274.Google Scholar
  90. Eom, K.S., and Rim, H.J. (1984). A study on the parasitic helminths of domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchosvar. domesticaLinnaeus) in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 22, 215–221.Google Scholar
  91. Eom, K.S., Son, S.Y., Lee, J.S., and Rim, H.J. (1985). Heterophyid trematodes (Hetero-phyopsis continua, Pygidiopsis summaand Heterophyes heterophyes nocens) from domestic cats in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 23, 197–202.Google Scholar
  92. Eastburn, R.L., Tritsche, T.R., and Terhune, Jr. C.A. (1987). Human intestinal infection with Nanophyetus salmincolafrom salmonid fishes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36, 586–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Faust, E.C., and Nishigori, M. (1926). The life cycles of two new species of Heterophyidae parasitic in manmals and birds. J Parasitol 13, 91–131.Google Scholar
  94. Fan, S.Q., and Sun, M.F. (1989). Echinostoma hortense.Bull Harbin Med Univ 23, 161 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  95. Fried, B. (2001). Biology of echinostomes except Echinostoma. Adv Parasitol 49, 163–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Fried, B., and Graczyk, T.K. (2004). Recent advances in the biology of Echinostomaspecies in the ‘revolutum’ group. Adv Parasitol 58, 139–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Fried, B., Graczyk, T.K., and Tamang, L. (2004). Food-borne intestinal trematodiases in humans. Parasitol Res 93, 159–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Fujino, T., Fried, B., and Tada, I. (1993). The expulsion of Echinostoma trivolvis: worm kinetics and intestinal cytopathology in conventional and congenitally athymic BALB/c mice. Parasitology 106, 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gilman, R.H., Mondal, G., Maksud, M., Alam, K., Rutherford, E., Gilman, J.B., and Khan, M.U. (1982). Endemic focus of Fasciolopsis buskiinfection in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31, 796–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Grover, M., Dutta, R., Kumar, R., Aneja, S., and Mehta, G. (1998). Echinostoma ilocanuminfection. Indian Pediatr 35, 549–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Guk, S.M., Park, J.Y., Seo, M., Han, E.T., Kim, J.L., and Chai, J.Y. (2005). Susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to infection with three species of Metagonimusprevalent in the Republic of Korea. J Parasitol 91, 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Guk, S.M., Park, J. H, Shin, E.H., Kim, J.L., Lin, A., and Chai, J.Y. (2006). Prevalence of Gymnophalloides seoiinfection in coastal villages of Haenam-gun and Yeongam-gun, Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 44, 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Han, E.T., Kim, J.L., and Chai, J.Y. (2003). Recovery, growth and development of Acan-thoparyphium tyosenense(Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in experimental chicks. J Para-sitol 89, 176–179.Google Scholar
  104. Harinasuta, T., Bunnag, D., and Radomyos, P. (1987). Intestinal fluke infections. In Bail-lieres Clin Trop Med Commun Dis 2(3): 695–721.Google Scholar
  105. Himonas, C.A. (1964). Heterophyes heterophyesfrom dogs in Greece. J Parasitol 50, 799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hong, S.T., Hong, S.J., Lee, S.H., Seo, B.S., and Chi, J.G. (1982). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea VI. On the metacercaria and the second intermediate host of Fibri-cola seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 20, 101–111.Google Scholar
  107. Hong, S.T., Cho, T.K., Hong, S.J., Chai, J.Y., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1984). Fifteen human cases of Fibricola seoulensisinfection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 22, 61–65.Google Scholar
  108. Hong, S.T., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1986). Ten human cases of Fibricola seoulensisinfec-tion and mixed one with Stellantchasmusand Metagonimus. Korean J Parasitol 24, 94–96.Google Scholar
  109. Hong, S.J., Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1988). A human case of Centrocestus armatusinfection in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 26, 55–60.Google Scholar
  110. Hong, S.J., Woo, H.C., and Kim, I.T. (1989). Study on Centrocestus armatusin Korea I. Infection status of Zacco platypusand Z. temminckiiwith the metacercariae of C. arma-tus. Korean J Parasitol 27, 41–46 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  111. Hong, S.J., Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., and Seo, B.S. (1990a). Recovery rate, growth and develop-ment of Heterophyopsis continuain experimental chicks. Korean J Parasitol 28, 53–62.Google Scholar
  112. Hong, S.T., Yu, J.R., Myong, N.H., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1990b). Activities of brush border membrane bound enzymes of the small intestine in Metagonimus yokogawaiinfection in mice. Korean J Parasitol 29, 9–20.Google Scholar
  113. Hong, S.J., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1991). Surface ultrastructure of the developmental stages of Heterophyopsis continua(Trematoda: Heterophyidae). J Parasitol 77, 613–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Hong, S.J., Chang, C.K., Lee, D.H., and Woo, H.C. (1996a). One human case of natural infection by Heterophyopsis continuaand three other species of intestinal trematodes. Korean J Parasitol 34, 87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Hong, S.J., Woo, H.C., and Chai, J.Y. (1996b). A human case of Plagiorchis muris(Tan-abe, 1922: Digenea) infection in the Republic of Korea: Freshwater fish as a possible source of infection. J Parasitol 82, 647–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Hong, S.J., Han, J.H., Park, C.K., and Kang, S.Y. (1997). Intestinal pathologic findings at early stage infection by Centrocestus armatusin albino rats. Korean J Parasitol 35, 135–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hong, S.J., Woo, H.C., Lee, S.U., and Huh, S. (1999). Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis murismetacercariae in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 37, 65–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Howell, M.J. (1973). The resistance of cysts of Stictodora lari(Trematoda: Heterophyi-dae) to encapsulation by cells of the fish host. Int J Parasitol 3, 653–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Huffman, J.E., and Fried, B. (1990). Echinostomaand echinostomiasis. Adv Parasitol 29, 215–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Huffman, J.E., Michos, C., and Fried, B. (1986). Clinical and pathological effects of Echi-nostoma revolutum(Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Parasitol 93, 505–515.Google Scholar
  121. Huh, S., and Song, H.B. (1993). Transmission electron microscopic findings of the tribo-cytic organ of Fibricola seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 31, 315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Huh, S., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.T., and Lee, S.H. (1988). Clinical and histopathological find-ings in mice heavily infected with Fibricola seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 26, 45–53.Google Scholar
  123. Huh, S., Lee, S.H., and Seo, B.S. (1990). Histochemical findings of the tribocytic organ and tegument of Fibricola seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 28, 155–160.Google Scholar
  124. Huh, S., Sohn, W.M., and Chai, J.Y. (1993). Intestinal parasites of cats purchased in Seoul. Korean J Parasitol 31, 371–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Huh, S., Lee, S.U., and Huh, S.C. (1994). A follow-up examination of intestinal parasitic infections of the Army soldiers in Whachon-gun, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 32, 61–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Huh, S., Lee, S.U., Won, M.H., Jeong, Y.G., Kwon, Y.H., and Choi, C.S. (1995). IgA response in mice infected with Neodiplostomum seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 33, 55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ito, J. (1964). Metagonimusand other human heterophyid trematodes. Prog Med Parasitol Jpn 1, 314–393.Google Scholar
  128. Ito, J., Mochizuki, H., Ohno, Y., and Ishiguro, M. (1991). On the prevalence of Metago-nimussp. among the imhabitants at Hamamatsu basin in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Parasitol 40, 274–278 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  129. Jang, Y.K., Kang, S.Y., Kim, S.I., and Cho, S.Y. (1985). In situposture of anterior body of Metagonimus yokogawaiin experimentally infected dog. Korean J Parasitol 23, 203–213.Google Scholar
  130. Jaroonvesama, N., Charoenlarp, K., and Areekul, S. (1986). Intestinal absorption studies in Fasciolopsis buskiinfection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 17, 582–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Jueco, N.L., and Monzon, R.B. (1984). Cathaemacia cabreraisp. n. (Trematoda: Cathaemaciidae) a new oarqasite of man in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 15, 427–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kagei, N., Oshima, T., Ishikawa, K., and Kihata, M. (1964). Two cases of human infection with Stellantchasmus falcatusOnji et Nishio, 1915 (Heterophyidae) in Kochi Prefec-ture. Jpn J Parasitol 13, 472–478.Google Scholar
  133. Kagei, N., Hayashi, S., and Kato, K. (1980). On the heterophyid trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes) infection cases imported from Egypt to Japan. Jpn J Trop Med 8, 1–7 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  134. Kaewkes, S., Elkins, D.B., Haswell-Elkins, M.R., and Sithithaworn, P. (1991a). Phanerop-solus spinicirrusn. sp. (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae), a human parasite in Thailand. J Parasitol 77, 514–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kaewkes, S., Elkins, D.B., Sithithaworn, P., and Haswell-Elkins, M.R. (1991b) Compara-tive studies on the morphology of the eggs of Opisthorchis viverriniand lecithodendriid trematodes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22, 623–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kang, S.Y., Cho, S.Y., Chai, J.Y., Lee, J.B., and Jang, D.H. (1983). A study on intestinal lesions of experimentally reinfected dogs with Metagonimus yokogawai. Korean J Parasitol 21, 53–73.Google Scholar
  137. Katsuta, I. (1931). Studies on the metacercariae of Formosan brackish water fishes. (1) On a new species, Stellantchamus formosanusn. sp., parasitic in Mugil cephalus. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 30, 1404–1417 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  138. Katsuta, I. (1932a). Studies on the metacercariae of Formosan brackish water fishes. (2) On a new species, Metagonimus minutusn. sp., parasitic in Mugil cephalus. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 31, 26–39 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  139. Katsuta, I. (1932b). Studies on the metacercariae of Formosan brackish water fishes. (4) A new trematode, Monorchotrema yokogawai, which takes Mugil cephalusas its interme-diate host. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 31, 160–175 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  140. Katsuta, I. (1932c). Studies on the metacercariae of Formosan brackish water fishes. (5) On a new species, Stellantchasmus amplicaecalisn. sp., parasitic in Mugil cephalus. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 31, 457–471 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  141. Kawahara, S., and Yamamoto, E. (1933). Human cases of Echinostoma cinetorchis. Tokyo Iji Shinshi (No. 2840), 1794–1796 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  142. Kho, W.G., Chai, J.Y., Chun, C.H., and Lee, S.H. (1990). Mucosal mast cell responses to experimental Fibricola seoulensisinfection. Seoul J Med 31, 191–199.Google Scholar
  143. Kifune, T., and Takao, Y. (1973). Description of Psilorchis hominissp. nov. from man (Trematoda: Echinostomatoidea: Psilostomidae). Jpn J Parasitol 22, 111–115.Google Scholar
  144. Kim, C.H. (1980). Study on the Metagonimussp. in Gum River Basin, Chungchung-nam Do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 18, 215–228 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  145. Kim, C.H., Kim, N.M., Lee, C.H., and Park, J.S. (1987). Studies on the Metagonimusfluke in the Daecheong Reservoir and the upper stream of Geum River, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 25, 69–82 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  146. Kim, K.H., Choi, E.S., and Rim, H.J. (1996). Conger myriaster, a new second intermedi-ate host of Heterophyopsis continua(Digenea: Heterophyidae). Korean J Parasitol 34, 283–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Kim, I., Im, J.A., Lee, K.J., and Ryang, Y.S. (2000). Mucosal mast cell reponses in the small intestine of rats infected with Echinostoma hortense. Korean J Parasitol 38, 139–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kim, Y.K., Yu, J.E., Chung, E.Y., and Chung, P.R. (2004). Acanthoparyphium tyosenense(Digenea: Echinostomatidae): experimental confirmation of the cercaria and its complete life history in Korea. J Parasitol 90, 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kim, D.G., Kim, T.S., Cho, S.H., Song, H.J., and Sohn, W.M. (2006). Heterophyid metac-ercarial infections in brackish water fishes from Jinju-man (Bay), Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 44, 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kino, H., Oishi, H., Ohno, Y., and Ishiguro, M. (2002). An endemic human infection with Heterophyes nocensOnji et Nishio, 1916 at Mikkabi-cho, Shizuoka, Japan. Jpn J Trop Med Hyg 30, 301–304.Google Scholar
  151. Kino, H., Suzuki, Y., Oishi, H., Suzuki, S., Yamagiwa, S., and Ishiguro, M. (2006). Geo-graphical distribution of Metagonimus yokogawai, and M. miyataiin Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, and their site preferences in the sweetfish, Plecoglossus altivelis, and hamsters. Parasitol Int 55, 201–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kook, J., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1997). In vitrocultivation of Gymnophalloides seoimetacercariae (Digenea: Gymnophallidae). Korean J Parasitol 35, 25–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Kook, J., Nawa, Y., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1998). Pathogenicity and lethality of a minute intestinal fluke, Neodiplostomum seoulense, to various strains of mice. J Parasitol 84, 1178–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Kostadinova, A., and Gibson, D.I. (2001). A redescription of Uroproctepisthmium bursi-cola(Creplin, 1837) n. comb. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), and re-evaluations of the genera EpisthmiumLuhe, 1909 and UroproctepisthmiumFischthal & Kuntz, 1976. Syst Parasitol 50, 63–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Kostadinova, A., and Gibson, D.I. (2002). IsthmiophoraLuhe, 1909 and EuparyphiumDiet, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) re-defined, with comments on their nominal species. Syst Parasitol 52, 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Kostadinova, A., Vaucher, C., and Gibson, D.I. (2002). Redescriptions of two echinos-tomes from birds in Paraguay, with comments on DrepanocephalusDiez, 1909 and ParyphostomumDietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae). Syst Parasitol 53, 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Kumchoo, K., Wongsawad, C., Chai, J.Y., Vanittanakom, P., and Rojanapaibul, A. (2005). High prevalence of Haplorchis taichuimetacercariae in cyprinoid fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36, 451–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kuntz, R.E., and Lo, C.T. (1967). Preliminary studies on Fasciolopsis buski(Lankester, 1857) (giant Asian intestinal fluke) in the United States. Trans Am Microsc Soc 86, 163–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Kurokawa, T. (1935). On a new species of Stamnosomafound from a man. Tokyo Iji Shin-shi ,(No. 2915), 293–298 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  160. Lee, H.H. (1972). Survey of Fasciolopsis buskiinfection among children of Liu-ying pri-mary school in Tainan county. Chin J Microbiol 5, 110–114.Google Scholar
  161. Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (2001). A review of Gymnophalloides seoi(Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 39, 85–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Lee, S., J., and Hong, S.J. (2002). Gastric echinostomiasis diagnosed by endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc 55, 440–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Lee, J.B., Chi, J.G., Lee, S.K., and Cho, S.Y. (1981). Study on the pathology of metago-nimiasis in experimentally infected cat intestine. Korean J Parasitol 19, 109–129.Google Scholar
  164. Lee, J.K., Lee, H.I., Baek, B.K., and Kim, P.G. (1983). Survey on encysted cercariae of trematodes from fresh-water fishes in Mangyeong riverside area. Korean J Parasitol 21, 187–192 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  165. Lee, J.K., Lee, H.I., Baek, B.K., and Kim, P.G. (1984a). Survey on encysted cercariae of trematodes from fresh-water fishes in Tongjin riverside areas in Korea. Korean J Para-sitol 22, 190–202 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  166. Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., Jun, Y.S., and Seo, B.S. (1984b). Anthelmintic effect of praziquantel (Distocide@) against Metagonimus yokogawaiinfection. J Korean Soc Chemother 2, 167–171 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  167. Lee, S.H., Hwang, S.W., Chai, J.Y., and Seo, B.S. (1984c). Comparative morphology of eggs of heterophyids and Clonorchis sinensiscausing human infections in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 22, 171–180.Google Scholar
  168. Lee, S.H., Yoo, B.H., Hong, S.T., Chai, J.Y., Seo, B.S., and Chi, J.G. (1985). A histopatho-logical study on the intestine of mice and rats experimentally infected by Fibricola seoulensis. Korean J Parasitol 23, 58–72.Google Scholar
  169. Lee, S.K., Chung, N.S., Ko, I.H., Ko, H.I., and Chai, J.Y. (1986). Two cases of natural human infection by Echinostoma hortense. Korean J Parasitol 24, 77–81.Google Scholar
  170. Lee, S.K., Chung, N.S., Ko, I.H., Ko, H.I., and Sohn, W.M. (1988a). A case of natural human infection by Echinostoma cinetorchis.Korean J Parasitol 26, 61–64.Google Scholar
  171. Lee, S.K., Chung, N.S., Ko, I.H., Sohn, W.M., Hong, S.T., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1988b). An epidemiological survey of Echinostoma hortenseinfection in Chongsong-gun, Kyongbuk Province. Korean J Parasitol 26, 199–206.Google Scholar
  172. Lee, S.H., Lee, J.K., Sohn, W.M., Hong, S.T., Hong, S.J., and Chai, J.Y. (1988c). Metacer-cariae of Echinostoma cinetorchisencysted in the fresh water snail, Hippeutis (Helicor-bis) cantori, and their development in rats and mice. Korean J Parasitol 26, 189–197.Google Scholar
  173. Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.T., and Sohn, W.M. (1990a). Experimental life history of Echinostoma cinetorchis. Korean J Parasitol 28, 39–44.Google Scholar
  174. Lee, S.H., Noh, T.Y., Sohn, W.M., Kho, W.G., Hong, S.T., and Chai, J.Y. (1990b). Chrono-logical observation of intestinal lesions of rats experimentally infected with Echinos-toma hortense. Korean J Parasitol 28, 45–52 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  175. Lee, S.H., Sohn, W.M., and Chai, J.Y. (1990c). Echinostoma revolutumand Echinoparyphium recurvatumrecovered from house rats in Yangyang-gun, Kangwon-do. Korean J Parasitol 28, 235–240.Google Scholar
  176. Lee, S.C., Chung, Y.B., Kong, Y., Kang, S.Y., and Cho, S.Y. (1993a). Antigenic protein frac-tions of Metagonimus yokogawaireacting with patient sera. Korean J Parasitol 31, 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.T. (1993b). Gymnophalloides seoin. sp. (Digenea: Gymnophallidae), the first report of human infection by a gymnophallid. J Parasitol 79, 677–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., Lee, H.J., Hong, S.T., Yu, J.R., Sohn, W.M., Kho, W.G., Choi, M.H., and Lim, Y.J. (1994). High prevalence of Gymnophalloides seoiinfection in a village on a southwestern island of the Republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., Seo, M., Choi, M.H., Kim, D.C., and Lee, S.K. (1995a). Two cases of Gymnophalloides seoiinfection accompanied by diabetes melitus. Korean J Parasitol 33, 61–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Lee, S.H., Choi, M.H., Seo, M., and Chai, J.Y. (1995b). Oysters, Crassostrea gigas, as the second intermediate host of Gymnophalloides seoi(Gymnophallidae). Korean J Para-sitol 33, 1–7.Google Scholar
  181. Lee, S.H., Sohn, W.M., Hong, S.J., Huh, S., Seo, M., Choi, M.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1996). A nationwide survey of naturally produced oysters for infection with Gymnophalloides seoimetacercariae. Korean J Parasitol 34, 107–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Lee, J.C., Kong, Y., Lee, S.U., and Huh, S. (1997a). Localization of worm antigen in Neodiplostomum seoulenseby immuno-electronmicroscopy. Korean J Parasitol 35, 95–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Lee, S.H., Park, S.K., Seo, M., Guk, S.M., Choi, M.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1997b). Susceptibil-ity of various animals and strains of mice to Gymnophalloides seoiinfection and the effetcs of immunosuppression in C3H/HeN mice. J Parasitol 83, 883–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Lee, S.U., Huh, S., Park, G.M., and Chai, J.Y. (1999). A cytogenetic study on human intes-tinal trematodes of the genus Metagonimus(Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 37, 237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Lee, K.J., Park, S.K., Im, J.A., Kim, S.K., Kim, G.H., Kim, G.Y., Yang, E.J., and Ryang, Y.S. (2004a). Susceptibility of several strains of mice to Echinostoma hortenseinfec-tion. Korean J Parasitol 42, 51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Lee, S.U., Huh, S., Sohn, W.M., and Chai, J.Y. (2004b). Sequence comparisons of 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I of Metagonimus yokogawai, M. takahashiiand M. miyatai. Korean J Parasitol 42, 129–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Liang, C., and Ke, X.L. (1988). Echinochasmus jiufoensissp. Nov., a human parasite from Guangzhou (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae). Acta Zootaxonom Sinica 13, 4–8 (in Chi-nese).Google Scholar
  188. Lie, K.J. (1963). Studies on Echinostomatidae in Malaya. III. The adult Echinostoma malayanumLeiper, 1911 (Trematoda) and the probable synonymy of Artyfechinostomum sufrartyfexLane, 1915. Z Parasitenkunde 23, 124–135.Google Scholar
  189. Lie, K.J. (1968). Further studies on the life history of Echinostoma lindoenseSandground and Bonne, 1940 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) with a report of its occurrence in Brazil. Proc Helminthol Soc Washington 35, 74–77.Google Scholar
  190. Madhavi, R. (1986). Distribution of metacercariae of Centrocestus formosanus(Trema-toda: Heterophyidae) on the gills of Aplocheilus panchax. J Fish Biol 29, 685–690.Google Scholar
  191. Maji, A.K., Bera, D.K., Manna, B., Nandy, A., Addy, M., and Bandyopadhyay, A.K. (1993). First record of human infection with Echinostoma malayanumin India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87, 673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Maji, A.K., Manna, B., Bandyopadhyay, A.K., Bera, D.K., Addy, M., and Nandy, A. (1995). Studies on the life cycle of Artyfechinostomum oraoniBandyopadhyay, Manna and Nandy, 1989: embryogenesis and development in the intermediate host. Indian J Med Res 102, 124–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Majima, M. (1927). On Echinostoma macrorchisfound in man. Kumamoto Igakkai Zasshi (No. 2252), 2260 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  194. Manning, G.S., and Lertprasert, P. (1973) Studies on the life cycle of Phaneropsolus bon-neiand Prosthodendrium molenkampiin Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 67, 361–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Manning, G.S., Lertprasert, P., Watanasirmkit, K. and Chetty, C. (1971). A description of newly discovered intestinal parasites endemic to northeastern Thailand. J Med Assoc Thailand 54, 466–474.Google Scholar
  196. Martin, W.E. (1958). The life cycle of some Hawaiian heterophyid trematodes. J Parasitol 44, 305–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Marty, A.M., and Andersen, E.M. (2000). Fasciolopsiasis and other intestinal trematodi-ases. Pathol Infect Dis 1, 93–105.Google Scholar
  198. Mas-Coma, S., Bargues, M.D., and Valero, M.A. (2005). Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Int J Parasitol 35, 1255–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Massoud, J., Jalali, H., and Reza, M. (1981). Studies on trematodes of the family Hetero-phyidae (Odhner, 1914) in Iran. I. Preliminary epidemiological surveys in man and car-nivores in Khuzestan. J Helminthol 55, 255–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. McMullen, D.B. (1937). An experimental infection of Plagiorchis murisin man. J Para-sitol 23, 113–115.Google Scholar
  201. Millemann, R.E., and Knapp, S.E. (1970). Biology of Nanophyetus salmincolaand “salmon poisoning” disease. Adv Parasitol 8, 1–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Miyamoto, K., Nakao, M., and Inaoka, T. (1983). Studies on the zoonoses in Hokkaido, Japan. 5. On the epidemiological survey of Echinostoma hortenseAsada, 1926. Jpn J Parasitol 32, 261–269.Google Scholar
  203. Muttalib, M.A., and Islam, N. (1975). Fasciolopsis buskiin Bangladesh—a pilot study. J Trop Med Hyg 78, 135–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Nawa, Y., Ishikawa, N., Tsuchiya, K., Horii, Y., Abe, T., Khan, A.I., Itoh, H., Ide, H., and Uchiyama, F. (1994). Selective effector mechanisms for the expulsion of intestinal helminths. Parasite Immunol 16, 333–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Niemi, D.R., and Macy, R.W. (1974). The life cycle and infectivity to man of Apophallus donicus(Skrjabin and Lindtrop, 1919) (Trematoda: Heterophyidae). Proc Helminthol Soc Washington 41, 223–229.Google Scholar
  206. Nishigori, M. (1924). On a new trematode, Stamnosoma formosanumn. sp., and its life history. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi (No. 234), 181–228 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  207. Noda, K. (1959). The larval development of Stellantchasmus falcatus(Trematoda; Hetero-phyidae) in the first intermediate host. J Parasitol 45, 635–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Onah, D.N., and Nawa, Y. (2000). Mucosal immunity against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes. Korean J Parasitol 38, 209–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Onji, Y., and Nishio, T. (1916). On the trematodes whose intermediate host is brackish water fishes. Chiba Igaku Semmon Gakko Zasshi 81&82, 229–249 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  210. Park, J.T. (1938). A rat trematode, Echinostoma hortenseAsada, from Korea. Keijo J Med 9, 283–286.Google Scholar
  211. Park, M.S., Kim, S.W., Yang, Y.S., Park, C.H., Lee, W.T., Kim, C.U., Lee, E.M., Lee, S.U., and Huh, S. (1993). Intestinal parasite infections in the inhabitants along the Hantan River, Chorwon-gun. Korean J Parasitol 31, 375–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Pearson, J.C., and Ow-Yang, C.K. (1982). New species of Haplorchisfrom Southeast Asia, together with keys to the Haplorchis-group of heterophyid trematodes of the region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 13, 35–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Pica, R., Castellano, C., Cilia, C., and Errico, F.O. (2003). Intestinal fluke infections: the heterophyids. Clin Terapeutica 154, 61–63.Google Scholar
  214. Premvati, G., and Pande, V. (1974). On Centrocestus formosanus(Nishigori, 1924) Price, 1932 and its experimental infections in white leghorn chicks. Jpn J Parasitol 23, 79–84.Google Scholar
  215. Quan, F., Jiang, T., Ma, H., Cui, C., and Sun, L. (1995). The first discovery of Fibricola seoulensisin China. J Yanbian Med Coll 18, 17–20.Google Scholar
  216. Radomyos, P., Bunnag, D., and Harinasuta, T. (1982). Echinostoma ilocanum(Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911, infection in man in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 13, 265–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Radomyos, P., Bunnag, D., and Harinasuta, T. (1985). Report of Episthmium caninum(Verma, 1935) Yamaguti, 1958 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in man. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16, 508–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Radomyos, P., Bunnag, D., and Harinasuta, C. (1989). A new intestinal fluke, Plagiorchis harinasutai, n. sp. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 20, 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Radomyos, P., Charoenlarp, P., Radomyos, B., and Tungtrongchitr, A. (1990). Two human cases of Stellantchasmus falcatus(Trematoda, Heterophyidae) infection in Northeastern Thailand. Jpn J Parasitol 39, 7–11.Google Scholar
  220. Radomyos, P., Charoenlarp, P., and Harinasuta, T. (1991). Human Episthmium caninum(Digenea: Echinostomatidae) infection: report of two more cases. J Trop Med Parasitol 14, 48–50.Google Scholar
  221. Radomyos, B., Wongsaroj, T., Wilrairatana, P., Radomyos, P., Praevanich, R., Meesom-boon, V., and Jongsuksuntikul, P. (1998). Opisthorchiasis and intestinal fluke infections in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29, 123–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Ransom, B.H. (1920). Synopsis of the trematode family Heterophyidae with descriptions of a new genus and five new species. Proc U. S. Natural Museum 57, 527–573.Google Scholar
  223. Rho, I.H., Kim, S.I., Kang, S.Y., and Cho, S.Y. (1984). Observation on the pathogenesis of villous changes in early phase of experimental metagonimiasis. Chung-Ang J Med 9, 67–77 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  224. Rim, H.J. (1982). Echinostomiasis. CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Section C: Para-sitic Zoonoses, Vol. III. Trematode Zoonoses. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 53–69.Google Scholar
  225. Rim, H.J., Chu, D.S., Lee, J.S., Joo, K.H., and Won, C.Y. (1978). Anthelmintic effects of various drugs against metagonimiasis. Korean J Parasitol 16, 117–122.Google Scholar
  226. Rim, H.J., Kim, S.J., and Yang, M.G. (1992). Antigenic localities in the tissues of Metag-onimus yokogawai in the period of growth. Korean J Parasitol 30, 309–321 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  227. Rohela, M., Jamaiah, I., Menon, J., and Rachel, J. (2005). Fasciolopsiasis: a first case report from Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36, 456–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Ryang, Y.S. (1990). Studies on Echinostomaspp. in the Chungju Reservoir and upper streams of the Namhan River. Korean J Parasitol 28, 221–233 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  229. Ryang, Y.S., Ahn, Y.K., Kim, W.T., Shin, K.C., Lee, K.W., and Kim, T.S. (1986). Two cases of human infection by Echinostoma cinetorchis. Korean J Parasitol 24, 71–76.Google Scholar
  230. Ryang, Y.S., Ahn, Y.K., and Yoon, M.B. (1991). Trematode infections in the small intestine of Egretta alba medestain Kanhwon-do. Korean J Parasitol 29, 227–233 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  231. Ryang, Y.S., Yoo, J.C., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (2000). The Palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, a natural definitive host for Gymnophalloides seoi. J Parasitol 86, 418–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Ryang, Y.S., Yoo, J.C., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (2001). Susceptibility of avian hosts to experimental Gymnophalloides seoiinfection. J Parasitol 87, 454–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Saeed, I., Maddox-Hyttel, C., Monrad, J., and Kapel, C.M. (2006). Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark. Veterinary Parasitol 139, 168–179.Google Scholar
  234. Saenphet, S., Wongsawad, C., Saenphet, K., and Chai, J.Y. (2003). Susceptibility of rodents to Stellantchasmus falcatusinfection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34(suppl), 123–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Saito, S. (1984). On the validity of Metagonimusspp. Proc Jpn Parasite Taxonomy Mor-phol Conference, 2, 1–6 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  236. Saito, S., Chai, J.Y., Kim, K.H., Lee, S.H., and Rim, H.J. (1997). Metagonimus miyataisp. nov. (Digenea: Heterophyidae), a new intestinal trematode transmitted by freshwater fishes in Japan and Korea. Korean J Parasitol 35, 223–232.Google Scholar
  237. Sandground, J.H. (1940). Plagiorchis javensisn. sp. a new trematode parasitic in man. Rev Med Trop Parasitol (Habana) 6, 207–211.Google Scholar
  238. Schell, S.C. (1985). Handbook of Trematodes of North America North of Mexico. Idaho: University Press of Idaho.Google Scholar
  239. Scholz, T. (1999). Taxonomic study of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longaRansom, 1920 (Dige-nea: Heterophyidae) and related taxa. Syst Parasitol 43, 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Scholz, T., and Salgado-Maldonado, G. (1999). The introduction and dispersal of Centro-cestus formosanus(Nishigori, 1924) (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Mexico: a review. Am Midland Naturalist 143, 185–200.Google Scholar
  241. Seo, B.S. (1990). Fibricola seoulensisSeo, Rim and Lee, 1964 (Trematoda) and fibricolia-sis in man. Seoul J Med 31, 61–96.Google Scholar
  242. Seo, B.S., Rim, H.J., and Lee, C.W. (1964). Studies on the parasitic helminths of Korea I. Trematodes of rodents. Korean J Parasitol 2, 20–26.Google Scholar
  243. Seo, B.S., Cho, S.Y., and Chai, J.Y. (1980a). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea I. A human case of Echinostoma cinetorchisinfection with an epidemiological investigation. Seoul J Med 21, 21–29.Google Scholar
  244. Seo, B.S., Cho, S.Y., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.T. (1980b). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea II. Identification of the metacercariae of Heterophyes heterophyes nocensin mullets of three southern coastal areas. Seoul J Med 21, 30–38.Google Scholar
  245. Seo, B.S., Cho, S.Y., Hong, S.T., Hong, S.J., and Lee, S.H. (1981a). Studies on parasitic helminths of Korea V. Survey on intestinal trematodes of house rats. Korean J Parasitol 19, 131–136.Google Scholar
  246. Seo, B.S., Hong, S.T., and Chai, J.Y. (1981b). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea III. Natural human infection of Pygidiopsis summaand Heterophyes heterophyes nocens. Seoul J Med 22, 228–235.Google Scholar
  247. Seo, B.S., Hong, S.T., Chai, J.Y., and Cho, S.Y. (1981c). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea IV. Geographical distribution of Pygidiopsisand Heterophyesmetacercariae. Seoul J Med 22, 236–242.Google Scholar
  248. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Cho, S.Y., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.T., Han, I.S., Shon, J.S., Cho, B.H., Ahn, S.R., Lee, S.K., Chung, S.C., Kang, K.S., Shim, H.S., and Hwang, I.S. (1981d). An epidemiologic study on clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis in riverside areas in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 19, 137–150.Google Scholar
  249. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Hong, S.T., Hong, S.J., Kim, C.Y., and Lee, H.Y. (1982). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea V. A human case infected by Fibricola seoulensis(Trematoda: Diplostomatidae). Korean J Parasitol 20, 93–99.Google Scholar
  250. Seo, B.S., Hong, S.T., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1983). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea VII. A human case of Echinostoma hortenseinfection. Korean J Parasitol 21, 219–223.Google Scholar
  251. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.J. (1984a). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XIII. Two cases of natural human infection by Heterophyopsis continuaand the status of metacercarial infection in brackish water fishes. Korean J Parasitol 22, 51–60.Google Scholar
  252. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.J. (1984b). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XII. Two cases of human infection by Stellantchasmus falcatus. Korean J Para-sitol 22, 43–50.Google Scholar
  253. Seo, B.S., Park, Y.H., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., and Lee, S.H. (1984c). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XIV. Infection status of loaches with metacercariae of Echinostoma cinetorchisand their development in albino rats. Korean J Parasitol 22, 181–189.Google Scholar
  254. Seo, B.S., Chun, K.S., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., and Lee, S.H. (1985a). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XVII. Development and egg laying capacity of Echinostoma hortensein albino rats and human experimental infection. Korean J Parasitol 23, 24–32.Google Scholar
  255. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., and Hong, S.J. (1985b). Studies on intestinal trematodes in Korea XX. Four cases of natural human infection by Echinochasmus japonicus. Korean J Parasitol 23, 214–220.Google Scholar
  256. Seo, B.S., Lee, H.S., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1985c). Intensity of Metagonimus yoko-gawaiinfection among inhabitants in Tamjin River basin with reference to its egg laying capacity in human host. Seoul J Med 26, 207–212.Google Scholar
  257. Seo, B.S., Cheong, S.K., Chai, J.Y., Lee, S.H., and Lee, J.B. (1986). Histopathology of small intestine of rats and mice experimentally infected with Pygidiopsis summa. Seoul J Med 27, 125–134.Google Scholar
  258. Seo, B.S., Lee, S.H., Chai, J.Y., Hong, S.J., and Hong, S.T. (1988). The life cycle and lar-val development of Fibricola seoulensis(Trematoda: Diplostomatidae). Korean J Para-sitol 26, 179–188.Google Scholar
  259. Seo, M., Guk, S.M., Han, E.T., and Chai, J.Y. (2003). Role of intestinal goblet cells in the expulsion of Gymnophalloides seoifrom mice. J Parasitol 89, 1080–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Seo, M., Chun, H., Ahn, G., Jang, K.T., Guk, S.M., and Chai, J.Y. (2006). A case of colonic lymphoid tissue invasion by Gymnophalloides seoiin a Korean man. Korean J Parasitol 44, 87–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Sheir, Z.M., and Aboul-Enein, M.E. (1970). Demographic, clinical and therapeutic appraisal of heterophyiasis. J Trop Med Hyg 73, 148–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Shimalov, V.V., and Shimalov, V.T. (2002). Human parasitizing echinostomatata (Trematoda, fasciolidae) in mammals in Belorussia forest zone. Meditsinskaia Parazitol Parazitamye Bolezni (No. 1), 47–50 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  263. Shimazu, T. (2002). Life cycle and morphology of Metagonimus miyatai(Digenea: Het-erophyidae). Parasitol Int 51, 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Shin, E.H., Kim, T.H., Hong, S.J., Park, J.H., Guk, S.M., and Chai, J.Y. (2003). Effects of anti-allergic drugs on intestinal mastocytosis and worm expulsion of rats infected with Neodiplostomum seoulense. Korean J Parasitol 41, 81–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Shoop, W.L. (1989). Experimental human infection with Fibricola cratera(Trematoda: Neodiplostomidae). Korean J Parasitol 27, 249–252.Google Scholar
  266. Shyu, L.Y., Lee, H.H., and Chen, E.R. (1984). A preliminary study on epidemiology of fasciolopsiasis in Tainan Hsien, south Taiwan. Chin J Microbiol Immunol 17, 118–120.Google Scholar
  267. Sohn, W.M., and Chai, J.Y. (2005). Infection status with helminthes in feral cats purchased from a market in Busan, Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 43, 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Sohn, W.M., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1994a). Stictodora fuscatum(Heterophyidae) metac-ercariae encysted in gobies, Acanthogobius flavimanus. Korean J Parasitol 32, 143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Sohn, W.M., Han, G.G., Kho, W.G., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1994b). Infection status with the metacercariae of heterophyid flukes in the brackish water fish from Haenam-gun, Chollanam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 32, 163–169 (in Korean).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Sohn, W.M., Ryang, Y.S., Chai, J.Y., and Lee, S.H. (1998). Discovery of Gymnophalloides seoimetacercariae in oysters from islands of the West Sea known as the habitats of paleartic oystercatchers. Korean J Parasitol 36, 163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Son, W.Y., Huh, S., Lee, S.U., Woo, H.C., and Hong, S.J. (1994). Intestinal trematode infections in the villagers in Koje-myon, Kochang-gun, Kyongsangnam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 32, 149–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Song, C.Y., Lee, S.H., and Jeon, S.R. (1985). Studies on the intestinal fluke, Metagonimus yokogawaiKatsurada, 1912 in Korea IV. Geographical distribution of sweetfish and infection status with Metagonimusmetacercaria in south-eastern area of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 23, 123–138 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  273. Sripalwit, P., Wongsawad, C., Chai, J.Y., Anuntalabhochai, S., and Rojanapaibul, A. (2003). Investigation of Stellantchasmus falcatusmetacercariae in half-beaked fish, Dermogenus pusillusfrom four districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34, 281–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Suzuki, S. (1930). Yokogawa’s Metagonimus. List of Publications on Special Animals in Okayama Prefecture. Okayama Prefecture Rep 146–148 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  275. Suzuki, N., Kumazawa, H., Araki, T., Hara, M., Morita, H., Segawa, T., Shina, T., Yamada, S., and Tsumoto, S. (1982). Occurrence of Heterophyes heterophyes nocensOnji et Nishio, 1916 in man in Kochi Prefecture. Jpn J Parasitol 31, 271–274 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  276. Takahashi, S. (1929a). On the eggs of Stellantchasmus falcatusand Pygidiopsis summusfound in human stools. Okayama Igakkai Zasshi 41, 1502–1513 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  277. Takahashi, S. (1929b). A contribution to the life-history of Stamnosoma armatumTanabe. Okayama Igakkai Zasshi 4, 1759–1771 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  278. Tanabe, H. (1922a). A contribution to the study of the life cycle of digenetic trematodes. A study of a new species Lepoderma murisn. sp. Okayama Igakkai Zasshi 385, 47–58 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  279. Tanabe, H. (1922b). Studien uber die Trematoden mit Susswasser-fischen als Zwischen-wirt. I. Stamnosoma armatumn.g., n. sp. Kyoto Igaku Zasshi 19, 239–252.Google Scholar
  280. Tanabe, H. (1926). Studies on trematodes with fresh water fishes as their intermediate host III. On a new species, Echinochasmus japonicus(n.sp.). Nippon Byori Gakkai Kaishi 16, 295–296 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  281. Taraschewski, H. (1984). Die trematoden der gattung Heterophyestaxonomie, biologie, epidemiologie. Ph. D. Dissertation to Universitat Hohenheim.Google Scholar
  282. Tesana, S., Srisawangwonk, Kaewkes, S., Sithithaworn, P., Kanla, P., and Arunyanart, C. (1991). Eggshell morphology of the small eggs of human trematodes in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22, 631–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Ujiie, N. (1936a). On the development, the structure of Echinochasmus japonicusand its parasitism in man. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 35, 535–546 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  284. Ujiie, N. (1936b). Differentiation of the species of Monorchotremafrom Formosa. Taiwan Igakkai Zasshi 35, 938–946 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  285. Umadevi, K., and Madhavi, R. (2000). Observation on the morphology and life-cycle of Procerovum varium(Onji & Nishio, 1916) (Trematoda: Heterophyidae). Syst Parasitol 46, 215–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. Velasquez, C.C. (1973a). Observations on some Heterophyidae (Trematoda: Digenea) encysted in Philippine fishes. J Parasitol 59, 77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Velasquez, C.C. (1973b). Life cycle of Procerovum calderoni(Africa and Garcia, 1935), Price, 1940 (Trematoda: Digenea: Heterophyidae). J Parasitol 59, 813–816.Google Scholar
  288. Velasquez, C.C. (1982). Heterophyidiasis, In: Steele, J.H., ed. CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Section C: Parasitic Zoonoses, Vol. III (Trematode Zoonoses). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 99–107.Google Scholar
  289. Waikagul, J., Wongsaroj, T., Radomyos, P., Meesomboon, V., Praewanich, R., and Jong-suksuntikul, P. (1997). Human infection of Centrocestus caninusin Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28, 831–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. Witenberg, G. (1929). Studies on the trematode—family Heterophyidae. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 23, 131–268.Google Scholar
  291. Wongsawad, C., Chariyahpongpun, P., and Namue, C. (1998). Experimental host of Stel-lantchasmus falcatus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29, 406–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Xiao, X., Wang, T.P., Lu, D.B., Gao, J.F., Xu, L.F., Wu, W.D., Mei, J.D., and Xu, F.N. (1992). The frist record of human infection with Echinochasmus liliputanus.Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 10, 132–135 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  293. Xiao, X., Wang, T., Zheng, X., Shen, G., and Tian, Z. (2005). In vivo and in vitro encyst-ment of Echinochasmus liliputanuscercariae and biological activity of the metacercariae. J Parasitol 91, 492–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Xu, B.K., and Li, D.N. (1979). Rare human parasites in China. Nat Med J China 59, 286–290 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  295. Yamaguti, S. (1939a). Studies on the helminth founa of Japan. Part 25. Trematodes of birds, IV. Jpn J Zool 8, 131–210.Google Scholar
  296. Yamaguti, S. (1939b). Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 27. Trematodes of mammals, II. Jpn J Med Sci (VI. Bacteriol Parasitol) 1, 131–151.Google Scholar
  297. Yamaguti, S. (1958). Part I. The digenetic trematodes of vertebrates. In, Systema Helminthum, Vol. I. New York: Interscience Publishers Inc.Google Scholar
  298. Yamaguti, S. (1975). A Synoptical Review of Life Histories of Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Kyoto, Japan: Keigaku.Google Scholar
  299. Yang, H.J., Guk, S.M., Han, E.T., and Chai, J.Y. (2000). Molecular differentiation of three species of Metagonimusby simple sequence repeat anchored polymerase chain reaction (SSR-PCR) amplification. J Parasitol 86, 1170–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Yokogawa, M., Harinasuta, C., and Charoenlarp, P. (1965a). Hypoderaeum conoideum(Block, 1782) Diez, 1909, a common intestinal fluke of man in the north-east Thailand. Jpn J Parasitol 14, 148–153.Google Scholar
  301. Yokogawa, M., Sano, M., Itabashi, T., and Kachi, S. (1965b). Studies on the intestinal flukes II. Epidemiological studies on heterophyid trematodes of man in Chiba Prefec-ture. Jpn J Parasitol 14, 577–585.Google Scholar
  302. Yu, S.H., and Mott, K.E. (1994). Epidemiology and morbidity of food-borne intestinal trematode infections. Trop Dis Bull 91, R125–R152.Google Scholar
  303. Yu, J.R., Chung, J.S., Huh, S., Lee, S.H., and Chai, J.Y. (1997a). PCR-RFLP patterns of three kinds of Metagonimusin Korea. Korean J Parasitol 35, 271–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Yu, J.R., Chung, J.S., and Chai, J.Y. (1997b). Different RAPD pattern between Metago-nimus yokogawaiand MetagonimusMiyata type. Korean J Parasitol 35, 295–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Yu, J.R., Myong, N., and Chai, J.Y. (1997c). Expression patterns of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the small intestine of mice infected with Metagonimus yokogawaiand MetagonimusMiyata type. Korean J Parasitol 35, 239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Yurlova, N.I., Vodyanitskaya, S.N., Serbina, E.A., Biserkov, V.Y., Georgiev, B.B., and Chipev, N.H. (2006). Temporal variation in prevalence and abundance of metacercariae in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalisin Chany Lake, West Siberia, Russia: long-term patterns and environmental covariates. J Parasitol 92, 249–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Zhang, S.L., and Fan, G.H. (1990). Case report: brain abscess caused by heterophyid eggs. Chin J Parasitol Parasitic Dis 8, 178 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  308. Zhu, D., Lin, J., Cheng, Y., Liang, C., Wang, X., Guo, Z., and Zhuang, H. (1986). Pyquiton treatment of Echinochasmus japonicusinfection. J Parasitol Parasitic Dis, 4, 1–4 (in Chinese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jong-Yil Chai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Parasitology and Tropical MedicineSeoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Endemic Diseases, Seoul National University Medical Research CenterSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations