Dairy proteins are generally divided into two groups: caseins and whey proteins, which are distinctly different in their structural, physical, chemical, and functional properties. In fresh milk, caseins exist in micelles (130–160 nm in diameter), which are formed by the association of individual submicelles (~10 nm) through amorphous calcium phosphate bridges (McMahon & Brown, 1984). The micelles exhibit hydro-colloidal characteristics and are readily suspended in the aqueous phase of milk.

In bovine milk, there are four casein proteins, i.e., α s1−, α s2−, β − and κ-caseins, which represent approximately 38%, 10%, 36%, and 12% of whole casein, respectively (Table 6.1). Caseins are phosphorylated as monoesters of serine, but the degree of esterification differs among caseins. The α s1 −, α s2−, and β-caseins contain multiple phosphorous groups, which can form complexes with calcium leading to precipitation. κ -Casein, on the other hand, contains only one phosphorous group...


Whey Protein Whey Protein Isolate Whey Protein Concentrate Sodium Caseinate Milk Protein Concentrate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youling L. Xiong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal and Food SciencesUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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