A United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) survey shows that the average American consumes only 15.4 g of dietary fiber per day (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service [USDA-ARS], 1997). Using a 2,500 cal per day diet as a reference, this is only 52% of the United States Food & Drug Administration's (FDA) Daily Reference Value for dietary fiber of 11.5 g of fiber per 1000 cal (Food and Drug Administration [FDA], 1999). Although a thorough discussion of the eating habits that led to this fiber “deficiency” is beyond the scope of this chapter, Cordain et al. (2005) identified seven nutritional characteristics, including a reduction in fiber consumption, that have changed over the course of time, in the human diet. These changes have occurred over time as society has shifted from a primarily hunter/gatherer base thru an agricultural period and into an industrialized era. The types of food we eat and the methods used to prepare and...


Dietary Fiber Meat Product Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber Meat Batter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. AACC International. (2001). The definition of dietary fiber (Report of the Dietary Fiber Definition Committee to the Board of Directors of AACC International) [electronic version]. Cereal Foods World, 46, 112–126.Google Scholar
  2. Aleson-Carbonell, L., Fernández-López, J., Pérez-Alvarez, J. A., & Kuri, V. (2005). Functional and sensory effects of fibre-rich ingredients on breakfast fresh sausages manufacture. Food Science and Technology International, 11, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Battista, O.A., Hill, D., & Smith, P.A. (1961). Level-off D.P. cellulose products. U.S. Patent No. 2,978,446. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  4. Canadian Food Inspection Agency. (2007). Guide to food labelling and advertising. Chapter 6 – The elements within the Nutrition Facts table. 6.8.1 Dietary fibre. Retrieved January 19, 2008, from
  5. Chang, H.-C., & Carpenter, J. A. (1997). Optimizing quality of frankfurters containing oat bran and added water. Journal of Food Science, 62, 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christensen, B., & Mogensen, F. (1995). Low calorie meat products. U.S. Patent No. 5,468,510. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Google Scholar
  7. Claus, J. R., & Hunt, M. C. (1991). Low-fat, high added-water bologna formulated with texture-modifying ingredients. Journal of Food Science, 56, 643–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2007). Guidelines for the use of nutrition claims: Draft table of conditions for nutrient contents (Part B containing provisions on dietary fibre). (ALINORM 08/31/26, Appendix II. Report of the 29th session of the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses; pp. 47–49.) Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Alimentarius Commission. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Retrieved January 18, 2008, from
  9. Cordain, L., Eaton, S. B., Sebastian, A., Mann, N., Lindeberg, S., Watkins, B. A., O’Keefe, J. H., & Brand-Miller, J. (2005). Origins and evolution of the western diet: Health implications for the 21st century. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81, 341–354.Google Scholar
  10. Deis, R. C. (1997, March). Reducing fat: A cutting-edge strategy. Food Product Design. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from
  11. Farley, D. (1993, May). Look for ‘legit’ health claims on food. FDA Consumer, 27. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from FDA Web Site:
  12. Food and Drug Administration. (1999). The food label. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from
  13. Gould, J. M. (1987). Alkaline peroxide treatment of nonwoody lignocellulosics. U.S. Patent No. 4,649,113. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  14. Gould, J. M., & Dexter, L. B. (1988). Modified plant fiber additive for food formulations. U.S. Patent No. 4,774,098. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  15. Hadorn, R., Piccinali, P., & Suter, M. (2007). Réduction de la graisse par de l`inuline dans les saucisses à bouillir [Fat reduction with Inulin in water-boiled sausages]. Agrarforschung, 14, 194–199.Google Scholar
  16. Huber, W., Voesgen, W., & Le Mintier, Y. (2003). Carrot fibre in raw sausages. Fleischwirtschaft International 4, 24–25.Google Scholar
  17. Inglett, G. E. (1991). Method for making a soluble dietary fiber composition from oats. U.S. Patent No. 4,996,063. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  18. Inglett, G.E. (1992). Method of making soluble dietary fiber compositions from cereals. U.S. Patent No. 5,082,673. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  19. Institute of Medicine. (2003). Cellulose, powdered. In Food Chemicals Codex (5th ed., pp. 109–110). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  20. Jánváry, L. (2006). Möglichkeiten des Einsatzes funktioneller Ballaststoffe in Fleischerzeugnisse [Possible uses of soluble fiber in nutritional balanced meat products]. Mitteilungsblatt der Fleischforschung Kulmbach 45, 177–179.Google Scholar
  21. Jenkins, R. K., & Wild, J. L. (1994). Dietary fiber compositions for use in comminuted meats. U.S. Patent No. 5,294,456>. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  22. Mueller, W.-D. (2006). Funktionelle Fleischerzeugnisse—Rohwürste Functional meat products- raw sausages. Mitteilungsblatt der Fleischforschung Kulmbach, 45, 185–191.Google Scholar
  23. Münch, S. (2006). Funktionelle Fleischerzeugnisse und deren analytische Bewertung [Functional meat products and their analytical assessment]. Mitteilungsblatt der Fleischforschung Kulmbach, 45, 153–161.Google Scholar
  24. Münch, S., Nitsch, P., Eigner, G. (2005). Funktionelle Fleischerzeugnisse [Functional meat products] (Jahresbericht 2005, pp. 183–185). Karlsruhe, Germany: Bundesforschungsanstalt für Ernährung und Lebensmittel.Google Scholar
  25. Nitsch, P. (2003). Karottenfaser als Mittel zur Verminderung des Geleeabsatzes bei der Konservenherstellung [Carrot fiber as waterbinding agent in canning of meat products]. Mitteilungsblatt der Bundesanstalt für Fleischforschung, Kulmbach, 42, 15–20.Google Scholar
  26. Orafti Active Food Ingredients. (2006a). Application file: Processed meat products [Brochure]. Tienen, Belgium: Author.Google Scholar
  27. Orafti Active Food Ingredients. (2006b). Beneo™ Inulin. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from Orafti Group Web Site:
  28. Ramaswamy, S. R. (1991). Fiber and method of making. U.S. Patent No. 5,023,103. Washington, DC U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  29. Roney, D. and Lang, C. (2003) Process and apparatus for producing fiber product with high water-binding capacity and food product made therefrom. U.S. Patent No. 6,645,546. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar
  30. Roth, D. (2002). Einfluss und Nutzen von VITACEL Weizenfaser in schnittfester Rohwurst [;Influence and technological benefit from VITACEL wheat fiber in raw fermented sausages] (Internal Report). Rosenberg, Germany: J.Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH + Co.KG.Google Scholar
  31. Steenblock, R. L., Sebranek, J. G., Olson, D. G., & Love, J. A. (2001). The effect of oat fiber on the properties of light bologna and fat-free frankfurters. Journal of Food Science, 66, 1409–1414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tokusoglu, O., & Ünal, M. K. (2003). Fat replacers in meat products. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2, 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. (1997). 1994–96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994–96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey [USDA Food Survey results]. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from USDA-ARS Web Site:
  34. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2005a). Food standards and labeling policy book [electronic version]. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  35. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2005b, June 10). Food standards: Requirements for substitute standardized meat and poultry products named by use of an expressed nutrient content claim and a standardized term. 70 Fed. Reg. 33803–33819 (to be codified at 9 C.F.R. pts. 319 & 381).Google Scholar
  36. United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2007). Safe and suitable ingredients used in the production of meat and poultry products (FSIS Directive 7120.1, Amendment 13) [electronic version]Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  37. Vail, W.J. (1991). Process for recovery of cellulose. U.S. Patent No. 5,057,334. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon M. Bodner
    • 1
  • Jürgen Sieg
    • 2
  1. 1.Applications & Market DevelopmentJ. Rettenmaier USA LPUSA
  2. 2.Food DivisionJ. Rettenmaier & Söhne GmbH + Co KGRosenbergGermany

Personalised recommendations