Plains Indians and Resistance to “Public” Heritage Commemoration of Their Pasts

  • Larry J. Zimmerman

Colonialist cultures readily and even painstakingly have commemorated events from their own histories. Historic landmarks and statues mark battles where their militaries celebrated glorious victories and even where their soldiers were gallant in defeat against overwhelming odds. They also have preserved and interpreted for posterity key nonmilitary events or places in their historical master narrative. As they moved toward a postcolonial position, some have been willing to memorialize episodes and places where those they colonized valiantly resisted conquest, indeed, where the colonizer even may have committed atrocities.


Mass Grave Oral Tradition National Park Service Indian Tribe Tribal Member 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, Duane C., Maria Pearson, Alton Fisher, and Deborah Zieglowsky, 1980, Planning Seminar on Ancient Burial Grounds. Office of the State Archaeologist of Iowa, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  2. Callahan, Kevin, 2001, The Jeffers Petroglyphs: Native American Rock Art on the Midwestern Plains. Prairie Smoke, Champlin, Minnesota.Google Scholar
  3. CBS Television, 1998, Kennewick Man. 60 Minutes. Airdate October 25.Google Scholar
  4. Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, and T. J., Ferguson, 2006, Rethinking Abandonment in Archaeological Contexts. The SAA Archaeological Record 6(1): 37-41.Google Scholar
  5. Hill, Richard W., 1999, Wounded Knee, A Wound That Won’t Heal. (Viewed 7 March 2006).
  6. Hoig, Stan, 1961, The Sand Creek Massacre. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.Google Scholar
  7. van der Leeuw, Gerardus, 1986, Religion in Essence and Manifestation. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  8. Linenthal, Edward T., 1993, Sacred Ground: Americans and Their Battlefields. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  9. Mason, Ronald J., 1997, Letter to the Editor. Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 15(1): 3.Google Scholar
  10. McDonald, J. D., Larry J. Zimmerman, W. Tall Bull, and T. Rising Sun, 1991, The Cheyenne Outbreak of 1879: Using Archaeology to Document Northern Cheyenne Oral History. In The Archaeology of Inequality, edited by Robert Paynter and Randall McGuire, pp. 64-78. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. Meighan, Clement W., 1986, Archaeology and Anthropological Ethics. Wormwood, Calabasas, CA.Google Scholar
  12. Mollison, Andrew, 2004, US Apology to Indians Considered: Bill ‘Acknowledges Years of Official Depredations.’ Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 25 May 2004. (Viewed 6 December 2006).
  13. Mooney, James, 1991, The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
  14. National Museum of Natural History, 1992, Executive Summary: Naevahoo’ohtseme (We are going back home) Cheyenne Repatriation: The Human Remains. (Viewed 7 October 2006).
  15. National Park Service, 1993, Draft Study of Alternatives, Environmental Assessment, Wounded Knee, South Dakota. National Park Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. —, 2000, Sand Creek Massacre Project, Volume 2, Special Resource Study. National Park Service, Intermountain Region, Denver. ACF33.pdf (Viewed 8 November 2006).
  17. Š evčenko, Liz, 2004, The Power of Place: How Historic Sites Can Engage Citizens in Human Rights Issues. Center for Victims of Torture, Minneapolis. Š evčenko_Power_en.pdf (Viewed 3 March 2006).
  18. Thomas, David Hurst, 2000, Skull Wars: Kennewick Man, Archaeology, and the Battle for Native American Identity. Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  19. US Senate, 1995, Wounded Knee National Tribal Park Establishment Act of 1995, S382 1st Session, 104th Congress. (Viewed 7 October 2006).
  20. —, 2004, S.J.RES.37 Title: A Joint Resolution to Acknowledge a Long History of Official Depredations and Ill-Conceived Policies by the United States Government Regarding Indian Tribes and Offer an Apology to all Native Peoples on Behalf of the United States. (Viewed 7 December 2006).
  21. Wanbli Sapa, 1996, Who Should We Believe? Tribal Councils, Traditionals, Survivors Associations, Newspapers, or Others? (Viewed 20 August 2006).
  22. Wounded Knee Landowners Association, 1995a, Wounded Knee Landowners Reply to Wasichu’s Proposal Part 1. Letter dated 20 March 1995. (Viewed 7 October 2006).
  23. —, 1995b, Wounded Knee Landowners Reply to Wasichu’s Proposal Part 2. Letter dated 20 March 1995. (Viewed 7 October 2006).
  24. Zimmerman, Larry J., 2005, Public Heritage, a Desire for a “White” History for America, and Some Impacts of the Kennewick Man/Ancient One Decision. International Journal of Cultural Property 12(2): 265-274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Larry J. Zimmerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyIndiana University-Purdue University at IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations